• Packhorse grazing behavior and immediate impact on a timberline meadow

      Olson-Rutz, K. M.; Marlow, C. B.; Hansen, K.; Gagnon, L. C.; Rossi, R. J. (Society for Range Management, 1996-11-01)
      Recreational packhorse grazing is one of many uses of high elevation wildland meadows. We quantified the behavior of horses grazing on an upper timberline meadow in southwestern Montana and the immediate impact on the plant community. Horses were picketed on 15-m diameter circles for different durations (0, 4, 8, 18 hours), months (July, August, September), and frequencies (1 month only, all 3 months) over 3 summers. We recorded the amount of time horses spent grazing or resting, horse movement while grazing, plant height, and grazed plant frequency before and after grazing. Grazing was the dominant activity throughout the trial. After an initial 3-4 hour feeding bout, horses continued to graze intermittently. When not grazing, horses rested more than walked. Horses grazed a higher percent of grasses at first (4 hour picket duration) but the percent of fortes grazed increased with increased time on picket. After 18 hours of use, or after repeated use on the same picket circle through the summer, more than 50% of the grasses and 20% of the fortes bad been grazed and tallest plant material was less than 12 cm tall. Recreational packhorse management should include previous training (picket grazing experience), limiting time on specific circles to 8 hours or less, and using picket circles only once each season.
    • Paddock shape effects on grazing behavior and efficiency in sheep

      Sevi, A.; Muscio, A.; Dantone, D.; Iascone, V.; D'Emilio, F. (Society for Range Management, 2001-03-01)
      Two grazing trials were conducted during early winter (December 1996-January 1997) and spring (April-May 1997) to evaluate the effect of shape of pasture on forage use and behavior of grazing sheep (Ovis aries). Two treatments were tested, square and rectangular paddock, with 2 replicates for each treatment of 9 ewes each. Groups were homogeneous for age and weight. Paddock size furnished 10 m2 per sheep per day. Each paddock was divided into 8 equal plots to determine herbage intake and grazing efficiency along the boundary and in the middle of paddocks. The shape of paddock affected sheep grazing efficiency and herbage intake both in the winter and in the spring. Because of a greater amount of herbage destroyed within boundary plots, the ewes in rectangular paddocks grazed less time, had lower herbage intake and used forage less efficiently than ewes in square paddocks. These results suggest that the shape of pasture can affect the behavior and herbage intake of sheep grazing in small paddocks and indicate that square paddocks should be used for research studies on sheep grazing behavior.
    • Paddock Size and Stocking Density Affect Spatial Heterogeneity of Grazing

      Barnes, Matthew K.; Norton, Brien E.; Maeno, Motoko; Malechek, John C. (Society for Range Management, 2008-07-01)
      The claim that intensive rotational grazing (IRG) can sustain higher stocking rates can be partially explained by more even spatial distribution of grazing such that livestock consume forage from a greater proportion of a pasture. To test the hypothesis that utilization is more even at the higher stocking densities of smaller paddocks, mean absolute deviation (heterogeneity) of utilization estimates by plot was compared in paddocks of sizes and stocking densities representing increasing subdivision from two-paddock deferred rotation grazing (DRG) to 16-, 32-, and 64-paddock, two-cycle IRG. These 70-, 4-, 2-, and 1-ha paddocks were grazed for 7 wk, 4 d, 2 d, and 1 d, respectively, at 32 animal unit days (AUD) ha-1 during 2000 and 34 AUD ha-1 during 2001. Within IRG there was no response to the treatment gradient. After one cycle in the IRG paddocks, heterogeneity of use was generally lower than in the DRG paddocks, in both 2000 (3-11% [outlier 18%] vs. 14-19%) and 2001 (9-17% vs. 24-28%). After a second cycle in 2001, heterogeneity in half of the IRG paddocks (17-21%) was nearly as high as the early-grazed (24%), but not the late-grazed (28%), of the DRG paddocks. This lack of a stronger difference between systems was probably due to the fixed two-cycle IRG schedule and lack of plant growth during the nongrazing interval. Across both systems heterogeneity of utilization was strongly positively correlated with paddock size. Because utilization was not severely patchy in the largest treatment, the difference between systems would likely be greater in commercial-scale paddocks. Thus grazing distribution can be more even under intensive than extensive management, but this depends on how adaptively the system, particularly the aspects of timing and frequency, is managed. 
    • Paille Fine

      Williams, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1951-05-01)
    • Pairing season habitat selection by Montezuma quail in southeastern Arizona

      Bristow, Kirby D.; Ockenfels, Richard A. (Society for Range Management, 2004-09-01)
      Montezuma quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae Vigors) are closely associated with oak woodlands (Quercus spp.). Livestock grazing and cover availability are considered important factors affecting Montezuma quail distribution and density. While habitat conditions during pairing season (April-June) are thought to be important to Montezuma quail survival and reproduction, information on habitat selection during that time is limited. We investigated habitat selection by Montezuma quail in grazed and ungrazed areas within the Huachuca and Santa Rita mountain foothills in southeastern Arizona. We used pointing dogs to locate quail during the pairing seasons of 1998 and 1999, and measured habitat characteristics at 60 flush sites and 60 associated random plots (within 100 m of flush sites). We recorded information on landform, substrate, vegetation, and cover. Montezuma quail selected (P < 0.10) areas with higher grass canopy cover and more trees than randomly available. Short (≤ 50 cm tall) visual obstruction (cover), usually associated with bunch grass, was greater (P < 0.10) at use sites than at random plots. Land management practices that reduce grass and tree cover may affect Montezuma quail habitat quality and availability in southeastern Arizona. Based on habitat selection patterns of Montezuma quail, we recommend that oak woodland habitats should contain a minimum tree canopy of 26%, and 51-75% grass canopy cover at the 20-cm height to provide optimum cover availability.
    • Palatability of Douglasfir Foliage to Mule Deer in Relation to Chemical and Spatial Factors

      Tucker, R. E.; Majak, W.; Parkinson, P. D.; McLean, A. (Society for Range Management, 1976-11-01)
      Relative preference of Douglasfir needles from eight environmental conditions was determined in a feeding trial with penned tame deer of mixed age and sex. Relative preference (percent fresh weight ingested) varied between 0 and 74%, with significant differences between open (16%) and gully (9%) sites, between old (20%) and young (4%) trees, and between tops (16%) and bottoms (8%) of trees. Shading was found to be responsible for some difference in palatability, unshaded being preferred (22%) over shaded needles (4%). Relative preference was found to be correlated with moisture content (r = -0.57). Relative preference was also found to be correlated with chlorogenic acid (r = 0.41), a naturally occurring phenolic ester which was quantified by fluorometric scanning after being observed in a thin layer chromatography (TLC) screening experiment. Crude protein was not significantly correlated with preference.
    • Palatability of Herbage and Animal Preference

      Heady, H. F. (Society for Range Management, 1964-03-01)
    • Panicum Turgidum in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

      Park, B. C. (Society for Range Management, 1956-03-01)
    • Paraquat Curing of Seeded Dryland Pasture Species

      Kay, B. L. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      Paraquat applied at early anthesis of soft chess and wimmera ryegrass increased protein retention significantly in the following dry season. The rates of paraquat required varied with growth stage, from 1/8 to 1/4 lb./acre to cure grasses and 1/4 to 1/2 lb./acre to cure rose clover and subclover. Curing grasses increased the protein retention of dry grasses only to the maintenance level of livestock. Seeding a legume is necessary to increase the summer protein above maintenance. Spraying with paraquat increased the protein retention of legumes to twice that needed for maintenance./Un estudio anterior demostró que la aplicación de "paraquat" en zacates anuales durante la antesis, aumentó el contenido de proteína de 57 a 77%, el fósforo a 9.125% y se redujo la fibra cruda a un rango de 2 a 4%. El presente estudio se llevo a cabo en los pastizales de California, incluyendo el secado de dos zacates y dos leguminosas, anuales ambas, a los que se les aplicó "paraquat" durante la antesis, dando como resultado un aumento significativo del contenido de proteína para la siguiente época seca. El contenido nutricional de los zacates fue a nivel de mantenimiento mientras que en las leguminosas aumentó al doble, recomendándose la siembra combinada de zacates y leguminosas para obtener más proteína. La cantidad de "paraquat" por acre, varía de acuerdo a la época de crecimiento de 1/8 a 1/4 lb. para zacates y de 1/4 a 1/2 lb. para las leguminosas.
    • Paraquat Kills Geyer Larkspur

      Hyder, D. N. (Society for Range Management, 1972-11-01)
      Geyer larkspur, a poisonous, perennial forb, is highly susceptible to paraquat applied when flowering stems are slightly above ground. At 1/2 lb./acre, paraquat killed 90 to 95% of geyer larkspur, but was less effective when the treatment was preceded with 2,4-D at 2 lb./acre. Textile onion and most annual species were susceptible to paraquat, while all other perennial species were resistant. There was some reduction in herbage yields in the year of treatment. Although paraquat is not registered for controlling geyer larkspur, it could be considered for that purpose.
    • Paraquat—Effects of Growing Season Applications

      Sneva, F. A. (Society for Range Management, 1970-11-01)
      Paraquat applied at 0.8 lb./acre to the same stand of crested wheatgrass in three consecutive years did not significantly reduce the grass yield in the fourth year. Floral primordia mortality from paraquat application on May 20 ranged from 50 to 87 percent. Further research in application technique and timing in relation to chemical coverage and meteorlogical conditions are believed needed to assure a consistently high floral primordia mortality, a perequisite of successful two-crop management.
    • Partial and full dehydration impact on germination of 4 warm-season grasses

      Emmerich, W. E.; Hardegree, S. P. (Society for Range Management, 1996-07-01)
      Precipitation patterns in the arid southwest U.S. can be highly variable during the summer monsoon season. The ability of germinating seeds to withstand temporary periods of dehydration may determine their potential for successful regeneration under present and future climatic regimes. Germination with short-term hydration and dehydration sequences was compared to constant water potential germination for sideoats grama [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michaux) Torrey], buffelgrass [Cenchrus ciliaris L.], Lehmann lovegrass [Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees], and kleingrass [Panicum coloratum L.]. Seeds were imbibed at -0. MPa for 1 to 4 days, then either air dried or partially dehydrated d -3.0 MPa for 1 to 4 days before being returned to the initial imbibition solution for a total 14-day incubation-dehydration period. One day of imbibition at -0.2 MPa advanced germination to a stage that resulted in significant reductions (P < 0.05) in total germination from subsequent dehydration. The significant reductions still allowed > 48% of the viable seeds to germinate after dehydration. Longer imbibition times also exhibited significant reductions in germination for buffelgrass and kleingrass. For kleingrass air-dried dehydration compared to -3.0 MPa produced significant reductions (P < 0.05) in germination with 2-3 days imbibition. The length of the dehydration periods produced significant differences (P < 0.05) in total germination for Lehmann lovegrass and kleingrass. Partial dehydration significantly increased germination rate for sideoats grama, buffelgrass, and kleingrass, while air-dried dehydration significantly reduced buffelgrass germination rate. Any dehydration during germination was detrimental and > 1-day imbibition followed by dehydration seemed the critical time upon which a dramatic reduction in germination occurs.
    • Partial Budgeting for a Range Man

      Jeffries, Ned W.; Quenemoen, M. E.; Bucher, Robert F. (Society for Range Management, 1970-01-01)
      The information for making economic evaluations of range practices often is available but is seldom used. Partial budgeting is a brief method for analyzing the potential economic returns of alternative range practices. This procedure is suitable for field use by ranchers or range technicians.
    • Partial Defoliation Stimulates Growth of Arizona Cottontop

      Cable, Dwight R. (Society for Range Management, 1982-09-01)
      Responses of Arizona cottontop to partial defoliation were determined by removal of the terminal growing point in the latter half of July of basal culms that were in various stages of development at the time. If soil moisture was available cottontop responded well to grazing throughout its growing season. Removal of the growing point stimulated axillary shoot growth regardless of the stage of development.
    • Particle Size Changes in Rumens of Cattle Grazing Kansas Flint Hills Range

      Forwood, J. R.; Owensby, C. E.; Towne, G. (Society for Range Management, 1985-03-01)
      A ruminally fistulated Hereford steer and heifer grazing Kansas Flint Hills range were used with the objective of determining forage particle breakdown and distribution in different rumen sites over several hours post feeding during seasons of differing forage quality. During the first year, samples were taken after an overnight fast from 3 rumen sites and from feces early on the sample morning (AM sample). The cattle were fed and sampled again 12 hours later (PM sample). During year two, the cattle were sampled immediately as they came from the native pasture (PRE sample) in addition to the 2 other sample times. Samples were wet-sieved through a series of 5 screens to separate particle sizes. Material from each screen was dried, weighed and expressed as a percentage of the total of all screens. In the rumen, relative amounts of coarse particles generally decreased while amounts of smaller particles generally increased with advancing season. Forage maturity had similar effects on fecal particle sizes. Particles in the feces were more uniform in size than particles in the rumen.
    • Passage Rates, Rumen Fermentation, and Weight Change in Protein Supplemented Grazing Cattle

      Judkins, M. B.; Wallace, J. D.; Galyean, M. L.; Krysl, L. J.; Parker, E. E. (Society for Range Management, 1987-03-01)
      Protein supplementation is widely used to enhance the nutritional status of cattle on rangeland. The effects of protein supplementation on particulate and fluid passage rates, rumen fermentation, and weight gain were evaluated on cattle grazing dormant blue grama rangeland. Twelve rumen-cannulated steers were randomly allotted to 3 equal supplement groups (4/treatment): cottonseed cake (CSC), pelleted alfalfa (ALF), or no supplement (CON). Supplements were individually fed every other day at isonitrogenous levels (1.7 kg/hd CSC vs 3.6 kg/hd ALF). Particulate passage rate was measured during 2 collection periods. Concurrently, 102 yearling heifers were allotted to the same treatment groups for measurement of average daily gain. Cattle were fed these treatments from January through April 1983. In a second trial, 9 rumen-cannulated steers were randomly allotted to the same treatment groups as trial 1. An intraruminal dose of Co-EDTA was used to estimate fluid passage rates. Rumen ammonia, volatile fatty acids, and pH were also measured. In trial 1, average daily gain did not differ between ALF and CSC supplemented heifers; however, both ALF and CSC gained more than CON heifers. Passage rate estimates were not different among treatment groups. In trial 2, rumen fluid dilution rate, volume, and outflow rate were not different among treatments. Rumen ammonia-N was different at 11 h postsupplementation when the CSC steers had higher levels than steers in other treatment groups. Rumen pH was not influenced by supplementation. Molar proportions of acetate and propionate at 8 and 11 h after supplementation differed among treatment groups. Acetate was lowest in ALF, intermediate in CSC, and highest in CON supplemented steers. Propionate followed the reverse trend. Overall, protein supplementation improved livestock performance but the mechanism involved was not elicited. The current data suggest shifts in fermentation patterns and meeting dietary demands for gain are the factors involved in improving performance.
    • Past Performance and Future Potential of Black Grama for Southwestern Ranges

      Wright, N.; Streetman, L. J. (Society for Range Management, 1958-09-01)
    • Pasture characteristics affecting spatial distribution of utilization by cattle in mixed brush communities

      Owens, M. K.; Launchbaugh, K. L.; Holloway, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1991-03-01)
      Utilization patterns of cattle were related to pasture characteristics in a nonrandom and complex manner. Six mixed brush pastures on the Rio Grande Plains (244-356 ha) that were topographically flat and homogeneous in soil type and range sites were studied. Two experiments were conducted: the first experiment was conducted when green forage was abundant and the second under conditions of little vegetative regrowth. A total of 340 random points were characterized for amount, frequency, and greenness of both grasses and forbs, brush and shade tree density, and distance to nearest fence, road, and water. These are variables that can be altered with management practices. When green forage was abundant, factor analysis identified 5 orthogonal factors (green herbage availability, grass quantity, brush abundance, remoteness from roads, and water availability) which accounted for 70% of the communal variation. Six factors (brush abundance, grass quantity, green forb frequency, road location, fence proximity, and water availability) accounted for 70% of the communal variation when herbage was limited. Regression analyses predicting percent utilization from the orthogonal factors indicated that when green forage was abundant, utilization was related largely to green herbage availability, grass quantity, brush abundance, and remoteness (R2 = 0.54, RSD = 0.114). Remoteness, brush abundance, green forb frequency, and water availability were the factors associated with utilization when forage was limited (R2 = 0.45, RSD = 0.152). Green herbage availability was less important under conditions of limited forage. In mixed brush communities, the actual amount of grass, brush abundance, and remoteness were the major factors affecting utilization.
    • Pasture development during brush clearing with sheep and goats

      Dabaan, M. E.; Magadlea, A. M.; Bryan, W. B.; Arbogast, B. L.; Prigge, E. C.; Flores, G.; Skousen, J. G. (Society for Range Management, 1997-03-01)
      Knowing that sheep or goats can be used to control brush we quantified pasture changes during and after brush control. Over an 8-year period we measured the effects of control (no soil amendment), medium soil amendment (4,500 kg lime and 40 kg P ha-1), and high soil amendment (9,000 kg lime and 117 kg P ha-1) on soil fertility, pasture botanical composition and production of brushy pasture grazed by sheep or goats. Botanical composition was estimated from clipped samples. Soil pH was 4.8 in the control, 6.5 in the medium and 7.0 in the high amendment plots. Medium and high amendment increased legume dry matter in the pasture from 2 in the check to 8%. More animal grazing days were obtained on paddocks treated with lime and P. Grazing with sheep or goats and lime and application of P resulted, after 4 years, in pastures with a grass, legume, and other broadleaf plant composition similar to that of brush-free, natural pasture.
    • Pastures in the Italian Highlands

      White, W. T. (Society for Range Management, 1950-01-01)