• A Chemical-Fallow Technique for Control of Downy Brome and Establishment of Perennial Grasses on Rangeland

      Eckert, R. E.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1967-01-01)
      Downy brome was controlled with three soil-active herbicides: atrazine, EPTC, and IPC. Seedings were made 1 year after herbicide application. If fallow were effective during this year, soil moisture was conserved. Seeding in deep furrows resulted in superior seedling stands and greater 2nd and 3rd year production than did surface drilling. Performance of Amur intermediate wheatgrass was superior to Standard crested and Topar pubescent wheatgrasses.
    • A Comparison of the Line-Interception, Variable Plot and Loop Methods as Used to Measure Shrub-Crown Cover

      Kisinger, F. E.; Eckert, R. E.; Currie, P. O. (Society for Range Management, 1960-01-01)
    • A Study of Competition Between Whitesage and Halogeton in Nevada

      Eckert, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1954-09-01)
    • Atrazine Residue and Seedling Establishment in Furrows

      Eckert, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1974-01-01)
      Deep furrows made with shovel openers and simulated disk-type furrows were evaluated for removal of atrazine residue from the seeded row and for seedling establishment in the atrazine-fallow technique of range seeding. Atrazine residue in all furrow treatments was below the toxic level for crested and intermediate wheatgrasses. Established stands of both species were similar in all furrow treatments. Therefore, the deep-furrow rangeland drill with disk openers appears suited for large-scale application of the atrazine-fallow technique.
    • Chemical Control of Low Sagebrush and Associated Green Rabbitbrush

      Eckert, R. E.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1968-09-01)
      Low sagebrush species were effectively controlled with low volatile esters of 2,4-D at 2 lb/acre applied from May 1 to May 15 on sites with early phenology and May 15 to June 1 on sites with late phenology. Sandberg bluegrass phenology ranged from late boot to fully headed but preanthesis. Green rabbitbrush in mixed stands with low sagebrush was effectively controlled with 2,4-D at 3 lb/acre applied near the end of the treatment period for low sagebrush. A combination of picloram plus 2,4-D was also evaluated for green rabbitbrush control.
    • Control of Rocky Mountain Iris and Vegetation Response on Mountain Meadows

      Eckert, R. E.; Bruner, A. D.; Klomp, G. J.; Peterson, F. F. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      Application of 2, 3, or 4 lb/acre of 2,4-D in mid-June or 3 or 4 lb/acre in early July gave 91 to 100% control of iris. Iris phenology at treatment ranged from late vegetative to late bloom. The 2 lb/acre rate applied when seed capsules were forming controlled 73 to 85% and control was not uniform. Reduction in iris yield ranged from 398 to 1568 lb/acre and averaged 925 lb/acre. Iris control gave a significant increase in production of grass and grasslike species of from 274 lb/acre (58%) to 2364 lb/acre (360%) with an average of 1173 lb/acre (180%). Slender wheatgrass and Nevada bluegrass were the most responsive species. Yield of sage grouse food plants, dandelion and yarrow, was severely reduced the first year after all treatments. Total forb production was deficient or minimal for sage grouse, and dandelion was deficient. Total forb production and dandelion component appeared adequate for existing sage grouse populations in the second and subsequent years after treatment.
    • Development, Testing, and Evaluation of the Deep Furrow Drill Arm Assembly for the Rangeland Drill

      Asher, J. E.; Eckert, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1973-09-01)
      A deep-furrow drill-arm assembly for a Rangeland drill was developed, tested, and evaluated. Horizontal disk angle was the single most important factor affecting construction of an adequate furrow. This angle varied among sites and was influenced by vegetative cover and soil conditions. The final design was an assembly with an adjustable disk angle. Seedling stands in deep furrows were equal to or superior to those in standard furrows.
    • Effects of Macro- and Micronutrients on the Yield of Crested Wheatgrass

      Eckert, R. E.; Bleak, A. T.; Robertson, J. H. (Society for Range Management, 1961-05-01)
    • Effects of Soil-Surface Morphology on Emergence and Survival of Seedlings in Big Sagebrush Communities

      Eckert, R. E.; Peterson, F. F.; Meurisse, M. S.; Stephens, J. L. (Society for Range Management, 1986-09-01)
      Various kinds of soil-surface microsites occur on loess-mantled Aridisols in central and northern Nevada. This study evaluates the potential of trampled and untrampled microsites to influence natural revegetation and either secondary succession or retrogression. Microsites present on different soil surfaces included the litter- and moss-covered Type I surface that occurs under the shrub canopy; the trench-like cracks and pinnacled polygons of the Type II surface that occur adjacent to the Type I surface; and the narrow cracks and smooth polygons with crusted, vesicular structure of the Type III surface that occurs in the interspaces between shrubs. Emergence and survival of Wyoming big sagebrush generally were greatest on the Type I and III surfaces, in the untrampled crack microsite of the Type III surface, and on the heavily trampled polygon microsite of the Type III surface. Emergence and survival of perennial grasses generally were greatest on the untrampled Type I surface, in the untrampled trench microsite of the Type II surface, and on moderately trampled trench and pinnacle microsites of the Type II surface. Emergence of annual and perennial forbs generally was greatest on untrampled trench and crack microsites of the Type II and III soil surfaces. Heavy trampling of trench and crack microsites reduced the emergence of perennial grasses, and both moderate and heavy trampling reduced the emergence of annual and perennial forbs. The potential for secondary succession would appear to be greatest where Types I and II surfaces and associated microsites predominate on a site and when trampling is moderate or absent. The potential for retrogression would appear to be greatest where the Type III surface and associated microsites predominate and when trampling is heavy.
    • Emergence and Growth of Annual and Perennial Grasses and Forbs in Soils Altered by Halogeton Leachate

      Kinsinger, F. E.; Eckert, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1961-07-01)
    • Establishment of Perennial Wheatgrasses in Relation to Atrazine Residue in the Seedbed

      Eckert, R. E.; Klomp, G. J.; Evans, R. A.; Young, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1972-05-01)
      Perennial wheatgrasses were seeded in fall, 1967 and 1968 on fallows created by atrazine at 1 lb./acre applied the previous fall or by mechanical means. Atrazine residue in the soil during seedling establishment (1.5 years after application) ranged from < 0.04 to 0.15, 0.09, 0.08, and 0.06 ppm, respectively, in the 0-1, 1-2, 2-3, and 3-4-inch soil samples. Residue was less than 0.04 ppm from 4 to 8 inches. Seedlings of perennial grasses were injured or killed by these residue levels. However, poor stands were obtained at only two of seven locations in 1969 with crested wheatgrass. Generally, stands of intermediate and pubescent wheatgrasses were superior to crested wheatgrass. Species response was also evaluated on fallows created by 0.5, 1.5, and 2.0 lb./acre atrazine.
    • Evaluation of the Atrazine-Fallow Technique for Weed Control and Seedling Establishment

      Eckert, R. E.; Asher, J. E.; Christensen, M. D.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1974-07-01)
      The atrazine-fallow technique was evaluated for 3 years on study areas of from 50 to 1,000 acres. Atrazine at 0.6 to 1.2 lb/acre was applied in the fall by ground rig, by fixed-wing aircraft, or by helicopter. Ground-rig application gave the most uniform control of cheatgrass and tumble mustard during the fallow year. Air application usually left weedy strips between swaths of excellent weed control. Wheatgrasses and other species of grasses and forbs were fall-seeded with the standard and deep-furrow rangeland drills 1 year after herbicide application. Fair to excellent seedling stands were obtained in all years. However, in 1 year a valid evaluation of treatment effects was not possible because of depradation and unusually high spring precipitation in the seedling year. In 2 years, environmental conditions were near normal, and depredation was reduced by use of large study areas and insect control. Under these conditions, good established stands of crested, intermediate, pubescent, and Siberian wheatgrasses were obtained by the chemical-fallow technique.
    • Growth and Reproduction of Grasses Heavily Grazed Under Rest-Rotation Management

      Eckert, R. E.; Spencer, J. S. (Society for Range Management, 1987-03-01)
      This study evaluated the effects of heavy forage use in a rest-rotation grazing system on the basal-area growth and frequency of occurrence of native bunchgrasses from 1975 to 1984. None of these grasses increased in basal-area cover with brush competition or in basal-area cover or frequency without brush competition when subjected to periodic heavy grazing (65% utilization in June and 75% in July) during the growing season. When plants were protected from grazing, average basal-area cover increased for Idaho fescue [Festuca idahoensis Elmer] and squirreltail [Sitanion hystrix (Nutt.) J.G. Sm.] in a Wyoming big sagebrush [Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis Beetle]-Idaho fescue community type and for Thurber needlegrass [Stipa thurberiana Piper] in a Wyoming big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass [Agropyron spicatum (Pursh) Scribn. & Smith] community type. Average basal-area cover was unchanged for protected Thurber needlegrass plants in a Wyoming big sagebrush-Thurber needlegrass community type. Average basal-area cover of Thurber needlegrass plants in the same community type decreased when heavily grazed during the growing season in 1 year during the first 3 years of the study and with no grazing during the growing season in the last 4 years of the study. Bluebunch wheatgrass showed no differential response to grazing or protection. Results of this study strongly implicate periodic heavy grazing during the growing season as a primary cause of restricted basal-area growth and lack of reproduction. These results support the contention that such grazing pressure can prevent range improvement in an otherwise appropriate rotation grazing system.
    • Impacts of Off-Road Vehicles on Infiltration and Sediment Production of Two Desert Soils

      Eckert, R. E.; Wood, M. K.; Blackburn, W. H.; Peterson, F. F. (Society for Range Management, 1979-09-01)
      Impacts of motorcycle and 4-wheel drive truck traffic on infiltration rate and sediment production were evaluated on two desert soils. Infiltration was similar for both soils; however, more sediment was produced from a surface with exposed mineral soil than from a gravel-mulched surface. Infiltration was 3 to 13 times greater on the coppice soil beneath shrubs than on interspace soil between shrubs, but sedimentation was 10 to 20 times greater on interspace soil. Infiltration was less and sediment yield was greater after soil was disturbed by vehicular traffic, and after reformation of the surface crust, particularly on interspace soil. High sediment production from interspace soil was attributed to reduced infiltration after 10 minutes. The soil then became saturated and unstable, was dispersed by raindrop impact, and particles were carried in runoff water for the remaining 20 minutes of the test period. Coppice soil had a high infiltration rate for the entire test period and did not become saturated. In addition, the high organic matter and aggregate stability of coppice soil prevented soil movement, though some runoff occurred.
    • Influence of Crusting Soil Surfaces on Emergence and Establishment of Crested Wheatgrass, Squirreltail, Thurber Needlegrass, and Fourwing Saltbush

      Wood, M. K.; Eckert, R. E.; Blackburn, W. H.; Peterson, F. F. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      Crusting soil surfaces with vesicular pores occur in arid and semiarid regions of the world where herbaceous vegetation is sparse. Morphological properties of crusting surfaces can impair seedling emergence and plant establishment. This study evaluated site preparation and seeding methods and species useful for encouraging successful stand establishment in such soils. Plowing to prepare a seedbed reduced seedling emergence on some soils but increased plant establishment on all soils. More seedlings emerged and established on non-crusting coppice soil beneath shrubs than on crusting interspace soil between shrubs. Crested wheatgrass was the most successful species followed closely by squirreltail and distantly by Thurber needlegrass and fourwing saltbush. Fourwing saltbush seedlings became established and grew well in some treatments. Seedling emergence and establishment were highest with the deep-furrow seeding technique on the non-crusting coppice soil. The standard-drill technique gave the best stand on the site with the largest surface cover of bare, crusting interspace soil.
    • Influence of Prescribed Burning on Infiltration and Sediment Production in the Pinyon Juniper Woodland, Nevada

      Roundy, B. A.; Blackburn, W. H.; Eckert, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1978-07-01)
      On arid and semiarid rangelands, areas between woody plants are named dune interspaces. Soil and litter accumulate under plants to form mounds which are called coppice dunes. The loss of soil-protecting litter after burning pinyon-juniper communities in eastern Nevada decreased rates of water infiltration on coppice dune soil at field capacity and increased sediment production from coppice dunes with the soil dry and at field capacity. Differences in infiltration rates and sediment production of dune interspace soil were related to preburn soil morphological differences, not to burning. Vesicular soil crusts and surface-soil bulk density of coppice dunes were not increased by burning. Coppice soil organic matter was not significantly lower on burned areas, although mean values were slightly lower than those on unburned areas. Soil-water repellency was decreased by burning. Burning is not expected to increase runoff or soil loss substantially on similar areas with coarse-textured soils, because post-burn infiltration rates on coppices in these tests exceeded rainfall rates expected from natural storms.
    • Interrelations of the Physical Properties of Coppice Dune and Vesicular Dune Interspace Soils with Grass Seedling Emergence

      Wood, M. K.; Blackburn, W. H.; Eckert, R. E.; Peterson, F. F. (Society for Range Management, 1978-05-01)
      Vesicular soil surface horizons are found throughout the arid and semiarid areas of the world associated with sparse vegetation. In the Great Basin this horizon occurs in the surface 5 or 8 cm of dune interspace soil. Vesicular horizons are characterized by a high silt content, low organic matter, poor aggregation, and low infiltration rates. Our intent was to study the influence of organic matter removal on vesicular development and to determine the effect of a vesicular horizon on seedling emergence. Removal of organic matter from coppice dune soil resulted in a poorly aggregated vesicular soil with properties similar to those of the untreated interspace soil. Crested wheatgrass and squirreltail seedling emergence was poor and seedling stress was high in vesicular dune interspace soil.
    • Livestock Grazing on Federal Lands in the 11 Western States

      Heady, H. F.; Box, T. W.; Butcher, J. E.; Colbert, F. T.; Cook, C. W.; Eckert, R. E.; Gray, J. R.; Hedrick, D. W.; Hodgson, H. J.; Kearl, W. G.; et al. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      Almost half the land area in the 11 Western States is federally owned. Domestic livestock graze on 73% of this area. Federal land is estimated to supply 12% of all grazing resources in the region and to provide the equivalent of the feed required yearlong for 1.7 million head of cattle and 1.0 million sheep. These grazing lands provide energy, water, minerals, recreational opportunities, and wildlife in addition to forage for domestic animals. The forages, on federal lands represent a renewable natural resource and an economical source of feed for production of cattle and sheep. Loss of the products of grazing currently derived from federal lands would increase the scarcity of feed, meat, and wool. The mounting demands for both grain crops and meat point to an increase in importance of forages on both private and public lands to support the beef and sheep industries. Elimination of grazing from federal rangelands in the 11 Western States would require a shift of animals to other lands or would result in loss of these animals from the productive pool. More animals on non-federal lands would require more intensive use of private rangeland; acreage increases in pastures, harvested forages, and feed grains; more acres in cultivation; and greater dependence on feedlo ts for feeding for meat production. Only limited acreage is available for development of additional intensive pastures in the United States. The alternatives to less grazing on federal rangelands appear to us to be wasteful of natural resources and uneconomical for the producers dependent on these lands unless prices of meat and wool were to be increased considerably. Small communities and subsistence-type livestock operations within large areas of federal grazing land would suffer most if grazing on federal lands were eliminated. The grazing of herbage has been a natural process in grasslands, shrublands, and forests for as long as grazing animals have existed. The effect of grazing on the range environment depends upon the kind of vegetation, the intensity of grazing, the kind of animal, and the degree of management employed to control the animals. Experiments and widespread experiences show that moderate and planned grazing restores protective vegetational cover on deteriorated ranges, thereby reducing accelerated erosion and improving animal habitats. Planned grazing maintains good and excellent condition ranges. Most rangeland is better suited to all types of use today than it was before 1950.
    • Mountain Meadow Improvement through Seeding

      Eckert, R. E.; Bruner, A. D.; Klomp, G. J.; Peterson, F. F. (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
      Three mechanical methods were evaluated for control of the meadow weeds - sedge, cheatgrass, and poverty weed. Weed control and seedling stands were best on a summer fallow. Seeding in furrows aided seedling survival. A summer fallow-furrow technique was the weed control and seeding method used to evaluate grass and forb adaptability. Acceptable stands were more difficult to obtain in the cheatgrass-poverty weed type than in the sedge type. Seedling stands of Luna pubescent and Amur intermediate wheatgrasses were similar and were superior to those of Regar bromegrass, Alta tall fescue, and Primar slender wheatgrass. Production of pubescent wheatgrass was equal to or superior to that of intermediate wheatgrass. Bromegrass and fescue were not as productive as the introduced wheatgrasses. Native slender wheatgrass was as productive as the introduced wheatgrasses in a wet year but not in a dry year. Alfalfa and sainfoin stands averaged about one plant/3 ft of row. Herbage of these forbs was similar in quantity and quality to that in good sage grouse habitat.
    • Nitrate-Nitrogen Status of Fallowed Rangeland Soils

      Eckert, R. E.; Klomp, G. J.; Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) accumulated in the soil during the spring, summer, and fall of a fallow year. NO3-N levels in the surface 6 inches in fall, 1967 and 1968, were similar and averaged 43 lb./acre on the atrazine fallow, 27 lb./acre on the mechanical fallow, and 5 lb./acre on the check. Above average precipitation during the winter of 1968-69 resulted in less NO3-N in spring, 1969 compared to spring, 1968. A comparison between the 2 years at one location showed the following NO3-N levels in the surafce 6 inches: spring, 1968-atrazine fallow 30 lb./acre, mechanical fallow 29 lb./acre, and check 13 lb./acre; spring, 1969-atrazine fallow 5 lb./acre, and check 2 lb./acre.