• Foraging Ecology of Bison in Aspen Boreal Habitats

      Hudson, R. J.; Frank, S. (Society for Range Management, 1987-01-01)
      Studies on several wild and domestic ungulates suggest that large grazers attain higher maximum forage intake rates but require relatively higher forage biomass to do so. In this study, forage intake rates and feeding times of North America's largest wild grazer, the bison (Bison bison), were related to forage biomass during summer and autumn in aspen boreal forest habitats. Irrespective of season, maximum feeding rates of 68 g/min declined by 50% as forage biomass was reduced to 780 kg/ha. This reduction was due primarily to smaller bite sizes. However, bison compensated by increasing cropping bite rates to more than 60 bites/min on heavily grazed swards. Grazing times increased from 9 h/day in summer to 11 h/day in autumn, offsetting slight decreases in average foraging efficiency. During summer, a greater proportion of grazing occurred at night. Upland meadows were preferred habitats for grazing despite relatively low pasture biomass and potential dry matter intake rates.
    • Forb and shrub effects on ruminal fermentation in cattle

      Arthun, D.; Holechek, J. L.; Wallace, J. D.; Gaylean, M. L.; Cardenas, M. (Society for Range Management, 1992-11-01)
      One experiment involving steers fed low-quality grass diets singly and mixed with native forbs, native shrubs, or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was conducted to compare the influence of these diets on ruminal fermentation. Native forbs used in our study were a 50:50 mixture of scarlet globemallow (Sphaeralcea coccinea Nutt.) and leatherleaf croton (Croton pottsii Lam.); native shrubs were a 50:50 mixture of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens [Pursh.]) and mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus Raf.). Neither passage rate of indigestible neutral detergent fiber nor fluid passage rate differed (P > .10) among the 4 diets. Ruminal pH did not differ (P > .10) among diets, and ruminal ammonia concentrations differed (P < .10) inconsistently among diets, depending on time after feeding. Likewise, total ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations did not differ (P > .10) among diets. Except for butyrate [less (P < .05) with alfalfa], proportions of individual VFA showed little difference among diets. Based on these data, adding forbs or shrubs with low-quality forage diets appears to elicit few changes in ruminal digests kinetics and fermentation patterns compared to including alfalfa hay.
    • Forb and shrub influences on steer nitrogen retention

      Arthun, D.; Holechek, J. L.; Wallace, J. D.; Galyean, M. L.; Cardenas, M.; Rafique, S. (Society for Range Management, 1992-03-01)
      Two experiments with steers were conducted to evaluate the influence of native forbs and shrubs on nitrogen utilization by cattle. Diets in Exp. 1 were blue grams (Bouteloua gracilis [H.B.K.]) (BG), BG plus 23% alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay (ALF), BG plus 42% forbs and BG plus 41% shrubs. Diets in Exp. 2 included barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) straw, and straw plus either 42% ALF, 63% forbs, or 62% shrubs. Forbs used in our study were scarlet globemallow (Sphaeralcea coccinea Nutt.) and leatherleaf croton (Croton pottsii Lam.). Shrubs included fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens [Pursh.]) and mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus Raf.) Forb and shrub mixtures were 50:50 of each species. Blue grams and straw basal diets contained 7.6 and 3.5% CP, respectively. Diets containing ALF, forbs, and shrubs were isonitrogenous (10.5% CP) in both experiments. In Exp. 1, no differences (P>.10) were observed among treatments for N retention (g/d). In Exp. 2, N retention was least (P<0.5) for the straw diet, greatest for the ALF and shrub diets (P>0.05),and intermediate for the forb diet. Inclusion of forbs or shrubs with low-quality forage diets was, in most instances, comparable to inclusion of ALF. Our results indicate that maintaining palatable forbs and shrubs on rangelands should reduce the need to supply cattle with protein during periods when grasses are dormant.
    • Forecasting Forage Yield from Precipitation in California's Annual Rangeland

      Duncan, D. A.; Woodmansee, R. G. (Society for Range Management, 1975-07-01)
      Total forage yield from 1936 to 1970 and yields of grasses, legumes, and forbs other than legumes for 24 years on the same area of annual rangeland on the San Joaquin Experimental Range in central California were correlated with total annual precipitation and precipitation during the most important month, the most important 2 months, and most important 3 months. Total peak forage yield and yield of components of the vegetation were only poorly correlated with any 1 month's, combination of months', or annual rainfall. Early-season precipitation appear to be of little value for predicting forage yield, yield of grasses, legumes, or forbs other than legumes under the conditions studied.
    • Forest Grazing in the South

      Grelen, H. E. (Society for Range Management, 1978-07-01)
      Potential forage production is higher in the South than in other range areas of the United States, although actual production is declining rapidly due to accelerated pine regeneration. The cutover longleaf (Pinus palustris Mill.) pinelands that produced an abundance of forage have been largely regenerated with fast-growing slash (P. elliottii Engelm.) and loblolly pines (P. taeda L.) and these young plantations reduce herbage production drastically within a few years. Few large industrial timber companies encourage grazing, although some allow it, often without fee, as a public relations gesture. Cattlemen who depend on forest range alone seldom own the land their cattle graze, often lease the land under an annual permit, and have little incentive to improve the range. Attempts to promote cooperation among livestock producers through grazing associations have generally been unsuccessful. Public land managers are under pressure from wildlife and environmental organizations to prohibit or curtail grazing. Operational-scale multiple-use research is needed to evaluate compatibility of cattle, wildlife, and other resources.
    • Forest Grazing: Past and Future

      Kosco, B. H.; Bartolome, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1981-05-01)
      Livestock have grazed western forests since the 1850's. Policy changes with the inception of government regulation and the end of the free open range brought profound changes in the livestock industry. With increasing demands for timber, recreation and wildlife, grazing began to decline in importance as a use of National Forest ranges. Yet, livestock grazing on forest range is critical to yearlong operations of the ranchers who use them. With proper management livestock can be increasingly important not only as meat and fiber producers, but as part of all land management on national ranges.
    • Forest Service and livestock permitee behavior in relation to wildness designation

      McClaran, M. P. (Society for Range Management, 1991-09-01)
      Even though the Wilderness Act of 1964 provided for continuation of livestock grazing after wilderness designation, there has been continued debate about the Forest Service's implementation of this provision and the impact on livestock grazing permittees. The effect of wilderness designation, during the first 20 years after designation, on Forest Service and permittee behavior on Coronado and Tonto National Forests in Arizona was evaluated by (1) comparing changes in permitted AUMs, changes in permit ownership, and proportion of nonuse of permitted AUMs between paired wilderness and nonwilderness grazing allotments, and (2) assessing the importance of the proportion of an allotment in wilderness on these same behavioral parameters. In general, permitted AUMs increased on wilderness allotments but remained the same for nonwilderness allotments. However, there was no difference on Coronado National Forest when forests were analyzed separately. Compared to nonwilderness allotments, wilderness allotments had greater permittee turnover on Coronado National Forest, but there were no differences between wilderness and nonwilderness allotments when forests were combined. The higher the proportion of an allotment in wilderness, the faster the turnover of permit owners, but wilderness proportion did not affect nonuse or changes in permitted AUMs.
    • Forest Service Grazing Permittee Perceptions of the Endangered Species Act in Southeastern Arizona

      Conley, Julie Lorton; Fernandez-Gimenez, Maria E.; Ruyle, George B.; Brunson, Mark (Society for Range Management, 2007-03-01)
      This study reports the results of a survey of Coronado National Forest grazing permittees about their attitudes regarding the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and the management of threatened and endangered (TE) species on grazing allotments in southeastern Arizona. A majority of respondents perceived negative impacts from ESA implementation. However, the degree of impact remained independent of the number of listed species on allotments and of the potential for restrictions on those allotments. Perceptions of negative impact and attitudes toward TE species policies were more related to attitudes toward federal regulation. Permittees broadly supported the idea of species conservation and expressed willingness to work with federal agencies but did not perceive the federal agencies as having the same responsiveness to their concerns. A more proactive agency strategy with science-based, focused recovery objectives coupled with economic incentives could improve support for species recovery efforts. 
    • Forest-Range Inventory: A Multiple-Use Survey

      Pearson, H. A.; Sternitzke, H. S. (Society for Range Management, 1974-09-01)
      Successful attempts to incorporate understory herbage and browse measurements into the nationwide Forest Survey are described and evaluated. These attempts were initiated to inventory multiple forest resources-timber, range, wildlife habitat-on a regular basis requiring minimum time and environmental disturbance.
    • Forest-Range Resources of Southwest Louisiana

      Sternitzke, H. S.; Pearson, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1975-07-01)
      Findings of the first forest-range inventory of southwest Louisiana conducted as part of the nationwide Forest Survey are described and evaluated. Measurements indicate that the grazing potential of the region's forest ranges is not being fully used. Little competition with wildlife populations and timber stands is indicated at existing levels of understory utilization by livestock.
    • Fort Baker Ranges Returned to Champagne Grasses

      Cooper, D. W. (Society for Range Management, 1960-07-01)
    • Fourwing Saltbush (Atriplex canescens) Propagation Techniques

      Wiesner, L. E.; Johnson, W. J. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
      Fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt] is cross-pollinated and therefore has a wide genetic base. This characteristic makes it impossible to establish genetically similar research plots from seed. Consequently plots must be established from cuttings taken from desirable parent plants. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for rapid propagation of fourwing saltbush and to outline procedures for handling the propagules after rooting. Highest percentage of rooted cuttings was obtained when green succulent cuttings were soaked for 24 hours in a complete nutrient solution before being dipped in a woody species rooting compound and placed in a mist-bench for 5 weeks. Rooted cuttings should be transplanted into flats containing 75% sand and 25% peat and watered every 4-5 days to obtain maximum growth.
    • Fourwing Saltbush Revegetation Trials in Southern Arizona

      Cable, D. R. (Society for Range Management, 1972-03-01)
      Fourwing saltbush was seeded and transplanted into native stands of (a) almost pure creosotebush and (b) velvet mesquite with burroweed understory, in southern Arizona. Burroweed and creosotebush were controlled by picloram spray and by grubbing. The mesquite was killed on half of the burroweed plots. Establishment and survival of saltbush was much higher on the creosotebush site than on the mesquite site, presumably because the calcareous (pH 8.0+) soil at the creosotebush site was more suitable than the non-calcareous neutral soil at the mesquite site. Transplants survived much better on grubbed plots than on sprayed or check plots, and seedlings on sprayed or grubbed plots than on check plots. However, after 3 years the stands were reduced to 650 and 46 plants per acre on the creosotebush and mesquite-burroweed area respectively.
    • Fourwing Saltbush Seed Yield and Quality: Irrigation, Fertilization, and Ecotype Effects

      Petersen, Joseph L.; Ueckert, Darrell N. (Society for Range Management, 2005-05-01)
      Clones of superior pollen- and seed-producing plants of 4 fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens [Pursh] Nutt.) ecotypes were planted in a seed orchard in west-central Texas to determine if seed production and quality could be enhanced by irrigation and fertilization. Subplots of nitrogen (N) at 112 kg ha-1, phosphorous (P) at 112 kg ha-1, N + P at 112 + 112 kg ha-1, or no fertilizer were superimposed on irrigated or dryland main-plots. Neither irrigation nor fertilization affected estimated seed yields or utricle fill during the third growing season after planting. Fertilization did not affect seed germination of any of the saltbush ecotypes on irrigated plots or that of the 2 more xeric ecotypes (Grandfalls and Valentine) on dryland plots. Fertilizer N on dryland plots increased germination of the San Angelo ecotype, and N + P increased germination of the Texon ecotype. Estimated gross value of the first seed crop was about 4648~ha-1 even though the superior reproductive traits of parental pistillate plants were poorly expressed by the clones. Fertilization did not affect estimated seed yields in irrigated plots, but N and N + P increased seed yields in dryland plots in the fourth growing season. Fertilization effects on seed weights varied among irrigated and dryland plots and among saltbush ecotypes. Mortality of the shrubs during the period extending from 1988 to 1990 was not affected by irrigation or fertilization but increased among ecotypes as the xeric nature of their sites of origin increased and as the distance of their sites of origin from the seed orchard increased. Evidence from this study did not strongly support cloning, irrigation, or fertilization for improving seed harvests of fourwing saltbush in west-central Texas.  
    • Foxboro Allotment

      Perry, James L. (Society for Range Management, 1966-05-01)
    • Fragmentation Effects on Soil Aggregate Stability in a Patchy Arid Grassland

      Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Ward, Judy P.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Tugel, Arlene J. (Society for Range Management, 2006-07-01)
      Soil aggregate stability (AS) has been promoted as a primary indicator of soil-surface function and a key metric in state-and-transition models. There are few studies, however, that relate indices of AS to the process of grassland degradation. In a Chihuahuan Desert rangeland, we measured variation in AS across vegetated-bare patch boundaries within six plot types reflecting a hypothesized fragmentation/transition sequence. We also examined wetting front depth and pH along this sequence. We found that AS exhibited consistent and interpretable variation across the patch boundaries of the different plot types. Average AS was highest in grass patches adjacent to small to medium-sized (0.5-1.5 m) bare patches and was low in grass patches adjacent to large (> 3 m) bare patches. AS of bare ground was also lowest when bare patches in continuous grassland were large and when bare ground formed an interconnected matrix. Wetting depth after a large storm decreased and pH increased along the fragmentation sequence. The results suggest that AS has interpretable relationships with grassland fragmentation and transitions among states. Careful attention to patchiness within states and stratification, however, is important and simple classifications of strata, such as ‘‘bare interspace’’ and ‘‘plant,’’ may not be sufficient to document variation in soil function.  
    • Fragmentation Status of Tall-Tussock Grassland Relicts in the Flooding Pampa, Argentina

      Herrera, Lorena P.; Laterra, Pedo; Maceira, Néstor O.; Zelaya, Karina D.; Martínez, Gustavo A. (Society for Range Management, 2009-01-01)
      Since European settlement vast areas of the tall tussock grassland dominated by Paspalum quadrifarium Lam. and Paspalum exaltatum J. Presl (‘‘pajonal’’ grassland) in the Flooding Pampa of Argentina were converted to croplands and short grasslands. With the use of Landsat satellite images, we analyzed current (1998-2000) cover and spatial integrity of the pajonal community, and compared it with a vegetation map made 50 yr ago (1956-1960). Six categories of land cover were adopted: crops, sown pastures, short grassland, pajonal, wetlands, and anthropogenic areas. With the use of metrics from FRAGSTATS, landscape pattern and composition were analyzed at two scales: 1) regionally, by comparing two edaphic domain areas with relatively low and high restrictions for agriculture (low-restriction domain [LRD] and high-restriction domain [HRD], respectively); and 2) at landscape scale, by comparing ten 22 500-ha randomly selected areas (landscapes) within each edaphic domain. Current relative cover of pajonal grassland (2 173 600 ha) was 32.5%, and similar values were obtained within each edaphic domain. However, the number of pajonal patches was higher and their mean patch size, the Euclidean nearest-neighbor distance among patches (degree of isolation), and their border regularity were lower in the LRD than in the HRD. At landscape scale, the mean size of pajonal patches diminished with the percent of agricultural land within both edaphic domains. The isolation among pajonal patches increased with percent of agricultural land in the HRD, whereas no relationship between the isolation of pajonal patches and percent of agriculture was found in the LRD. As suggested by comparison with past vegetation, current pajonal status mostly results from replacement of pajonal grassland by short grassland types, cultivated pastures, and annual crops (52% and 44% of previously occupied areas in LRD and HRD, respectively), but some expansion of pajonal grassland was also observed (10% and 4% of previously unoccupied areas in LRD and HRD, respectively). 
    • Framework for Comparing Ecosystem Impacts of Developing Unconventional Energy Resources on Western US Rangelands

      Kreuter, Urs P.; Fox, William E.; Tanaka, John A.; Maczko, Kristie A.; McCollum, Daniel W.; Mitchell, John E.; Duke, Clifford S.; Hidinger, Lori (Society for Range Management, 2012-09-01)
      More diverse sources of energy are needed for countries to progress toward energy independence and to meet future food production needs. The US Task Force on Strategic Unconventional Fuels concluded that to achieve this objective it is essential to develop a domestic unconventional fuels industry. Rangelands, which cover 50% to 70% of the earth’s terrestrial surface and dominate much of the western half of the United States, represent a major source of alternative energy resources. A framework to systematically identify biophysical-socioeconomic links that influence the delivery of ecosystem services affected by alternative uses of rangelands has been lacking. The Integrated Social, Economic, and Ecological Conceptual framework was developed by the Sustainable Rangeland Roundtable to address this deficiency. We apply this framework to demonstrate how the effect on ecosystem services of exploiting rangeland-based biofuel, natural gas, and wind energy resources can be systematically compared. We also demonstrate the use of this framework for selecting suitable indicators to monitor changes in the biophysical-socioeconomic links affected by the development of these unconventional energy sources. This type of approach can potentially enhance coordination between federal, state, and local agencies that are attempting to set polices and regulations for the sustainable development of unconventional energy resources on rangelands./Más diversidad de fuentes de energía es necesaria para que los países progresen hacia la independencia energética y cumplan con sus necesidades futuras de alimentaci ́on. El grupo estratégico para combustibles no-convencionales de los EUA concluyó que para lograr el éste objetivo, es esencial desarrollar una industria de combustibles no-convencionales interna. Los pastizales, quienes cubren entre el 50 al 70% de la superficie del planeta y dominan más de la mitad del oeste de EUA representan la mayor fuente de recursos de energía alternativa. Hace falta desarrollar un marco conceptual que sistemáticamente identifique los enlaces biofísicos-socioeconómicos que influyen en la entrega de los servicios de los ecosistemas que son afectados por los usos alternativos de los pastizales. El Marco Conceptual de Integración Social, Económica y Ecológica desarrollado por la Mesa de Sostenibilidad de los Pastizales está dirigido para atender esta deficiencia. Aplicamos este marco conceptual para demostrarcomo el efecto en los servicios del ecosistema por la explotación de biocombustibles basados en los pastizales, gas natural y fuentes de energía e ́olica pueden ser comparados sistemáticamente. También demostramos que el uso de este marco conceptual para seleccionar indicadores adecuados para monitorear cambios en los enlaces biofísicos-socioeconómicos afectados por el desarrollo de estas fuentes de energía no convencionales. Este tipo de punto de vista puede potencialmente enriquecer lacoordinación entre las agencias federales, estatales y locales que están intentando establecer políticas y regulaciones en el desarrollo sostenible de fuentes de energía no convencional en pastizales.
    • Free-choice grazing of native range and cool-season grasses

      Karn, J. F.; Ries, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 2002-09-01)
      A grazing system which allows cattle to select a season-long diet more nearly meeting their nutrient requirements should facilitate optimal weight gains. A study was conducted near Mandan, N. D. comparing season-long weight gains of yearling steers free-choice grazing on composite pastures containing equal sized plots of 'Nordan' crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum) (Fisch. Ex. Link) Schult.), 'Rodan' western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) Löve), 'Lincoln' smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.), and native range, to pastures containing the individual pasture types alone. The study was initiated in mid-May and terminated in early October each year from 1995-1997. Pastures were grazed at a stocking rate of 1.9 ha per steer for 147 days or 1.7 AUM ha(-1). Steer behavior on composite pastures was recorded every 10 min. from dawn to dusk 2 days per week each summer. In 1997, forage samples were clipped for chemical analysis at 4-week intervals from all pasture types either within composite pastures or as individual pasture types. Only in 1996 were daily gains of steers on the free-choice treatment different (P < 0.10) from all other treatments. Over the 3-year study, daily gains for steers on the free-choice treatment (1.11 kg) were statistically equal to steers on smooth bromegrass (1.04 kg) and western wheatgrass (1.00 kg) and were significantly greater than daily gains on native range (0.98 kg) and crested wheatgrass (0.97 kg). Steers tended to spend a greater percentage of observation time grazing smooth bromegrass than the other 3 pasture types, especially early in the grazing season. The period of maximum grazing preference for the other pasture types was late in the season in 1995 and 1996 for crested wheatgrass, in mid-season in 1996 for native range, and late in the season in 1997 for western wheatgrass. Chemical analysis of forage samples collected in 1997 show that smooth bromegrass had the highest crude protein and in vitro dry matter digestibility, and the lowest neutral detergent fiber at all 3 summer grazing periods. Forage quality data and the preference of steers for smooth bromegrass help to explain why steers on this treatment had excellent daily gains, especially during early and mid-season.
    • Freeze Branding Cattle for Individual Identification

      Pond, F. W.; Pearson, H. A. (Society for Range Management, 1971-11-01)
      Freeze branding appears to be a good method for marking cattle for individual identification. In three trials, over 80% of the branded animals developed readable brands, but only 60% could be identified on Super-8 film exposed from a distance of 5 ft overhead.