• Machinery for Seedbed Preparation and Seeding on Southwestern Ranges

      Anderson, D.; Swanson, A. R. (Society for Range Management, 1949-04-01)
    • Macro and trace mineral content of selected south Texas deer forages

      Barnes, Thomas G.; Varner, Larry W.; Blankenship, Lytle H.; Fillinger, Thomas J.; Heineman, Sharon G. (Society for Range Management, 1990-05-01)
      White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) derive the majority of their dietary mineral intake from range forages which may be deficient in one or more essential minerals. We have described the macro and trace mineral concentration of 18 shrub, 26 forb, 7 grass, and 1 cactus species, known to occur in south Texas deer diets, collected from the Chaparral Wildlife Management Area in 1974 and 1975. Within each forage class, there were no seasonal differences in calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), potassium (K), or magnesium (Mg) concentrations. Phosphorus (P) concentrations in browse were higher (P less than or equal to 0.05) during the season (0.20%) than during other seasons (0.14-0.16%). Forb P concentrations were greatest during the spring and winter periods (0.26 and 0.29%, respectively), and P levels in grasses (0.24-0.14%) decreased as the forage matured and reached senescence. Shrubs contained less P and K (P less than or equal to 0.01) than either grasses or forbs; whereas, grasses contained lower concentrations of Ca and Mg (P less than or equal to 0.01) than shrubs or forbs. Sodium concentrations did not differ among forage classes. Forbs contained greater (P less than or equal to 0.01) levels of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) than grasses or browse, and browse contained less iron (Fe) (P less than or equal to 0.01) than forbs or grasses. Manganese concentrations did not differ among forage classes. There were differences in mineral concentrations among species within forage class. Results suggest concentrations of all minerals except P met or exceeded minimum domestic animal requirements. Managers should provide a diversity of plant species and encourage practices that promote forb growth to provide optimum and nutritional benefits for deer.
    • Macronutrients in soil and bromegrass after long-term N fertilization

      Harapiak, J. T.; Malhi, S. S.; Gill, K. S.; Flore, N. (Society for Range Management, 2004-03-01)
      Information on the long-term impact of repeated annual fertilizer applications of different nitrogen (N) sources on soil and plants is needed to develop sustainable grassland production systems. The concentration of macronutrients in the 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-30, 30-60, 60-90 and 90-120 cm layers in a thin Black Chernozemic (Typic Boroll) soil and in bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) hay were compared after 15 annual applications of 168 and 336 kg N ha-1 as ammonium nitrate, urea, calcium nitrate, and ammonium sulphate, and a zero-N check. The concentration of NO3-N was increased by ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate at both N rates in most soil layers, by calcium nitrate at both N rates and by urea at 336 kg N ha-1 in the 15-60 cm soil. The accumulation of NO3-N increased with soil depth down to 60 cm, except for urea and ammonium sulphate at 168 kg N ha-1, and then it declined in deeper soil layers. The concentration of NH4-N was increased with fertilizer applications in some of the surface soil layers. The concentration of P was increased in the top 15 cm soil by ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate. The concentrations of Ca, Mg and K in the surface soil declined with most of the N fertilizer treatments while some treatments increased the Ca and Mg concentrations in the deeper soil layers. Increasing the N rate from 168 to 336 kg N ha-1 usually accentuated the above stated N effects on the concentration of macronutrients in the soil. The nitrate-based fertilizers caused more accumulation of NO3-N in some soil layers than the ammonium-based fertilizers. The relative increase in the concentration of NH4-N and P and the decline in the concentration of Ca, Mg and K in the soil by N addition was usually associated with the concomitant lowering of soil pH by N fertilization. In bromegrass hay, the total N concentration was increased by N fertilization but the concentration of other elements, except K, usually declined because of the dilution effect of the extra hay yield associated with N addition. Increasing the N rate from 168 to 336 kg N ha-1 further elevated the total N concentration but had no effect on the concentration of the other elements. Total N concentration in the hay tended to be greater with ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate than with the other 2 fertilizers. The concentration of total S was greater with ammonium sulphate than the other N fertilizers, and the concentration of P, Ca, Mg and K was not affected by the N fertilizer type. Fertilizer-induced high levels of NO3-N, NH4-N and P in soil may present potential for environmental pollution at these high N rates.
    • 'Magnar’ Basin Wildrye—Germination in Relation to Temperature

      Evans, R. A.; Young, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      Basin wildrye (Elymus cinereus) is potentially a very valuable forage species adapted to saline/alkaline range sites in the Great Basin. Poor seed fill and low germination have limited the usefulness of this species for range revegetation. The recently released cultivar 'Magnar' tends to overcome these obstacles and offers a higher potential for use of basin wildrye on rangelands. In this study we compared the germination of 'Magnar' and its sister selection accession P-15590 at 55 constant and alternating temperatures. The seeds of both selections are highly germinable with optimum regimes for temperatures centered around 20 degrees C. 'Magnar' seeds had 82% germination at moderate seedbed temperatures and 32, 28 and 37% germination at colder, warmer, or widely fluctuating seedbed temperatures, respectively. Germination of 'Magnar' seeds was most rapid at what became optimum temperature regimes for germination. Germination was increasingly delayed at extremely warm, cold, or widely fluctuating temperatures.
    • Magnetic Pin Brakes and a Base Mounting for Point Frames

      Conrad, P. W. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      Point frame pins receive a smooth, even brake tension from horseshoe magnets. A point frame mounted on a rigid base allows quick, even spacing of points.
    • Magnification and Shrub Stemmy Material Influences on Fecal Analysis Accuracy

      Holechek, J. L.; Valdez, R. (Society for Range Management, 1985-07-01)
      When 100X and 200X microscope magnification levels were used singly and interchangeably in microhistological analysis, magnification level had no effect (P<.05) on diet botanical composition of 60% grass and 60% forb diets containing 6 forage species fed to mule deer. However, large differences occurred between magnification levels for individual plant species in a 60% shrub diet containing the same forage species. The use of the 100X and 200X magnification levels interchangeably was slightly more accurate than exclusive use of either magnification level for the high grass and high shrub diets. For fecal analysis our study shows 100X and 200X microscope magnification levels can be used singly or interchangeably with little influence on accuracy. Use of the 100X magnification level to scan fields for potentially identifiable fragments followed by switching to 200X magnification for better resolution of fragments difficult to discern can slightly improve both speed and accuracy. Fourwing saltbush, which had a high proportion of stemmy material relative to leaves, was severely underestimated in the feces of all 3 diets. Our data indicate fecal analysis has limited value as an estimator of diets of herbivores, such as mule deer, that consume significant but variable quantities of stemmy material from shrubs.
    • Major Ecological Factors Controlling Plant Communities in Louisiana Marshes

      Shiflet, T. N. (Society for Range Management, 1963-09-01)
    • Making the Most of the Research Dollar

      Woolfolk, E. J. (Society for Range Management, 1952-01-01)
    • Management and Administration of Range Lands in Japan

      Dutton, W. L. (Society for Range Management, 1952-07-01)
    • Management and Utilization of Pineland Threeawn Range in South Florida

      Hughes, R. H. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      Brahman-native cattle grazed cutover forest range in south Florida at the rate of 15, 22, and 36 acres per cow per year for 14 years. As the study progressed, the weight of cows increased by 10 to 45 pounds for each decrease in rate of stocking, but all cows tended to calve in alternate years. Weight, quality, and market value of calves increased with each decrease in stocking rate. Income per acre, however, was $2.50, $2.00, and $1.25 for high, medium, and low rates. When sampled 4 months after burning, pineland threeawn, the principal forage species, was most productive on range stocked at the high rate and decreased with decreased stocking. By 19 months after burning, its production was least on range stocked at the high rate and most on that stocked at the low rate. Rate of stocking did not have a significant effect on production of total herbage during either sampling period. Utilization of pineland threeawn at 4 months was 70, 60, and 51% on range stocked at the high, medium, and low rates. At 7 and 19 months, utilization estimates did not reveal a significant response to rate of stocking. Surveys indicated that no change occurred in condition of the herbaceous vegetation on range stocked at the high rate but that pineland threeawn decreased and other grasses increased on range stocked at the low rate. Shrubby vegetation including saw-palmetto, the principal shrub, increased on range stocked at both high and low rates.
    • Management Approaches to Reduce Livestock Losses from Poisonous Plants on Rangeland

      Krueger, W. C.; Sharp, L. A. (Society for Range Management, 1978-09-01)
      Early approaches to management for the purpose of reducing or minimizing animal losses due to plant toxins were those of avoiding the areas with poisonous plants or eradicating these plants where feasible. As knowledge and information accumulated through scientific investigations and, often, through experience gained by livestock producers, other techniques could be followed. With a growing understanding of what plants are poisonous and the nature of the toxins, along with the conditions under which toxins are elaborated in the plant, management strategies have been improved.
    • Management as Related to Range Site in the Central Plains of Eastern Colorado

      Heerwagen, A. (Society for Range Management, 1958-01-01)
    • Management Aspects of Range Management

      Boykin, C. C.; Hildreth, R. J. (Society for Range Management, 1958-07-01)
    • Management Considerations to Enhance Use of Stock Ponds by Waterfowl Broods

      Rumble, M. A.; Flake, L. D. (Society for Range Management, 1983-11-01)
      Use of 36 livestock watering ponds by mallard (Anas playtrhynchos), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and total broods was tested against 32 habitat variables from 1977 and 1978. Pond size, shallow water areas with submersed vegetation, number of natural wetlands in a 1.6-km radius, and emersed vegetation composed of smartweed (Polygonum spp.) and spikerush (Eleocharis spp.) were associated with increased use of ponds by total broods. When analyzed by species, small grain on the surrounding section and height and density of shoreline vegetation were associated with increased use of ponds by mallard broods; percent of shoreline with trees and percent arrowhead (Sagittaria spp.)/water plantain (Alisma spp.) were associated with decreased use of ponds by mallard broods. Percent river bulrush (Scirpus fluviatilis)/burreed (Sparganium spp.) was associated with decreased use of ponds by blue-winged teal.
    • Management of Reseeded Range and its Place in Ranch Operation

      Passey, H. B.; Winn, D. S. (Society for Range Management, 1953-01-01)
    • Management of Reseeded Ranges

      Frandsen, W. R. (Society for Range Management, 1950-04-01)
    • Management of Sown And Natural Lovegrass

      Davidson, R. L. (Society for Range Management, 1965-07-01)
      In South Africa lovegrass yields liveweight cattle gains around 375 lb./acre, and it is easily managed by very heavy and continuous grazing during the growing period. Fertilizer boosts production, but is not essential on grazed pasture. For reclamation of rangeland the chloromelas type appears more aggressive than the coarser curvula and robusta types. Feeding value of lovegrass hay is at least equal to that of teff hay.
    • Management of Subterranean Clover in Pine Forested Range

      Johnson, M. K.; Davis, L. G.; Ribbeck, K. F.; Render, J. H.; Pearson, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1986-09-01)
      Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) is a cool-season forage legume that can be grown in the southeastern United States. Available varieties grow best on well-drained sites and tolerate acid soil conditions producing adequate forage without addition of lime if soil pH is 4.8 or higher. However, at least during the first few years, annual applications of at least 50 kg/ha of P2O5 and K2O are needed to maintain good production. In addition, summer growth of competing vegetation must be removed annually in late August or early September by heavy livetock grazing, use of herbicide, or close mowing. Unlike other clovers, subterranean will reseed even if heavily grazed during the flowering stage. Initial establishment under pine timber in the Southeast can be achieved by removal of hardwoods, prescribed burning, and broadcasting freshly inoculated seed on top of the soil in late October or early November when the soil surface is wet. Production of adequate forage before mid-winter remains a problem, especially if unregulated use by deer is heavy.
    • Management of switchgrass for forage and seed production

      Brejda, J. J.; Brown, J. R.; Wyman, G. W.; Schumacher, W. K. (Society for Range Management, 1994-01-01)
      Management of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) for both forage and seed would improve the diversity of options livestock producers have for their stands. Our objective was to evaluate how timing of the forage harvest and N applications can be used to manage switchgrass for both forage and seed from the same stand. Switchgrass forage was harvested in late May (prior to stem elongation) or mid-June (early boot stage) or left uncut and treated with either a single application of 88 kg N ha-1 in the spring or 4-weeks after green-up, or split applications of 44 kg N ha-1 in the spring and 44 kg N ha-1 following defoliation. The late May harvest gave lower yields of higher quality forage whereas the mid-june harvest produced greater yields of lower quality forage. Both the late May and mid-June harvest increased total tiller density compared to uncut plots, but a mid-June harvest decreased reproductive tiller density. Application of N following defoliation increased both total tiller density and reproductive tiller density but the response was small with a mid-June harvest. A mid-June harvest reduced both seed yield and 100-seed weights all 3 years. A late May harvest reduced same-year seed yields and 100-seed weights in 1991 only, when the harvest was taken after stem elongation had initiated. Application of N following defoliation stimulated plant regrowth, enhancing same-year seed yield. Harvesting switchgrass for forage in the spring prior to stem elongation followed by a post-harvest N application of 44 kg N ha-1 allows producers to manage switchgrass for both forage and seed.
    • Management of Wild Ungulate Habitat in the Western United States and Canada: A Review

      Scotter, G. W. (Society for Range Management, 1980-01-01)
      Conservation, use, and development of adequate habitat are probably the most important factors in wild ungulate management. As the various demands on the habitat heighten, pressure on this dwindling resource will increase. To maintain viable wild ungulate populations with high sustainable yields for the future enjoyment and use, habitat management will have to be intensified. This review discusses rehabilitation of wild ungulate habitat, modification of range and forest practices, better use of existing habitat, and manipulation of numbers and distributions of wild ungulates. The amounts and kinds of habitat needed to maintain wild ungulate populations require more long-term research and better application of existing knowledge. Determination of the requirements for a given species will demand a much better understanding of how animals select and use habitat.