• E-Z-2-Rite: A Clipboard Holder

      Kadish, A.; Powell, R. (Society for Range Management, 1955-09-01)
    • Eagles and Sheep: A Viewpoint

      Bolen, E. G. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      The controversy regarding golden eagle predation on lambs in the Southwest was addressed using winter eagle population data from Texas and eastern New Mexico, eagle food habits information, and lamb mortality data. The sum of this review indicates that too few lambs are eaten as prey to justify presecution of golden eagles for the presumptive enhancement of livestock production. An inquiry concerning brush cover and carnivore food habits suggests that lagomorphs, a staple in golden eagle diets, decline as usable food for carnivores where brush prevails on lambing ranges.
    • Early Decomposition of Ashe Juniper (Juniperus ashei) Wood in Open and Shaded Habitat

      Lyons, Kelly G.; McCarthy, Whitney A. (Society for Range Management, 2010-05-01)
      Grasslands of the Edwards Plateau of central Texas have been extensively altered through woody species encroachment, particularly as a result of increasing abundance of the invasive native shrub, Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei). Over the last several decades there has been widespread mechanical removal of the species. The wood is often left in place to decompose, either mulched or not. Where the wood is left to decompose might have some bearing on its rate of decomposition. This study was conducted to determine the rates of Ashe juniper wood decomposition as a function of open vs. shaded habitat and the potential effect of wood decomposition on nutrient inputs into this system. Wood decomposition in this arid ecosystem might be expected to occur more rapidly in shaded habitat where the moisture and temperature regimes would be more favorable for wood- decomposing fungi. On the other hand, during times of low rainfall we might expect wood to decompose more rapidly when exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation. In our experiment, we found no difference between open and shaded treatments. Wood biomass loss occurred rapidly over the first 3-4 mo of the study and slowed for the remaining 2 yr. Wood carbon (C) increased only slightly (7.3%), but nitrogen (N) increased significantly (176%). As a consequence of changes in wood nitrogen, C:N decreased through time. Results of this study suggest that the wood decomposition process in open and shaded habitats in this arid ecosystem during a time of low rainfall do not differ. Our findings also suggest that land managers aiming to establish native species following felling of Ashe juniper should do so in the first year when nutrient release from decomposing wood is the highest. 
    • Early establishment of Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine in grassland seedbeds

      Bai, Y.; Thompson, D.; Broersma, K. (Society for Range Management, 2000-09-01)
      Grassland of interior British Columbia are being encroached upon by Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.). A pot experiment placed in the field was conducted to determine the effect of forest and grassland seedbeds on seedling emergence and early establishment of the 2 species with 2 seed collections each. For these seedbeds, structural characteristics were evaluated and the effect of seedbeds water extracts on seed germination was determined. Seedling emergence of both species was significantly reduced by Douglas-fir needles and enhanced by fescue litter and cattle manure compared to mineral soil. The rate of emergence was reduced by Douglas-fir needles and sagebrush litter, and for some collections, by ponderosa pine needles, but was always enhanced by manure compared to mineral soil. Seedling survival was generally not affected by seedbeds. Douglas-fir seedlings emerging earlier in the season survived better, and both Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine seedlings emerging earlier lived longer than these emerging later. Seed germination of ponderosa pine was not affected by the water extract while that of Douglas-fir was reduced by the water extract from sagebrush litter. Therefore, differences in seedling emergence of the 2 species among seedbeds were related more to structural than to chemical characteristics of seedbeds. Successful establishment of the 2 species in grasslands within this region likely relies on the ability of seeds to germinate early in the growing season on seedbeds in which soil moisture is conserved, as summer droughts are severe.
    • Early Growth of Nordan Crested Wheatgrass and Sherman Big Bluegrass

      Rittenhouse, L. R.; Sneva, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1977-05-01)
      Early growth of Sherman big bluegrass was compared with that of Nordan crested wheatgrass in central Oregon. Growth curves of the two grasses were similar between April 5 and May 15, as measured by increase in oven-dry production. Both species produced similarly during the 6-year study, except that, in 1969 big bluegrass yields were higher on May 15.
    • Early Range Readiness with Nitrogen Fertilizer: An Economic Analysis

      McCormick, P. W.; Workman, J. P. (Society for Range Management, 1975-05-01)
      Application of ammonium nitrate stimulated early spring growth initiation of Utah crested wheatgrass pastures. Application rates of 25 to 30 lb N per acre hastened spring range readiness by 11 to 13 days. During 1973, the initial year studied, ranchers could have profitably substituted crested wheatgrass fertilization for purchased hay.
    • Early Root and Shoot Elongation of Selected Warm-Season Perennial Grasses

      Simanton, J. R.; Jordan, G. L. (Society for Range Management, 1986-01-01)
      Root length and root:shoot ratios are considered to be important survival factors of seedlings growing in areas of limited water. This study was conducted to determine early root elongation and root:shoot ratios during the germination to seedling stage of 'Premier' sideoats grama [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.], 'Cochise' lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees × Eragrostis trichophora Coss and Dur.), 'A-130' blue panic (Panicum antidotale Retz.), and accessions PMT-1733-77 and NM-184 alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides Torr.). Root and shoot measurements were made approximately every 12 hr from seed planting to 190 hr and the results related to species success or failure in reported seeding trials. Sideoats grama root lengths were greater than those of all other species at all sample times. Root lengths among the other species were not different until about 5 days after planting when Cochise lovegrass root lengths were significantly (P<0.05) less. Though there was no significant (P<0.05) difference in root lengths among accessions of alkali sacaton, accession 1733 root elongation continued after accession NM-184 root elongation ceased. Sideoats grama shoot lengths were significantly (P<0.05) greater than those of all species until day 6, when sideoats grama and blue panic were not different. Average 7-day root:shoot ratios ranged from 2.9:1 for sideoats grama to 1.3:1 for blue panic. Rapid root elongation or comparatively high root:shoot ratios obtained for species in this study could not be directly related to reported success or failure in seedling establishment.
    • Early season grazing by cattle of tall larkspur-(Delphinium spp.) infested rangeland

      Pfister, J. A.; Ralphs, M. H.; Manners, G. D.; Gardner, D. R.; Price, K. W.; James, L. F. (Society for Range Management, 1997-07-01)
      A series of summer grazing studies were conducted to evaluate cattle consumption of preflowering tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi [Huth] or D. occidentale [Wats.] Wats.) on mountain rangeland in Utah, Colorado, and Idaho during 1987 to 1995. Cattle ate little or no larkspur before flowering racemes were elongated. Consumption of tall larkspur by cattle was also generally low during the early flower stage, with some notable exceptions at the Salina and Manti, Utah sites. These grazing studies indicate that risk of losing cattle to tall larkspur is low if plants have not flowered. Even though concentration of toxic alkaloids is typically much higher in immature compared to mature tall larkspur, toxicosis is unlikely to occur because consumption by cattle is low. Many livestock operations can gain 4 to 5 weeks of low-risk grazing on tall larkspur-infested rangeland early in the grazing season, and this should be considered in developing grazing management plans.
    • Early season utilization of mountain meadow riparian pastures

      Clary, W. P.; Booth, G. D. (Society for Range Management, 1993-11-01)
      Observations suggest spring grazing of riparian areas is a good management strategy because of a reduced tendency for cattle to concentrate along streams during that season. In this study, June cattle distribution was examined within 4 experimental pastures located along Stanley Creek, Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Sawtooth National Forest, in central Idaho. Two pastures were grazed at a light stocking rate and 2 pastures were grazed at a medium stocking rate. Streamside graminoid utilization averaged about 24% under light stocking, while on the adjacent meadow graminoid utilization was 28%. Under medium stocking the average utilization at streamside was 37%, while that on the adjacent meadow was 50%. Residual herbaceous stubble heights under light stocking were 11 to 12 cm for both grazing locations, whereas streamside and meadow stubble heights were 10 cm and 7 cm, respectively, under moderate stocking. Cattle were not disproportionately attracted to the streamside areas during the June period. As stocking rates increased from light to medium, the cattle concentrated most of their additional use on the adjacent drier meadow. Utilization of riparian plant communities during this early summer period had no relationship to the amount of plant moisture content, but was negatively associated with surface soil moisture.
    • Early Secondary Succession Following Restoration and Reseeding Treatments in Northern Arizona

      Hessing, M. B.; Johnson, C. D. (Society for Range Management, 1982-09-01)
      Reseeding, with and without disc harrowing, building of water bars, and piling of slash on utility corridors (restoration), was studied on access roads and pylon sites following construction of the 500 kV Navajo Project Southern Transmission Line in 1973. Reseeding was not successful. Restoration either had no significant positive effect on revegetation or slowed plant succession in the following 4-year period, or had a deleterious effect on amount and quality of revegetation due to the destruction of climax vegetation which survived powerline construction.
    • Early Seedling Growth of Italian Ryegrass and Smilo as Affected by Nutrition

      Ayeke, C. A.; McKell, C. M. (Society for Range Management, 1969-01-01)
      The effect of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on the seedling vigor of two important but dissimilar grass species, Lolium multiflorum and Oryzopsis miliacea is reported. There was significant reduction in seedling growth at high concentrations of NH4NO3 + NH4H2PO4 but with NH4 NO3 alone the high concentrations neither increased nor decreased seedling growth. Nitrogen uptake of seedlings increased as the level of nitrogen increased. Rapid depletion of endosperm starch and low concentrations of total sugars and reducing sugars in seedlings were associated with the high levels of nitrogen fertilization.
    • Early Succession Following Clearcutting of Aspen Communities in Northern Utah

      Bartos, D. L.; Mueggler, W. F. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      Changes in aspen reproduction and undergrowth production and composition were recorded over a 3-year period following clearcutting. Aspen suckers increased from 2,300 per hectare prior to cutting to a maximum of 44,000 per hectare the second post-cut year, and dropped to approximately 25,000 per hectare by the third year. Undergrowth production on the cut units increased from 1,013 kg/ha prior to cutting to 3,000 kg/ha after three growing seasons; production on the uncut control areas increased from 1,199 kg/ha to 1,539 kg/ha during this period. The significant increase in undergrowth is attributed to the reduction in competition from the removal of the aspen overstory. Clearcutting appeared to increase the proportion of shrubs in the undergrowth and decrease the proportion of forbs. A similarity index comparing the cut and uncut areas suggested that the greatest change in species composition occurred the first year after cutting, with a gradual return towards the precut conditions.
    • Early Succession in Aspen Communities Following Fire in Western Wyoming

      Bartos, D. L.; Meuggler, W. F. (Society for Range Management, 1981-07-01)
      Aspen clones in varying degrees of deterioration were burned in northwestern Wyoming in an attempt to regenerate the site. Large numbers of aspen suckers are necessary to perpetuate these stands under current heavy ungulate use. Sucker numbers doubled the second year after burning and by the end of the third year had returned to near preburn levels of 15,000-20,000 suckers per hectare. This slight increase in sucker numbers is probably not sufficient to regenerate the stands under current browsing pressures. Total understory production declined the first year following fire and then increased to 3,600 kg/ha the second year-almost double preburn conditions. Production decreased the third year to about one-third greater than before burning. Forb and grass production increased and shrubs decreased as a result of burning. Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium) was the largest post-fire contributor to total understory production.
    • Early summer grazing effects on defoliation and tiller demography of prairie sandreed

      Cullan, A. P.; Reece, P. E.; Schacht, W. H. (Society for Range Management, 1999-09-01)
      Grazing strategies should be designed to maintain vigorous populations of plant species critical for livestock production, wildlife habitat, and/or ecosystem functions. Treatments consisting of 5- to 7-day, mid-month grazing periods in June or July at 16, 32, or 48 animal unit days (AUD) per ha, were replicated 3 times and applied to the same pastures in 1995 and 1996 to quantify cattle use and tiller recruitment and mortality of prairie sandreed [Calamovilfa longifolia (Hook) Scribn.], a rhizomatous species characterized by dispersed populations of tillers. Cumulative grazing pressure (AUD Mg-1) was used to quantify treatments because of differences in phytomass among pastures and dates. Grazing pressure ranged from 10 to 90 AUD Mg-1 and accounted for 69, 61, and 77% of the variation in percentage of tillers grazed, mean defoliation of grazed tillers, and use of prairie sandreed, respectively. As grazing pressure increased from 10 AUD Mg-1, percentage of tillers grazed increased from 48 to 90%; defoliation of grazed tillers increased from 54 to 74%; and utilization of prairies and reed increased from 27 to 67% at plateaus beginning at 50 to 60 AUD Mg-1. When spring precipitation was above average, 45 to 55% use in June or July increased tiller densities, however, these increases were not sustained or repeated in the following year with average precipitation. Utilization was 50% at 28 AUD Mg-1 and 60% at 40 AUD Mg-1. Relatively large increases in utilization per-unit-change of grazing pressure below 20 AUD Mg-1 indicated that yearling cattle selectively grazed prairie sandreed. The high degree of correlation between percentage of prairie sandreed tillers grazed and use of prairie sandreed (R2= 0.91 in June and 0.90 in July) suggests that percentage of grazed tillers can be used to monitor early-summer use of this species in the Nebraska Sandhills.
    • Early weaning and length of supplementation effects on beef calves

      Pordomingo, A. J. (Society for Range Management, 2002-07-01)
      Early weaning of calves can improve reproduction of beef cows, and would be of no detriment to calf growth if the diet is adequate. Digestible energy intake could be limiting, however, when calves are weaned on forage. Performance of calves weaned at 70 days (early weaning) and 172 days (normally weaning) of age were compared. Calves from 2 locations in Argentina, Anguil, and Chacharramendi, were distributed in 14 groups and half were weaned. Early-weaned calves were pen fed a 50% concentrate-50% alfalfa hay diet for 12 days, followed by grazing on alfalfa for 150 days. During the first 90 days on pasture, early-weaned calves were group supplemented (1.2 % body weight (BW, DM basis). Calves from Anguil did not differ (P = 0.068) in average daily gain (ADG). In contrast, early-weaned calves from Chacharramendi gained faster than normally-weaned calves (P 0.01). In a second experiment, 108 calves were classified into 3 age groups on day 0 of trial (AGE1 = 109 +/- 2.2 days of age, AGE2 = 91 +/- 1.6 days of age and AGE3 = 75 +/- 3.8 days of age). Two thirds of the calves were weaned (early-weaned calves) the same day and the remaining third was returned to their dams (normally-weaned calves). Two feeding treatments were imposed on the early-weaned calves: S15 = supplement during the first 15 days on pasture (1% body weight, DM basis), and S45 = supplement during the first 45 days. Early-weaned calves grazed on an alfalfa pasture for 136 days. Calves from the normally-weaned group remained with their mothers until weaning onto pasture on day 87 of the study. Normally-weaned calves were the heaviest (P < 0.05) at the end of trial. Differences in body weight between early weaning ages increased as the supplementation period decreased. Calves that were weaned at 75 days of age and fed supplement for only 15 days had the lowest (P < 0.05) overall ADG and final body weight. Overall results suggested that early weaning favors reproduction of thin cows, and early-weaned calves can be placed on good-quality pasture with no detriment of growth if energy supplement is provided.
    • Early Weaning and Part-Year Confinement of Cattle on Arid Rangelands of the Southwest

      Herbel, C. H.; Wallace, J. D.; Finkner, M. D.; Yarbrough, C. C. (Society for Range Management, 1984-03-01)
      This study compared part-year confinement of cows with yearlong placement on rangeland and weaning calves in late May with regular weaning in mid-October. Weaning rates tended to be higher with part-year confinement than with yearlong placement on rangeland (86% vs. 72%) and with early weaning in May than with regular weaning in October (86% vs. 72%). There were significant year effects in weaning weights with the lowest weights in drought years. The production per cow exposed tended to be higher with part-year confinement than with yearlong placement on rangeland (134 kg vs. 110 kg), and with regular weaning than with early weaning of calves (156 kg vs. 88 kg). Part-year confinement of cows and early weaning of calves are useful tools for the range manager in droughty years.
    • Earthen Windbreaks, a new Management Device for Salt Marsh Rangelands

      Shiflet, Thomas N. (Society for Range Management, 1963-11-01)
    • Ecological Characteristics and Control of Gambel Oak

      Engle, D. M.; Bonham, C. D.; Bartel, L. E. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      Manipulation of Gambel oak for enhanced rangeland values must be in accord with ecological principles to ensure desired success. Failures in controlling Gambel oak have occurred because the growth patterns, morphological characteristics, and carbohydrate storage patterns of the species have not been taken into account. However, recurrent control will continue to be necessary since grass dominated systems should not be considered to be climax in Gambel oak dominated systems. Existing initial and maintenance control methods appear to offer only short-term solutions, which often result in more troublesome long-term management problems.
    • Ecological Effect of a Clay Soil's Structure on Some Native Grass Roots

      White, E. M.; Lewis, J. K. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      Dense Clay Range soils have larger structure peds or groups of smaller peds in the upper part of the soil when moisture is at the wilting point than do Clayey Range soils of the same moisture and clay content. Large peds, which are bordered by cracks when dry, apparently constrict roots as they dry and hold the roots so that they are stretched across the bordering cracks. Blue grama and buffalograss grow on the Clayey Range soils and have a fine, spreading root system near the soil surface. However, these grasses do not grow on Dense Clay Range soils where presumably their fine roots are not strong enough to withstand the constricting and stretching forces. Western wheatgrass and green needlegrass have larger, more deeply placed roots which are more vertically oriented than the short grasses and are able to utilize subsoil moisture and grow on the Dense Clay soils.
    • Ecological Effects and Fate of N Following Massive N Fertilization of Mixed-Grass Plains

      Houston, W. R.; Hyder, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      The response of range herbage and soils on mixed-grass range in southeastern Wyoming to single massive applications of N fertilizer was studied from 1969 to 1973. Herbage yields and N content of herbage were increased by fertilizer in all years of study. Peak responses occurred in 1970 and 1971. Most of the applied N was accounted for in 1970 in top growth and in mineral form. However, a substantial portion could not be accounted for in 1972-73. In early April, 1973, a significant part of the applied N was concentrated below the zone of main root activity in the soil and may be unavailable for future plant use. Several undesirable plants were increased by massive applications of N, and some desirable plants decreased. Massive applications of N on this rangeland produced both desirable and undesirable responses.