• Bahiagrass Regrowth and Physiological Aging

      Sampaio, E. V. S. B.; Beaty, E. R.; Ashley, D. A. (Society for Range Management, 1976-07-01)
      Pensacola Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) grows by adding new phytomers to the terminal ends of vegetative stolons. A new phytomer and its attached leaf is added on average each 7 to 12 days during growth as long as the tiller is vegetative. The new leaf is supplied with energy primarily for the first 2 to 3 days of growth and, from 3 days of age until fully expanded at 12 days, photosynthates are retained by the leaf. After 12 days, exports are made to other sinks in the sheath, stolon, root, and new tillers. An investigation was completed in which (a) shoot growth (leaves) of plants fertilized with 0, 100, or 300 kg/ha of N were measured for length and clipped at the top of the stolon daily or weekly until the stolons died, (b) photosynthesis rate of leaves of different ages was determined, and (c) photosynthesis was correlated with leaf chlorophyll, and N content by weeks. Thirteen weeks of daily or weekly clipping were required to kill the stolons and regrowth amounted to 749 to 850 kg/ha of dry leaves. Total length of shoot regrowth per square meter ranged between 13 to 22 m for the 13 weeks and was negatively related to N application rate. Photosynthesis started dropping after approximately 25 days, but leaf N and chlorophyll contents were relatively stable for the first 45 days. After 45 days of age all three factors declined rapidly until leaf death occurred 60 ± 6 days after initiation. Stolons live much longer than do leaves.
    • Balance of Ration Nutrients and Efficiency of Feed Utilization by Ruminants. A Review.

      McCullough, M. E. (Society for Range Management, 1955-03-01)
    • Balancing Livestock Numbers, Feed and Forage on Ranching Units

      Rasmussen, Leroy H. (Society for Range Management, 1958-07-01)
    • Balancing Livestock with Range Forage and Harvested Feed in South Dakota

      Albee, L. (Society for Range Management, 1957-11-01)
    • Barbwire Russian Thistle Seed Germination

      Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1979-09-01)
      Barbwire Russian thistle (Salsola paulsenii) is the dominant species of severely degraded plant communities in the most arid portions of the Great Basin. The seed germination of this alien annual plant was compared with that of common Russian thistle (S. iberica). In general, the two species of Salsola have similar germination characteristics. However, there were important differences that apparently favor barbwire Russian thistle in arid environments. These advantages were (a) less restrictive after-ripening requirements that allow some germination at a broader range of temperature sooner after maturity, (b) more rapid germination at low temperatures during the first 10 days of incubation, and (c) dehiscence of seeds without the necessity of the plants uprooting and tumbling.
    • Barrier Effect of the Shrub Elaeagnus commutata on Grazing Cattle and Forage Production in Central Alberta

      Bailey, A. W. (Society for Range Management, 1970-07-01)
      Excellent condition range occurred under silverberry shrubs while fair to good condition range occurred between shrubs. The herbaceous layer dominants, rough fescue and western porcupine grass, produced nearly twice as much under shrubs. Forb increasers had a lower frequency and produced less herbage under shrubs. Silverberry is an increaser but the barrier effect it has on grazing cattle permitted a small patch of grassland directly beneath each shrub to return to near-climax condition.
    • Basal-Area Growth and Reproductive Responses of Thurber Needlegrass and Squirreltail to Weed Control and Nitrogen Fertilization

      Eckert, Richard; Spencer, John S. (Society for Range Management, 1982-09-01)
      Effects of weed control and added nitrogen were evaluated in terms of basal area growth, number of reproductive culms, seed yields, and test weight and germination of seed from individual plants of squirreltail (Sitanion hystrix) and Thurber needlegrass (Stipa thurberiana) from 1974 to 1979. Basal-area growth of Thurber needlegrass plants continued during the study period but at a reduced rate during dry years. Parts of squirreltail crowns died during dry periods. A reduction in competition by weed control and added nitrogen stimulated basal area growth of Thurber needlegrass, enhanced germination of squirreltail seed, and increased the number of reproductive culms and seed yield of both species, particularly in years of high precipitation. Germination of squirreltail was much greater than that of Thurber needlegrass. Results are discussed in relation to community ecology, range improvement practices, and seed production for commerce.
    • Baseline Elemental Concentrations for Big Sagebrush from Western U.S.A.

      Gough, L. P.; Erdman, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      The analysis of samples of big sagebrush from 190 sites in 8 western physiographic provinces resulted in measurable concentrations of 30 elements. Except for Sb, U, and V, whose concentrations were generally below the analytical detection limits, the expected (baseline) concentration range of each element was defined. The variability in the concentration of Ba, Ca, Li, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn among the 8 provinces was found to be nonsignificant and therefore a mean and deviation (for all provinces combined) for these elements was used to define their baseline. For concentrations of 20 of the elements (including the environmentally important metals As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Hg, and Mo), significant variability was found among province populations so that baseline values are reported for each province or group of provinces. Physiographic provinces were incorporated in the study design as a convenient natural unit in presenting the element baselines and we anticipate that these data may be useful in assessing biogeochemical changes brought about by the activities of energy development, mineral processing, and other anthropogenic disturbances.
    • Beef and Forage Production on Contour Furrowed Rangeland Interseeded with Alfalfa

      Kartchner, R. J.; Wight, J. R.; Bishop, J. L.; Bellows, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-07-01)
      Over a 4-year period, average annual herbage production on native range was 603 kg/ha compared to 1,350 kg/ha on contour-furrowed range interseeded with alfalfa. Addition of 112 kg N/ha and 15 kg P/ha on furrowed, interseeded range increased herbage production to 1,658 kg/ha. Forage production on furrowed areas showed more variation in response to precipitation changes than did production on untreated rangeland. Differences in rate of gain by yearling cattle were small in most years, indicating beef production varied largely as a function of stocking rate. Total beef production over a 5-year period was 113 kg/ha on the control, 217 kg/ha on contour-furrowed range with alfalfa interseeded, and 236 kg/ha on furrowed, interseeded range receiving fertilizer. Observations on management of furrowed, interseeded areas were made.
    • Beef cattle distribution patterns on foothill range

      Pinchak, W. E.; Smith, M. A.; Hart, R. H.; Waggoner, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1991-05-01)
      A 3-year experiment designed to quantify the spatial and temporal utilization patterns of range sites by beef cattle on summer foothill range was conducted on the Wick Brothers Management Unit of the Wyoming Game and Fish Commission, 8 km w. of Arlington, Wyo. The grazing seasons, in replicate pastures, were from 15 July-9 August, 15 June-26 July, and 15 June-2 August in 1980, 1981, and 1982, respectively. Daily observations were made of radio-telemetry collared cattle (3 per pasture). Cattle dispersion was constrained by the spatial distribution of water and slope. Across 3 seasons, 77% of observed use was within 366 m of water. Approximately 65% of the land area was beyond 723 m from water and sustained only 12% of observed use. Cattle concentrated use (79%) on slopes less than 7%. Consequently 35% of the area, on or surrounded by slopes > 10%, received only 7% of observed use. Loamy, grazable woodland and wetland/subirrigated range sites were most preferred and accounted for over 65% of observed use while occupying less than 35% of the land area. Overall, coarse upland, very shallow and shallow loamy sites were not preferred; however, site preference varied as areas further from water were utilized. Observed use was significantly (P < 0.10) correlated (r 0.41 to 0.69) with standing crop and crude protein standing crop over various growth form characteristics of the forage component. Associated stepwise regression models accounted for 44 to 73% of the variation in observed use over the 1982 grazing season. As the forage complex became more similar, in terms of standing crop and crude protein content, significantly less (P < 0.05) variation in use was accounted for by the forage variables (0-37%).
    • Beef Cattle Performance on Crested Wheatgrass plus Native Range vs. Native Range Alone

      Hart, R. H.; Waggoner, J. W.; Clark, D. H.; Kaltenbach, C. C.; Hager, J. A.; Marshall, M. B. (Society for Range Management, 1983-01-01)
      Cattle gains and conception rates in 1974-1977 on crested wheatgrass pasture in spring and fall and native range in summer (CW-NR system) were compared with performance on native range throughout the grazing season (NR system). The CW-NR and NR systems were stocked at 0.20 and 0.10 AU/ha, respectively. Conception rates on CW-NR and NR were 84% and 86%, respectively, excluding results from 1975 when there were problems with heat detection; this difference was not significant. Cow, heifer, and calf gains (average of 0.30, 0.41, and 0.82 kg/day, respectively) and calf weaning weights (average of 196 kg) did not differ significantly between systems. Because of the higher carrying capacity of CW-NR, calf production averaged 24.8 kg/ha vs. 13.0 kg/ha on NR. Other advantages of the CW-NR system included reduced labor for heat checking and for gathering cows for breeding.
    • Beef Cattle Production and Range Practices in South Florida

      Rummel, R. S. (Society for Range Management, 1957-03-01)
    • Beef production from native and seeded Northern Great Plains ranges

      Adams, Don C.; Staigmiller, Robert B.; Knapp, Bradford W. (Society for Range Management, 1989-05-01)
      Multiparous crossbred cows (N=355) were studied over 4 years to evaluate effects of native range (NR) and seeded range on cow reproduction and performance during prebreeding from parturition to the start of breeding and during a 45-day breeding period. Treatments for prebreeding were: (1) NR and (2) crested wheatgrass (CW; Agropyron desertorum Fisch. ex [Link] Schult.) and during breeding: (1) NR, (2) Russian wildrye (RWR; Psathrostachys juncea [Fisch.] Nevski) and (3) contour furrowed NR (CF) interseeded with 'Ladak' alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.). After breeding (postbreeding), all cows grazed NR to weaning in 3 of the 4 years. In year 4, calves were weaned at the end of breeding because of severe drought. Treatments and years were arranged as a factorial. Cow reproduction was evaluated by date of calving, the number of cows in estrus at least once before the beginning of breeding, and fall pregnancy rate. Prebreeding, breeding, and year effects as well as all interactions were nonsignificant (P>0.05) for all reproductive traits. Milk production and milk composition were not affected by prebreeding or breeding treatments. Differences in cow and calf weight gains occurred between prebreeding treatments and generally favored CW. Small differences also occurred in cow weight gains between breeding treatments. All cows gained weight and body condition during prebreeding and breeding and then lost weight and condition postbreeding. Breeding treatment effects on calf gains were small. We concluded that the primary benefits of seeded ranges in the Northern Great Plains are comparable to those documented for increased stocking rate and improved forage management. Seeded ranges did not improve individual animal performance.
    • Beef Production on Lodgepole Pine-Pinegrass Range in Southern British Columbia

      McLean, A. (Society for Range Management, 1967-07-01)
      Yearling steers on lodgepole pine-pinegrass summer range in British Columbia had an average daily gain of 1.75 lb for 103 days per year over a 5-year period. The average gain per acre was 19.3 lb for the season and the average stocking rate was 4.8 acres per AUM. Pinegrass, which provided over 50% of the forage yield, was readily accepted by cattle during early summer but became unpalatable by mid August.
    • Beef Production on Lodgepole Pine-Pinegrass Range in the Cariboo Region of British Columbia

      McLean, A. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      Results from the Cariboo grazing trail confirm those from previous ones on lodgepole pine-pinegrass summer range near Kamloops. They also suggest that similar results could be expected in other regions with ecologically similar sites. Yearling steers in the Cariboo district had a 3-year average daily gain of 1.74 lb. for 97 days starting in early June. The average gain per acre was 17.8 lb. The average carrying capacity was 4.6 acres/animal unit month.
    • Beef Production on Native Range, Crested Wheatgrass, and Russian Wildrye Pastures

      Smoliak, S.; Slen, S. B. (Society for Range Management, 1974-11-01)
      Weight gains per acre of yearling steers on continuously grazed Russian wildrye were 96.2 lb, or six times the gain of 16.0 lb on native range over a 6-year period. Crested wheatgrass, native range, and Russian wildrye grazed in a rotation or free-choice system reduced the acreage requirement to 15 acres per animal-unit for 6 months from 28 acres required for native range and increased beef production per acre by 55 to 66%. The vegetation on each of the three pasture types was maintained in a more productive condition when they were grazed in rotation in individually fenced fields than when they were grazed free-choice as a single unit. Crested wheatgrass and Russian wildrye effectively extended the grazing season.
    • Behavior of Fistulated Steers on a Desert Grassland

      Zemo, T.; Klemmedson, J. O. (Society for Range Management, 1970-05-01)
      Behavior of four ruminal fistulated steers was studied for a 60-day period in mid-summer on mesquite and mesquite-free desert grassland pastures near Tucson, Arizona. Steers consistently grazed during four definite daylight grazing periods and two nighttime periods throughout the study. The four steers were remarkably similar in their activities and differed only in salting time; their activities did not appear to differ from those of intact cattle. Activities were similar on mesquite and mesquite-free pastures. As the grazing season advanced and forage matured, rumination time increased and frequency of urination declined. Other behavioral activities of the steers were unaffected by sources of variation studied.
    • Behavior of Forage Yields on Some Range Sites in Oregon

      Anderson, E. W. (Society for Range Management, 1962-09-01)
    • Behavior of Hereford Cows and Calves on Short Grass Range

      Peterson, R. A.; Woolfolk, E. J. (Society for Range Management, 1955-03-01)