• I'm Not Satisfied With the Journal…!

      Schultz, A. M. (Society for Range Management, 1958-05-01)
    • Ideal Free Distributions of Mobile Pastoralists in Multiple Seasonal Grazing Areas

      Moritz, M.; Hamilton, I. M.; Scholte, P.; Chen, Y. -J. (Society for Range Management, 2014-11)
      The pastoral system in the Far North Region of Cameroon is best described as an open system in which mobile pastoralists have open access to common-pool grazing resources. We hypothesized that there is a self-organizing management system of open access to common-pool grazing resources and predicted that we would find an Ideal Free Distribution (IFD) of mobile pastoralists within seasonal grazing areas. In this paper we used mobility data and remote sensing data from two seasonal grazing areas at the end of the dry season in three consecutive years to evaluate that hypothesis. We found evidence of an IFD in the two seasonal grazing areas of the Logone Floodplain and the Lake Maga area. These findings offer further support for our hypothesis that there is a complex adaptive system in which pastoralists distribute themselves effectively over available grazing resources. © 2014 Society for Range Management
    • Identification and Creation of Optimum Habitat Conditions for Livestock

      Bailey, Derek W. (Society for Range Management, 2005-03-01)
      Optimum habitat condition is a concept typically used for wildlife rather than livestock. The definition for optimal livestock habitat will vary with management objectives. Abiotic factors, such as topography, water availability, and thermal cover, affect animal performance and uniformity of grazing. Livestock usually prefer gentle slopes and avoid traveling long horizontal and vertical distances to water. Shade and nearby water are used for thermoregulation when temperatures are high, and topographic relief and woody vegetation can be used for thermal cover during cooler temperatures. Biotic factors, such as forage quality and quantity, influence spatial grazing preferences and affect animal performance. Livestock prefer areas with higher forage quality and quantity. Uniformity of grazing may be greater in homogeneous vegetation, but animal performance may be greater in heterogeneous vegetation, especially at lower stocking rates. Livestock grazing patterns have been predicted using multiple regression and other models, but their success has typically been limited to a specific site. Managers can improve livestock habitat conditions by changing abiotic attributes of the pastures, such as developing water, building structures for thermal cover, and changing biotic attributes of the pasture through burning, fertilizing, varying stocking rates, and manipulating grazing systems. Managers can also choose animals that are more adapted to specific rangeland conditions. Practices such as strategic supplementation and herding can modify livestock behavioral patterns to use more of the available habitat. The spatial and temporal variability of rangeland requires multiple management practices to optimize use of livestock habitat.  
    • Identification of Subspecies of Big Sagebrush by Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry

      Shumar, M. L.; Anderson, J. E.; Reynolds, T. D. (Society for Range Management, 1982-01-01)
      The three subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) are dominant shrubs over much of the Intermountain West. Because the subspecies differ in palatability and habitat requirements, researchers and resource managers have become increasingly concerned with their identification. Subspecies have been identified by leaf morphology, ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence, or chromatography. Fluorescence of leaf extracts under short-wave UV light provides a convenient technique for distinguishing between A.t. vaseyana and the other two subspecies, but this technique will not distinguish between A.t. tridentata and A.t. wyomingensis. Chromatographic techniques can differentiate between all of the subspecies, but the methods are tedious. We describe a technique for distinguishing all three subspecies by UV spectrophotometry. Alcohol leaf extracts of the three subspecies produce relative absorbance graphs that differ markedly from one another between 230 and 280 nm.
    • Identifying Greenbriar Growth

      Crawford, H. S. (Society for Range Management, 1961-01-01)
    • Identifying Montana hunter/rancher problems and solutions

      Swensson, E. J.; Knight, J. E. (Society for Range Management, 1998-07-01)
      A 1 year survey was developed to identify conflicts and solutions to conflicts between hunters and ranchers. A questionnaire was mailed to randomly selected groups of 1,000 hunters and 989 ranchers in Montana. One-third of the questionnaire was different for the 2 groups and consisted of questions relating to background information. The other two-thirds was identical between the groups and presented questions related to perceived problems and solutions, big game populations, importance of private and agricultural land to wildlife and hunter/rancher representation. Thirty-five percent of the hunters and 42% of the ranchers responded to the survey. The top 3 conflicts between hunters and ranchers as identified by hunters were too little access to private land, driving off roads, and trespassing. The top 3 solutions selected by hunters were greater consideration and appreciation by ranchers, better communication between groups, and better boundary identification. The top 3 problems identified by ranchers were driving off roads, trespassing, and too many hunters. The top 3 solutions selected by ranchers were stiffer penalties for violators, better communication between groups, and greater consideration and appreciation by hunters. Both hunters and ranchers ranked driving off roads and trespassing in their top 3 problems and ranked better communication and greater consideration and appreciation in their top 3 solutions. Hunters and ranchers have different (P < 0.01) views of who represents them in hunter/rancher related issues. Forty-seven percent of the hunters responding believe they represent themselves or have no representation; whereas, 57% of the ranchers responding indicated they are represented by livestock producer groups. Results of this survey indicate that hunters and ranchers have similar concerns and better communication will help alleviate conflicting interests.
    • Identifying Rangeland Restoration Targets: An Appraisal of Challenges and Opportunities

      Monaco, Thomas A.; Jones, Thomas A.; Thurow, Thomas L. (Society for Range Management, 2012-11-01)
      Restoration activities are directed toward a broad spectrum of targets. Identifying a restoration target entails defining an ecosystem state and its desired functioning that can be attained through managerial interventions. First, we discuss how restoration targets must integrate economic, social, and ecological considerations in order to be feasible. Primary challenges to identifying realistic restoration targets include long-term managerial and fiscal commitments as well as the accommodation of inherent rangeland complexities stemming from social and ecological factors. Second, we illustrate how the existing tools of ecological site description, rangeland health assessment, and state-and-transition modeling present opportunities to identify flexible restoration targets. Last, we describe how to refine these targets using adaptive management in order to cope with constraints and to reduce the uncertainty of ecosystem dynamics typical of complex systems. Restoration should be viewed as both a rangeland management activity and a means to inform and guide interventions within a specific site./Las actividades de rehabilitación implica la definición del estado del ecosistema y el funcionamiento deseado que puede alcanzarse a través de intervenciones de manejo. Primero, discutimos cómo los objetivos de rehabilitación deben integrar factores económicos, sociales y ecológicos, con el fin de ser factibles. Los principales desafíos para la identificación de objetivos realistas de rehabilitación incluyen compromisos de manejo y económicos a largo plazo. Así también deben incluirse otros elementos innatos de los pastizales derivados de los factores sociales y ecológicos. Segundo, ilustramos cómo la existencia de herramientas para descripción ecológica de los sitios, evaluación del bienestar del pastizal, y el modelado del estado y transición representan oportunidades para identificar objetivos de rehabilitación. Finalmente, describimos cómo redefinir estos objetivos usando manejo adaptativo con el fin de hacer frente a limitaciones y reducir la incertidumbre de la dinámica de los ecosistemas típicamente de los sistemas complejos. La rehabilitación debe ser vista tanto como una actividad del manejo de pastizales como de un medio para informar y guiar las mediaciones en un sitio especifico.
    • Imbibition by Alkali Sacaton Seeds

      Knipe, O. D. (Society for Range Management, 1971-01-01)
      Alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides Torr.) seeds imbibed water rapidly. Large seeds gained 47% and small seeds gained 71% of their dry weight within the first 30 min after wetting. The large seeds had gained 124% and the small seeds 165% of their dry weight after 72 hr.
    • Imbibition temperature affects winterfat (Eurotia lanata (Pursh) Moq.) seed hydration and cold-hardiness response

      Bai, Y.; Booth, D. T.; Romo, J. T. (Society for Range Management, 1999-05-01)
      Winterfat (Eurotia lanata (Pursh) Moq.) diaspores harvested from 1 Canadian and 2 USA sites were imbibed at 0, 5, 10, and 20 degrees C. It was hypothesized that imbibition temperature affects seed hydration which is related to cold-hardiness of winterfat. Weight gain was measured at 8-hour intervals until full hydration, and embryo water content was determined. Water content of fully hydrated seeds differed among collections and lower imbibition temperatures were always associated with greater seed water content. Differences in water content of seeds imbibed at different temperatures was related to cold-hardiness. When water content of embryos was measured, differences among imbibition temperatures existed, but were reduced. Differences in seed water content among imbibition temperatures were mainly due to endosperm other than the embryo because the embryo hydrated faster than other seed parts. Suggestions were made for modeling seed water relations based on this study.
    • Immature Seedling Growth of Two North American Native Perennial Bunchgrasses and the Invasive Grass Bromus tectorum

      Ray-Mukherjee, Jayanti; Jones, Thomas A.; Adler, Peter B.; Monaco, Thomas A. (Society for Range Management, 2011-07-01)
      Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) A. Löve and Elymus wawawaiensis J. Carlson Barkworth are two native perennial grasses widely used for restoration in the Intermountain West. However, the rapid establishment and spread of Bromus tectorum L., an invasive annual grass, has led to a decline in the abundance of native perennial grasses. Proliferation of B. tectorum has been attributed to its early germination, superior cold-temperature growth, profuse root production, and high specific leaf area (SLA). To enhance restoration success, we compared B. tectorum to commercially available plant materials of two perennial rangeland bunchgrasses, P. spicata (cv. Whitmar, cv. Goldar, and Anatone Germplasm) and E. wawawaiensis (cv. Secar), for germination, seedling morphological traits, and growth rates at the immature seedling stage. We monitored germination and immature seedling growth in a growth chamber in two separate experiments, one under low (5/10 degreesC) and the other under high (15/20 degreesC) day/night temperatures. Compared to the average of the two perennials, B. tectorum was 93% (77%) greater at high (and low) temperature for root:shoot length ratio, but only 14% (14%) greater for root:shoot biomass ratio and 12% (19%) lower for SLA. This suggests that B. tectorum’s substantial investment in surface area of roots, rather than in shoot length, root biomass, or leaf area, may be responsible for the annual’s success at the early seedling stage. Compared to E. wawawaiensis, P. spicata averaged 65% (41%) higher shoot biomass, 39% (88%) higher root biomass, and 70% (10%) higher absolute growth rate, but 25% (15%) lower SLA and 15% (36%) lower specific root length (SRL) at high (and low) temperatures, respectively. Although P. spicata’s greater productivity may initially make for better seedling establishment than E. wawawaiensis, it may also prove disadvantageous in competitive or highly resource-limited environments where high SLA or SRL could be an advantage.
    • 'Immigrant' forage kochia seed viability as impacted by storage methods

      Stewart, A.; Anderson, V. J.; Kitchen, S. G. (Society for Range Management, 2001-07-01)
      'Immigrant' forage kochia (Kochia prostrata (L.) Schrad.) is a valuable introduced subshrub, often used in reclamation plantings and seedings on western rangelands. Seedling establishment is best from fresh seed; however, many users plant stored seed and experience poor seeding success. One cause for failure is loss of seed viability in storage. Forage kochia seed was harvested on 4 dates in fall 1996 from 2 sites (wildland and irrigated) and tested for viability when fresh and after storage treatments. Storage treatments included low and high seed water contents (2-6% and 12-16%), cold and warm storage temperatures (2 degrees and 25 degrees C), and duration of storage (4, 8, and 12 months). Mature, highly viable forage kochia seed remains viable in storage longer than seed harvested prematurely. Low seed water content (2-6%) is essential to preserving maximum seed viability. Storing seed at a cold temperature (2 degrees C) is also helpful in maintaining viability.
    • Impact and Control of the Range Crane Fly (Tipula simplex Doane) in the Central Valley of California

      Hartman, M. J.; Thomas, C. L. (Society for Range Management, 1983-09-01)
      The larvae of the range crane fly (Tipula simplex) are responsible for extensive damage to rangeland of the central valley of California, but the damage occurs infrequently in years when there are extremely high densities. These outbreaks appear to be due to favorable climatic conditions during the early larval instars. Means of biological (including pheromone), mechanical, fire, and chemical control are discussed. Early detection is a key in minimizing damage.
    • Impact of a White Grub (Phyllophaga crinita) on a Shortgrass Community and Evaluation of Selected Rehabilitation Practices

      Ueckert, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1979-11-01)
      During the spring of 1973, white grubs, Phyllophaga crinita (Burm.), at a density of $46.3/{\rm m}^{2}$, reduced cover of perennial grasses by 88% in localized areas of a shortgrass community in Scurry County, Texas. Forbs and broom snakeweed were not affected. Chlordane applied to the soil surface at 3.36 kg/ha did not control white grubs. Chlordane, nitrogen fertilization (112 kg/ha of N), and a combination of the insecticide-fertilization treatments did not appreciably enhance rehabilitation of white grub-denuded rangeland. Seeding with introduced grasses was not successful because of inadequate precipitation, heavy grazing by lagomorphs on the small areas, and competitive effects of buffalograss. Forbs and broom snakeweed were not important in the early seral stages of secondary succession on the study site, but common broomweed and common sunflower were dominants on other denuded sites in the area. Most plant species had recovered by the end of the second growing season without fencing to control livestock grazing.
    • Impact of Bentonite Mining on Selecting Arthropods

      Sieg, C. H.; Uresk, D. W.; Hansen, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1987-03-01)
      Arthropods were sampled in pitfall traps for 2 yr on bentonite mine spoils and adjacent, unmined big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) grasslands in southeastern Montana to assess the impacts of bentonite mining on selected arthropods, evaluate the success of early reclamation efforts in restoring arthropods to mined sites, and to identify limiting factors for colonization of spoils by arthropods. The most significant impacts on selected arthropods were on old, unreclaimed bentonite mine spoils, where after nearly 30 yr, numbers of 7 arthropod groups remained lower than on unmined sagebrush grasslands. Spoils covered with topsoil had higher captures of ground beetles (Carabidae) and crickets (Gryllidae) than unreclaimed spoils. And spoils covered with topsoil and seeded supported captures of most arachnids, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, and Formicidae similar to those on unmined sagebrush grasslands. Vegetative parameters measured in this study accounted for a portion of the variability in arthropod captures; however, microarthropod populations, arthropod vagility, and soil water contents may influence repopulation of mine spoils by some arthropods.
    • Impact of Burning and Grazing on Soil Water Patterns in the Pinyon-Juniper Type

      Gifford, G. F. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      Soil water patterns were studied from June 1973 to February of 1977 in pinyon-juniper woodland, on pinyon-juniper areas chained and windrowed (grazed and ungrazed), and on pinyon-juniper areas chained with debris-in-place (ungrazed; burned vs. unburned). The pinyon-juniper woodland always had the least soil water, regardless of the season. Grazing did not affect soil water patterns on the chained with windrowing treatment. Burning of debris on the debris-in-place treatment had little impact on water the first year, but significantly more water was measured on the burned treatment at the beginning of the second year. Soil water patterns previously established between the unburned debris-in-place and ungrazed windrowed treatment changed in August, 1974, and the two treatments were equivalent for the balance of the study. Prior to August of 1974 the unburned debris-in-place treatment had always had more soil water than the ungrazed windrowed treatment. These changes were attributed to possibly milder winters with decreased snowfall.
    • Impact of Burning Pinyon-Juniper Debris on Select Soil Properties

      Gifford, G. F. (Society for Range Management, 1981-09-01)
      Burning had the greatest impact on soils beneath burned debris piles. Electrical conductivity, phosphorus, potassium, percent nitrogen, and percent organic carbon increased significantly at all soil depths the first year after burning debris piles. No impact was evident on phosphorus, percent nitrogen, and percent organic carbon by the second year. Impacts on burned interspace areas were generally less pronounced and few impacts were measured the second year. Impact of burning on soil pH was minor.
    • Impact of Burrowing Activity of the Banner-tail Kangaroo Rat on Southern New Mexico Desert Rangelands

      Moroka, N.; Beck, R. D.; Pieper, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1982-11-01)
      The impact of the burrowing activity of the bannertail kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis) on southern New Mexico desert rangelands was investigated. The study was conducted on black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda), dropseed (Sporobolus spp.), and mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) grassland vegetation types. Mound density was highest in the black grama type, somewhat intermediate in the dropseed type, and lowest in the mesquite-grassland type. The surface area occupied by mounds averaged 2% over all vegetation types in the study area. Plant cover was generally greater off mounds than on mounds. Annual plant cover was greater on mounds that off mounds, suggesting that activities of bannertail kangaroo rats promote the presence of annuals.
    • Impact of Cattle Grazing on Three Perennial Grasses in South-Central Washington

      Rickard, W. H.; Uresk, D. W.; Cline, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1975-03-01)
      Grazing by yearling steers in a sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass community resulted in a reduction of growth and reproductive performance of the most important forage grass. Cusick's bluegrass was sparsely represented, but it was the most palatable and nutritious grass. It also showed the large reductions in growth of leaves and reproductive performance. Bluebunch wheatgrass and Thurber's needlegrass were not as adversely affected by grazing as Cusick's bluegrass.
    • Impact of clipping on root systems of 3 grasses species in Tunisia

      Chaieb, M.; Henchi, B.; Boukhris, M. (Society for Range Management, 1996-07-01)
      The study concerns the impact of herbivory on the root systems of 3 perennial grasses, buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), digitgrass (Digitaria commutata) and needlegrass (Stipa lagascae), growing in the arid zones of Tunisia. The study simulated animals feeding of the grasses by affecting cuttings at various times throughout the spring growing period. The following effects on the root systems of the grasses were observed. When there is continual overgazing (simulated by cutting all sprouts down the ground level along the spring), more than 65% of the roots off all 3 species are found in the salty upper 15 cm of soil. In case of medium average grazing (simulated by 2 to 3 cuttings), the root system again remains superficial for buffelgrass (C. ciliaris), with 58 to 67% of the roots located in the upper 15 cm of soil. Digitgrass (Digitaria commutata) and needlegrass (Stipa lagascae), however, develop deeper roots with 68 to 86% in the upper 30 cm of soil. When grazing is light (just one cutting), all 3 species perform all most exactly as if there had been no grazing compared to (a control plot) with 85% of the root system located in the upper 50 cm and about 15% at 50 to 75 cm of ground depth. On the basis of this experiments, it is suggested that grazing on these grasses should be allowed just once each spring, thereby allowing: 1- To take advantage of the aboveground contained in these grasses in spring. 2- Preservation of a deep root system which will thereby have a much better chance of getting through the water stress summer season.
    • Impact of cultivation legacies on rehabilitation seedings and native species re-establishment in great basin shrublands

      Morris, L. R.; Monaco, T. A.; Sheley, R. L. (Society for Range Management, 2014-05)
      Little is known about how cultivation legacies affect the outcome of rehabilitation seedings in the Great Basin, even though both frequently co-occur on the same lands. Similarly, there is little known about how these legacies affect native species re-establishment into these seedings. We examined these legacy effects by comparing areas historically cultivated and seeded to adjacent areas that were seeded but never cultivated, for density of seeded crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum [L.] Gaertn.) and native perennial grasses, vegetation cover, and ground cover. At half of the sites, historically cultivated areas had lower crested wheatgrass density (P<0.05), and only one site had a higher density of crested wheatgrass (P<0.05). Likewise, the native shrub Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. subsp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young) had lower cover (P<0.05) in historically cultivated areas at half the sites. Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda J. Presl.) density was consistently lower in historically cultivated areas relative to those seeded-only. At sites where black greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus [Hook.] Torr.) and bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides [Raf.] Swezey) were encountered, there was either no difference or a higher density and cover within historically cultivated areas (P<0.05). Likewise, cover of exotic forbs, especially halogeton (Halogeton glomeratus [M. Bieb.] C. A. Mey.), was either not different or higher in historically cultivated areas (P<0.05). Bare ground was greater in historically cultivated areas at three sites (P<0.05). These results suggest that cultivation legacies can affect seeding success and re-establishment of native vegetation, and therefore should not be overlooked when selecting research sites or planning land treatments that include seeding and or management to achieve greater native species diversity.