• Enhancing Germination of Spiny Hackberry Seeds

      Fulbright, T. E.; Flenniken, K. S.; Waggerman, G. L. (Society for Range Management, 1986-11-01)
      Establishment of spiny hackberry (Celtis pallida Torr.) in plantings for wildlife has been hampered by low seed germination. We evaluated methods for enhancing germination of spiny hackberry by subjecting seeds to: (1) chemical scarification with 2.9 mol liter-1 H2O2, 0.71 mol liter-1 NaOCl, and concentrated (18 mol liter-1) H2 SO4; (2) rinsing with water; (3) 0, 0.3, 1.4, 2.9, and 4.3 mmol liter-1 gibberellic acid (GA); (4) 0.02 mol liter-1 KNO3; (5) mechanical scarification, or (6) moist heat (30 degrees C) followed by moist prechilling at 7 degrees C for 2 weeks. Untreated seeds exhibited higher percent germination in the light than in the dark. Percentage germination at 30 degrees C and germination rate were increased in the light and in the dark by either 1.4 mmol liter-1 GA or 3 days of moist heat (30 degrees C) followed by a 2-week moist prechill at 7 degrees C. A combination of mechanical scarification + 1.4 mmol liter-1 GA + 3 days moist heat (30 degrees C) followed by moist prechilling for 2 weeks at 7 degrees C increased germination from 1% (controls) to 49%. Germination varied slightly with seed source, but a large proportion of all lots was dormant. Spiny hackberry seeds can be treated with a combination of mechanical scarification + 1.4 mmol liter-1 GA + 3 days moist heat (30 degrees C) followed by moist prechilling for 2 weeks at 7 degrees C before planting to increase percentage and rate of germination.
    • Methods of Enhancing Germination of Anacua Seeds

      Fulbright, T. E.; Flenniken, K. S.; Waggerman, G. L. (Society for Range Management, 1986-09-01)
      Seed dormancy hampers establishment of anacua [Ehretia anacua (Teran & Berl.) I.M. Johnst.] in plantings for wildlife. We evaluated methods of enhancing anacua germination and causes of dormancy. Seeds were (1) scarified with 2.9 mol liter-1 H2O2 or 0.71 mol liter-1 NaOCl for 10, 20, or 30 minutes, or concentrated (18.0 mol liter-1) H2SO4 for 15, 30, 60, or 120 minutes; (2) rinsed with water for 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours; (3) treated with 0.1, 1.4, 2.9, and 4.3 mmol liter-1 gibberellic acid (GA); (4) treated with 0.02 mol liter-1 KNO3; (5) treated with dry heat (130 degrees C) for 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 minutes, (6) mechanically scarified; and (7) moist prechilled at 3 and 7 degrees C for 2 or 4 weeks. Seeds were germinated in controlled environment chambers at 30 degrees C. Germination was not enhanced by chemical scarification or rinsing. GA (1.4 mmol liter-1) increased germination from 35% for controls to 61%. Mechanical scarification and dry heat enhanced germination of highly dormant seeds only. A 2-week moist prechill at 3 degrees C increased germination of intact seeds from 6% for controls to 36%. Percent and rate of germination were similar among seed sources. Apparent afterripening requirements limited germination at 2 months after harvest to 3%. This requirement gradually broke down until at 8 months after harvest, germination had increased to 40%. Our results indicated that treatment with 1.4 mmol liter-1 GA or higher concentrations, moist prechilling for 2 weeks at 3 degrees C, and storage for 8 months will increase germination of dormant anacua seeds.