• Problems in Artificial and Natural Revegetation of the Arid Shadscale Vegetation Zone of Utah and Nevada

      Bleak, A. T.; Frischknecht, N. C.; Plummer, A. P.; Eckert, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1965-03-01)
      Vast areas of the arid shadscale zone have been rehabilitated through management, but direct plantings of both native and introduced species usually have failed. Future success will likely be with native plants, including shrubs, adapted to the particular site.
    • Productivity of Tall Wheatgrass and Great Basin Wildrye under Irrigation on a Greasewood-Rabbitbrush Range Site

      Eckert, R. E.; Bruner, A. D.; Klomp, G. J. (Society for Range Management, 1973-07-01)
      Nonbeneficial phreatophytes, greasewood and rubber rabbitbrush, in the Humboldt River Basin annually waste approximately 103,000 acre feet of water that could be used beneficially if forage species were established. After brushbeating, tall wheatgrass and Great Basin wildrye were spring seeded and established by sprinkler irrigation. Irrigation was continued for 3 to 5 years to induce root penetration into a capillary fringe so that grasses would persist as beneficial phreatophytes. After irrigation ceased, productivity of 115 to 710 lb/acre indicated that roots had not reached the capillary fringe and that continued irrigation was necessary to maintain production. Soil physical characteristics restricted root growth, and productivity with limited water or without water was reduced by chemical properties of a saline-sodic soil. Highest production of tall wheatgrass (4000 to 6000 lb/acre) and Great Basin wildrye (2400 to 2600 lb/acre) was obtained 3 years after seeding with weekly irrigations of 1.25 inches.
    • Radioisotope Uptake Bb Selected Range Forage and Weed Species

      Eckert, R. E.; Blincoe, C. R. (Society for Range Management, 1970-09-01)
      Two wheatgrasses, one annual grass, and one annual forb were used to evaluate the uptake of fourteen gammaemitting isotopes from an important range soil. Uptake of copper, molybdenum, and selenium ranged from moderate to very good from all soil horizons. Uptake of iodine and chromium was poor from the surface and lower soil horizons, respectively, but moderate to very good from other horizons. Other desirable characteristics of these isotopes for root-tracing studies are half-lives of from 12.8 hours to 128 days, and energy differences which permit detection of each isotope in the presence of others.
    • Relation Between Ecological-Range Condition and Proportion of Soil-Surface Types

      Eckert, R. E.; Peterson, F. F.; Belton, J. T. (Society for Range Management, 1986-09-01)
      Different kinds of A-horizon soil-surface types occur on loessmantled xerollic Orthids and Argids in the Intermountain area. Four soil-surface types were identified on sites with potential vegetation of Wyoming big sagebrush [Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis Beetle] and Thurber needlegrass [Stipa thurberiana Piper]. These surfaces occupy different microtopographic positions and have different morphologies and chemical and physical properties. This study relates differences in the cover of these soil-surface types to ecological-range condition on sites of similar potential. Proportion of the surface type found under shrub or bunchgrass cover varies with range condition. More of the surface associated with shrub cover is found on low condition sites because of greater sagebrush cover. More of the surface associated with bunchgrass cover is found on high condition sites because of greater grass cover. Proportion of the surface types found in the interspace between shrubs also varies with range condition. High condition sites have a greater cover of the soil surface associated with bunchgrass cover and of the soil surface with cryptogam-stabilized microrelief. Conversely, low condition sites have essentially none of the soil surface associated with bunchgrass cover but a large amount of the soil surface with little microrelief. Results are interpreted in terms of watershed stability and natural revegetation potential.
    • Renovation of Sparse Stands of Crested Wheatgrass

      Eckert, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1979-09-01)
      Atrazine at 0.56 kg/ha and simazine at 1.12 kg/ha were evaluated for renovating sparse stands (0.9 to 1.5 m between plants) of resident crested wheatgrass. The study was repeated for 3 years for both weed control and seeding of crested wheatgrass. Both herbicides reduced yield and reproductive potential of downy brome and tumble mustard in the fallow year. Neither herbicide significantly damaged the vegetative or reproductive parts of resident crested wheatgrass plants. Atrazine residues in the soil in the fall of the fallow year and spring of the seeding year were below the toxic level for crested wheatgrass seedling. Simazine residues were above the toxic level. Both herbicides increased seed production of resident crested wheatgrass plants and neither adversely affected seed test weight and germination, or root and shoot growth of seedlings from seed of these plants. Weed competition during the seedling year was reduced by herbicide treatment. Density of crested wheatgrass seedlings and established plants was greatest on treated plots in 2 of 3 years. Based on low triazine residues and increased crude protein, resident crested wheatgrass on treated areas would be excellent forage during the fallow year. High levels of NO3- N, trans-aconitate, and K, but low Mg suggest that grass tetany could be a problem if lush herbage on treated areas was grazed during the spring period.
    • Response of Understory Species Following Herbicidal Control of Low Sagebrush

      Eckert, R. E.; Bruner, A. D.; Klomp, G. J. (Society for Range Management, 1972-07-01)
      Control of low sagebrush in northern Nevada increased productivity of understory grass species. On fair condition sites, climax dominant species such as Idaho fescue, bluebunch wheatgrass, and Thurber needlegrass gave a yield response but the response was not obtained for 2 years after treatment. However, the rapid response of Sandberg bluegrass resulted in a significant total perennial grass response the year after treatment. On poor condition sites, squirreltail gave a smaller response and the response was not obtained for 2 to 4 years after treatment. Dense stands of annual species gave a large yield response the year after treatment and suppressed the response of squirreltail. Scattered stands of annuals did not respond until 4 years after treatment. Soil moisture relations explained differences in total yield. However, differences in early spring growth were attributed to soil nitrogen.
    • Temperature Profiles for Germination of Bluebunch and Beardless Wheatgrasses

      Young, J. A.; Eckert, R. E.; Evans, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 1981-03-01)
      The germination of seeds of beardless and bluebunch wheatgrasses was investigated over a wide range of constant and alternating temperatures. Seeds of 'Whitmar' beardless wheatgrass, a collection from Nevada, and numbered accessions of bluebunch wheatgrass were used. Seeds of 'Whitmar' beardless wheatgrass germinated at 87% of the 55 temperature regimes tested with a mean germination of 52%. Germination at 42% of the temperature regimes was optimum [defined as not significantly (P = 0.01) different from maximum], with a mean of 84%. Freshly harvested seeds of the Nevada source of bluebunch wheatgrass germinated at 78% of the temperature regimes with a mean of 40%. Comparable figures for fully ripened seeds 5 months after harvest were 84% with a mean of 62%. The germination response of 1-month old bluebunch wheatgrass seeds indicated that germination could occur at the high seedbed temperatures encountered in a late summer moisture event. The temperature-germination profiles for the numbered accessions of bluebunch wheatgrass had the same general pattern as the Nevada source. Generally, seeds were highly germinable at a number of temperatures. Optimum germination of all the sources of seed occurred at 37 temperature regimes at least once and always occurred at 15 temperatures ranging from an alternating 5/15 degrees C through a constant 25 degrees C. This range of germination temperatures is much wider than that exhibited by squirreltail and Sandberg bluebunch. The bluebunch wheatgrass material has the inherent potential to germinate and to be highly germinable at a wide range of temperatures.
    • The Nutrient Status of Four Mountain Rangeland Soils in Western Nevada and Eastern California

      Eckert, R. E.; Bleak, A. T. (Society for Range Management, 1960-07-01)
    • Wheatgrass Establishment with Tillage and Herbicides in a Mesic Medusahead Community

      Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A.; Eckert, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1969-05-01)
      Intermediate wheatgrass seedlings were successfully established in a medusahead community in 1965, 1966, and 1967 with mechanical or chemical-fallow treatments. Summer fallowing by disk harrowing was the most successful treatment. The most productive wheatgrass stands suppressed but did not eliminate medusahead.