• Freeze vs. Fire Branding as Methods of Beef Cattle Identification

      Thrift, F. A.; Absher, C. W. (Society for Range Management, 1971-01-01)
      Over a three-week period in April 1969, 200 Hereford females, ranging in age from 15 months to 10 years, were branded with their individual herd numbers on each side of the rib cage just behind the shoulder with either freeze or fire brands. The brands were evaluated for legibility on January 14, 1970, using the following scoring system: 1 = no visible numbers; 2 = visible numbers, but illegible; 3 = incomplete numbers, but able to understand after study; 4 = easily recognizable numbers, but with breaks or unbranded areas; 5 = instantly recognizable, complete unbroken numbers. Variation among brand scores was partitioned into age of cow, side of cow, type of brand and the two-way interactions between these three effects. Type of brand was the only significant source of variation influencing the brand scores, and the fire brands (4.35) were more legible than the freeze brands (3.75). However, it should be stressed that neither type of brand was legible at the time of evaluation without first clipping the brands.
    • Freezing Stress Influences Emergence of Germinated Perennial Grass Seeds

      Boyd, Chad S.; Lemos, Jarrod A. (Society for Range Management, 2013-03-01)
      In sagebrush rangelands perennial bunchgrasses are typically seeded in fall and a high proportion of planted seeds germinate prior to winter onset but fail to emerge in spring. Our objectives were to evaluate freezing tolerance of germinated but nonemergent bluebunch wheatgrass seeds under laboratory conditions. We used data from a 2-yr pilot study to determine overwinter freezing temperature and duration for soils in southeastern Oregon. We then conducted two experiments to assess freezing tolerance. In experiment 1, bluebunch wheatgrass seeds were planted in control pots and compared to seeds planted at early, mid, or late postgermination stages. Pots from each treatment were placed in a grow room maintained at 12 h 40 min light/11 h 20 min dark photoperiod, with a constant temperature of 22 degreesC for 30 d either immediately or following a 30-d freeze. In experiment 2, germinated bluebunch wheatgrass seeds were planted in pots that were left nonfrozen or were frozen for a specified duration prior to a 30-d period in the grow room. Emergence density and tillers . seedling-1 were quantified for both experiments. The number of days per year for freezing soil conditions in the pilot study ranged yearly from 25 to 51; maximum duration of continuous freezing was 16.5 and 11.2 d. Freezing reduced or eliminated seedling emergence at all postgermination stages (P<0.001) and tiller density was reduced by at least 50% (P<0.001). Maximum reduction in seedling density (P<0.001) was realized within 4 d of initiation of freezing and tillers  seedling-1 were reduced 30-70% with .6 d of freezing (P=0.001). Our data indicate that freezing-associated mortality of germinated but nonemergent bluebunch wheatgrass seedlings can be extremely high and suggest that management practices to reduce prewinter germination of seeds could improve subsequent emergence and seeding success.
    • Frequency and Extent of Defoliation of Herbaceous Plants by Sheep in a Foothill Range Community in Northern Utah

      Hodgkinson, K. C. (Society for Range Management, 1980-05-01)
      Defoliation of individual plants by sheep grazing a shrub-steppe community in the foothill ranges of northern Utah was examined during a spring grazing. Five sites (each approx. 120 m2) within the paddock were monitored, and populations of one or more species (Aster chilensis, Wyethia amplexicaulis, Lupinus sericeus, Poa secunda, and Koeleria cristata) within these sites were examined daily for defoliation over a 25-day period. Grazing started at different times at each site, but once grazing started each site was visited daily. The proportion of the population of A. chilensis shoots that were grazed each day varied but was highest (about 30%) several days after grazing commenced at each site. Extent of defoliation of highly palatable species did not differ over time but did increase for W. amplexicaulis (forb of low palatability) at the end of the grazing period.
    • Frequency grid—a simple tool for measuring grassland establishment

      Vogel, K. P.; Masters, R. A. (Society for Range Management, 2001-11-01)
      Simple, reliable tools are needed by land managers to quantify establishment success when seeding or re-seeding pastures or rangeland. A frequency grid was designed to measure seedling or plant establishment success for a single species, mixtures of species, or single species of a mixture. The frequency grid is a metal frame containing 25 squares (5 x 5) or cells and can be made from concrete reinforcing sheets that have 15 x 15 cm squares. When used, the frequency grid is either randomly or systematically placed within a seeded area. The number of cells containing 1 or more seeded plants are counted. The grid is then flipped, end-over-end, and the counts are repeated. The process is repeated until a total of 100 cells have been counted per sampling location within a seeded area. Counts can be directly converted into frequency of occurrence or stand percentages by dividing the number of cells that contain a seeded plant by 100. The process can be repeated at several locations within a seeded area to characterize establishment success. Multiplying frequency of occurrence percentages by 0.4 provides a conservative estimate of plant density (plants m(-2)). A single measurement of 100 frequency grid cells can be taken in less than 5 minutes. The frequency grid is inexpensive to make, requires minimal training, permits rapid measurements, and provides a meaningful estimate of plant density. The frequency grid has been used to document herbicide efficacy and seeding rates for use in grassland establishment in the central Great Plains and should be easily adaptable for use in other geographic regions.
    • Frequency of Endomycorrhizal Infection in Grazed and Ungrazed Blue Grama Plants

      Reece, P. E.; Bonham, C. D. (Society for Range Management, 1978-03-01)
      The frequency of mycorrhizal infection in blue grama roots was determined from two criteria: (1) occurrence of any mycorrhizal element, and (2) occurrence of fungal vesicles. No significant differences were observed with respect to grazing using the first frequency criteria. However, roots of previously grazed plants had significantly higher frequencies of vesicles than those collected from exclosures. Frequency of vesicles was found to increase linearly with increase in rooting depth of blue grama. Significant grazing effects on the frequency of vesicles were observed primarily in the first sample depth, 0-10 cm.
    • Frequency Sampling and Type II Errors

      Whysong, G. L.; Brady, W. W. (Society for Range Management, 1987-09-01)
      Probabilities of detecting frequency differences based on data obtained by random sampling were determined by computer simulation. Artificial, monotypic populations of known frequency were generated and sampled. Sample sizes of 100, 200, 500, and 1,000 plots were used to compare baseline populations of 20, 50, and 80% frequency to populations having progressively larger or smaller frequencies. Probabilities of detecting a difference in frequency from baseline populations were empirically estimated from 10,000 comparisons using a test of proportions (P<0.05). Results indicated that the power of the test was substantially reduced at lower sample sizes. Equating the probability of Type I and Type II errors at 0.05 resulted in sample sizes of approximately 500 plots being needed to statistically distinguish between differences of plus or minus 10% frequency.
    • Frequency Sampling for Microscopic Analysis of Botanical Compositions

      Johnson, M. K. (Society for Range Management, 1982-07-01)
      There is confusion in the literature as to the underlying basis for quantifying botanical mixtures microhistologically. The relationship between particle density and frequency of occurrence is useful for estimating numbers of individuals contained in a large number of sampling units. Applied studies do not adequately report the mathematical rationale behind estimation procedures. This paper explains why certain sampling and quantification procedures are useful when applied to microscope analysis of herbivore diet samples.
    • Frequency Sampling in Microhistological Studies: An Alternative Model

      Williams, B. K. (Society for Range Management, 1987-03-01)
      Frequency sampling in microhistological studies is discussed in terms of sampling procedures, statistical properties, and biological inferences. Two sampling approaches are described and contrasted, and some standard methods for improving the stability of density estimators are discussed. Possible sources of difficulty are highlighted in terms of sampling design and statistical analysis. An alternative model is proposed that accounts for 2-stage sampling, and yields reasonable, well-behaved estimates of relative densities.
    • Frequency Sampling of Blue Grama Range

      Hyder, D. N.; Bement, R. E.; Remmenga, E. E.; Terwilliger, C. (Society for Range Management, 1965-03-01)
      A quadrat 2 inches square satisfactorily sampled frequency distribution of blue grama but a complementary quadrat 16 inches square was needed to sample associated species. A tallying technique was developed using beads and plastic tubes.
    • Fringed sagebrush response to sward disturbances: Seedling dynamics and plant growth

      Bai, T.; Romo, J. T. (Society for Range Management, 1996-05-01)
      Fringed sagebrush (Artemisia frigida Willd.), the most common dicotyledonous species in the Northern Mixed Prairie, often increases dramatically following disturbance. It was hypothesized that the increase could be due to release of established plants, increased recruitment of plants, or both. Experiments were conducted on a sandy range site in central Saskatchewan. Tillage, clipping, litter removal, and a combination of clipping+litter removal were compared to an undisturbed control to determine their effects on emergence and survival of fringed sagebrush seedlings and growth of established plants. In no circumstance was seedling emergence or plant growth greater in the undisturbed control than in the disturbed sward. Emergence of fringed sagebrush seedlings increased almost 80-fold the second year after tillage at 1 site, but emergence was not altered relative to the control by clipping, litter removal, or clipping+litter removal Averaged across treatments, 52 to 98% of the seedlings emerged in May and June, and 47 to 99% of these seedlings survived through the growing season and winter. Plants grew fastest in June when precipitation was highest and temperatures were moderate. Growth of plants was improved 2- to 3-fold by tillage the second year; this stimulation in growth was due to the removal of competition. Activities that reduce or remove vegetation and create bare soil surfaces promote emergence and growth of fringed sagebrush on the Northern Great Plains. Most seedlings of fringed sagebrush emerge in spring and early summer, enabling them to temporally exploit the period for optimal growth. Fringed sagebrush is well adapted to persist in Northern Mixed Prairie in a successional continuum from early to late seral stages.
    • From Brush to Grass to Dollars—Brushland Conversion in Arkansas

      Hiatt, C. (Society for Range Management, 1956-11-01)
    • Frost Heaving of Grass and Brush Seedlings on Burned Chamise Brushlands in California

      Biswell, H. H.; Schultz, A. M.; Hedrick, D. W.; Mallory, J. I. (Society for Range Management, 1953-05-01)
    • Fuel Reduction, Seeding, and Vegetation in a Juniper Woodland

      Kerns, B. K.; Day, M. A. (Society for Range Management, 2014-11)
      Western juniper has increased in density and distribution in the interior Pacific Northwest since the late 1800s. Management goals for many juniper woodlands are now focused on reducing tree densities and promoting biodiversity, prompting the use of fuel reduction treatments. Fuel reduction often involves mechanical cutting and disturbances such as slash pile burning and skid trail formation. While these activities may reduce tree densities, the extent to which they will restore native biodiversity and community composition, particularly in woodlands invaded by exotic annual grasses, is unclear. We evaluated the effects of juniper cutting in two experiments of disturbance type (slash piles and skid trails) followed by three native seeding treatments (cultivar, locally sourced, and no seed) on vegetation in central Oregon. Prior to cutting, native perennial grass cover and richness were positively associated and exotic grass cover was negatively associated with juniper basal area. After cutting and 2 yr after seeding, species composition was altered for both disturbance types. Some seeded areas had higher total species richness, higher native species richness, higher cover of seeded species, and higher overall cover compared to areas that were not seeded. But seeding effectiveness in mitigating exotic species spread varied based on exotic species functional group, pretreatment propagule pressure, and experiment disturbance type. Neither seed mix lowered exotic grass cover. There was limited evidence that the cultivar mix outperformed the locally sourced native seed mix. In the short term, fuel reduction activities may have facilitated further conversion of this woodland to an exotic grassland, but longer-term evaluation is needed. In juniper woodlands that have been invaded by exotic species, fuel reduction activities may facilitate further invasion, and exotic species control may be needed to limit invasion and promote native vegetation. © 2014 Society for Range Management
    • Fuel-Load Reductions Resulting from Prescribed Burning in Grazed and Ungrazed Douglas-fir Stands

      Zimmerman, G. T.; Neuenschwander, L. F. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      Prescribed understory burning was carried out in both grazed and ungrazed Douglas-fir stands on the University of Idaho Experimental Forest. Burning conditions were moderately cool with 10-hr time-lag fuel moisture varying from 11 to 19%. Preburn and postburn fuel loadings were determined by use of the planar intersect method. Preburn data indicated greater fuel accumulations in grazed stands, 55,460 kg/ha, as compared to ungrazed stands, 44,710 kg/ha. Difficulty in achieving a satisfactory rate-of-spread and fire intensity was encountered due to the combined effects of a very dry summer followed by a wet fall. Moist conditions on the study site, lack of fine fuels, and accumulation of heavy fuels in the grazed portion produced a burn of patchy nature. Fire rate of spread varied from 0 to 183 cm/minute with flame height up to 91 cm. Result was a fuel reduction of 60.2% in the grazed stand and 35.2% in the ungrazed stand. Prolonged grazing in this area had created a dense, overstocked stand with insufficient fine fuels to carry a fire, which severely limited the effectiveness of prescribed burning.
    • Fuels Reduction in a Western Coniferous Forest: Effects on Quantity and Quality of Forage for Elk

      Long, Ryan A.; Rachlow, Janet L.; Kie, John G.; Vavra, Martin (Society for Range Management, 2008-05-01)
      Use of mechanical thinning and prescribed fire to reduce fuels in dry forest ecosystems has become increasingly common in western North America. Nevertheless, few studies have quantified effects of fuels reduction treatments on wildlife. We evaluated effects of fuels reduction on quantity and quality of forage available to elk (Cervus elaphus) in northeastern Oregon. From 2001 to 2003, 26 stands of true fir (Abies spp.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirbel] Franco) were thinned and burned, whereas 27 similar stands were left untreated to serve as experimental controls. We estimated percentage of cover, percentage of in vitro dry-matter digestibility (digestibility), and percentage of nitrogen (%N) of 16 important forage species and genera in treatment and control stands during spring (May-June) and summer (July-August) of 2005 and 2006. Quantity and quality of forage were lower in summer than spring in both stand types. In contrast, total cover of forage was higher in treatment than in control stands during spring, whereas the opposite was true during summer. For graminoids, %N was higher in control than in treatment stands whereas digestibility did not differ between stand types. For forbs, neither index of forage quality differed between stand types. When treatment stands were separated by years since burning, %N and digestibility of forbs and %N of graminoids increased from 2 to 5 yr following treatment, and by the fifth year after burning had exceeded maximum values observed in control stands in both seasons. As a result of the interacting effects of fuels reduction and season on forage characteristics, treated stands provided better foraging opportunities for elk during spring, whereas control stands provided better foraging opportunities during summer. Consequently, maintaining a mosaic of burned and unburned (late successional) habitat may be of greater benefit to elk than burning a large proportion of a landscape. 
    • Fumidor for Herbarium Cases

      Grelen, Harold E. (Society for Range Management, 1964-05-01)
    • Functional Resource Heterogeneity Increases Livestock and Rangeland Productivity

      Fynn, Richard W. S. (Society for Range Management, 2012-07-01)
      Most of the world’s rangelands are subject to large spatial and temporal variation in forage quantity and quality, which can have severe consequences for the stability and profitability of livestock production. Adaptive foraging movements between functional seasonal resources can help to ameliorate the destabilizing effects on herbivore body stores of spatial and temporal variability of forage quantity and quality. Functional dry-season habitats (key resources) provide sufficient nutrients and energy to minimize reliance on body stores and are critical for maintaining population stability by buffering the effects of drought. Functional wet-season habitats dominated by short, nutritious grasses facilitate optimal intake of nutrients and energy for lactating females, for optimal calf growth rates and for building body stores. Adaptive foraging responses to high-quality focal patches induced by rainfall and disturbance further facilitate intake of nutrients and energy. In addition, focused grazing impact in high-quality patches helps to prevent grassland maturing and losing quality. In this regard, the design of many rotational grazing systems is conceptually flawed because of their inflexible movement of livestock that does not allow adaptation to spatial and temporal variability in forage quantity and quality or sufficient duration of stay in paddocks for livestock to benefit from self facilitation of grazing. Similarly the fixed intraseasonal resting periods of most rotational grazing systems might not coincide with the key pulses of nitrogen mineralization and rainfall in the growing season, which can reduce their efficiency in providing a functional recovery period for grazed grasses. This might explain why complex rotational grazing systems on average have not outperformed continuous grazing systems. It follows, therefore, that ranchers need to adopt flexible grazing management practices that allow adaptation to spatial and temporal variability in forage quantity and quality, allow facilitation of grazing (season-long grazing), and allow more effective recovery periods (season-long resting)./La mayoría de los pastizales del mundo estásujeta a gran variación espacial y temporal en cantidad y calidad de forraje, lo cual puede tener severas consecuencias con la estabilidad y rentabilidad de la producción de ganado. El movimiento adaptativo del pastoreo entre la funcionalidad temporal de los recursos puede ayudar a reducir el efecto desestabilizador en la reserva corporal de los herbívoros de la variabilidad espacial y temporal de la cantidad y calidad del forraje. Hábitats funcionales de temporada seca (recursos clave) proveen de suficientes nutrientes y energía para minimizar la dependencia de reservas corporales y son criticas para mantener la estabilidad de la población y efecto amortiguador de la sequia. Hábitats funcionales de temporada húmeda dominados por pastos cortos nutritivos facilitan el consume óptimo de nutrientes y energía para hembras lactantes paralas tasas de crecimiento optimo del becerro por la construcción de reservas corporales. La respuesta adaptativa al pastoreo en áreas específicas de alta calidad inducidos por la lluvia y disturbio además facilita el consumo de nutrientes y energía. En suma, focalizando el impacto del pastoreo en parches de alta calidad ayuda a prevenir la maduración del pasto y pérdida de calidad. Eneste contexto, el diseño de varios sistemas de pastoreo tiene la falla conceptual en la nula flexibilidad del movimiento del ganadoque no permite la adaptación espacial y temporal en la variación en la calidad y cantidad del forraje o suficiente tiempo de estancia en el potrero por el ganado para beneficiarse de auto facilitación del pastoreo. De manera similar, los periodos de descanso fijos intratemporales de la mayoría de los sistemas de pastoreo no podrían coincidir con los pulsos claves de lamineralización del nitrógeno y lluvia en la época de crecimiento la cual podría reducir la eficiencia en proveer recuperación funcional del periodo de los pastos pastoreados. Esto podría explicar porque sistemas de pastoreo complejos tienen en promedio un bajo desempeño comparado con el pastoreo continuo. Se desprende por lo tanto, que los rancheros necesitan adopter prácticas de manejo de pastoreo flexible que permita adaptar la variabilidad espacial y temporal de la cantidad y calidad del forraje permitiendo facilitar el pastoreo (temporal-permanente pastoreo) y periodos de recuperación más efectivos (temporal-permanente descanso).
    • Future of Range Management: A Student's View

      Nyren, Paul (Society for Range Management, 1973-05-01)
    • Future of Rangelands in Canada

      Whelan, E. F. (Society for Range Management, 1974-07-01)
    • Future of Rangelands in the United States

      Long, R. W. (Society for Range Management, 1974-07-01)