• Halogeton Studies on Idaho Ranges

      Tisdale, E. W.; Zappetini, G. (Society for Range Management, 1953-07-01)
    • Halogeton—Concern to Cattlemen

      Bruner, A. D.; Robertson, J. H. (Society for Range Management, 1963-11-01)
    • Hand-Grubbing Mesquite in the Semidesert Grassland

      Herbel, C.; Ares, F.; Bridges, J. (Society for Range Management, 1958-11-01)
    • Handy Device for Dispensing Barbed Wire

      Kerbs, Roger R. (Society for Range Management, 1972-01-01)
      A barbed wire dispensing device that is held vertically in the rear stake pocket of a pickup truck was constructed for about $6.00. This device frees one man of a two-man crew to do other work, and reduces the possibility of wire entanglements.
    • Harbage Production Following Litter Removal on Alberta Native Grasslands

      Willms, W. D.; Smoliak, S.; Bailey, A. W. (Society for Range Management, 1986-11-01)
      Studies were conducted to determine the effects on herbage yield of removing mulch and standing dead plant litter during dormancy for up to 3 or more consecutive years. This information is required to obtain a better understanding of the implications of dormant season grazing on forage production. In 2 studies, mulch and standing litter were harvested at 3 or more annual frequencies from 2 × 2 m plots. One study was repeated in both the Fescue Prairie and Mixed Prairie communities and plant response was measured annually as the yield of herbage produced from treated and control plots. The second study was conducted in the Fescue Prairie on 3 sites and designed as a 3 × 3 Latin square. The treatments consisted of removing mulch and standing litter, removing and replacing this material, and a control. Estimates were made of the yield, species composition, and morphological characteristics of the grass. A third study was made, in the Fescue Prairie, by defoliating individual rough fescue (Festuca scabrella Torr. var. major Vasey) plants a single time, at 5 and 15 cm above ground, and comparing them with a control. Herbage yields decreased as the annual frequency of mulch and litter harvests increased in the Mixed Prairie but not in the Fescue Prairie. In the Mixed Prairie, yields declined to 43% of the control after 3 years of treatment. Removing mulch and standing litter from rough fescue plants resulted in shorter but a greater number of tillers than in the control. The results were similar after 1 or 3 years of treatment.
    • Hardinggrass and Annual Legume Production in the Sierra Foothills

      Kay, B. L. (Society for Range Management, 1969-05-01)
      Seeding trials at the Sierra Foothill Range Field Station show that total forage production can be doubled by sowing annual clovers. Also increased were the quantity and quality of winter feed. Winter feed was increased further by planting hardinggrass with the legumes. Results were similar on the two soil types involved.
    • Hardwood Rangeland Landowners in California from 1985 to 2004: Production, Ecosystem Services, and Permanence

      Huntsinger, Lynn; Johnson, Martin; Stafford, Monica; Fried, Jeremy (Society for Range Management, 2010-05-01)
      A longitudinal study of California hardwood rangelands shows significant change in landowner characteristics and goals. Results of three studies spanning 1985 to 2004 were used to develop and evaluate a multiagency research and extension program known as the Integrated Hardwood Range Management Program. Program-sponsored education and research aimed at encouraging landowners to change woodland management has been reflected in a significant reduction in oak cutting and an increase in oak planting. Recent changes have come with the times: landowners were as likely to have consulted land trusts about oaks as Cooperative Extension, and the number engaged in production of crops or livestock continued to decline. On the other hand, the proportion of landowners, including ranchers, reporting that they live in the oak woodland to benefit from ecosystem services such as natural beauty, recreation, and lifestyle benefits significantly increased. Though owners of large properties and ranchers were more strongly against regulation and ‘‘government interference’’ than other respondents, this did not appear to affect oak values and management. Property size remained significantly related to landowner goals, values, and practices, with those producing livestock owning most of the larger properties. There has been a decline in the number of properties being studied due to conversion of some from oak woodland to other uses, though the remaining respondents still own at least 10% of the woodlands. Landowners with conservation easements or those who are willing to consider them, who believe oak recruitment is inadequate, or who use advisory services were significantly less likely to cut oaks and more likely to plant them. Policy, management, and outreach that support synergies between production and conservation activities, and that combine ecosystem service-based income streams that encourage keeping land intact and increased land-use stability, are needed to support conservation of private rangelands. 
    • Harvest date and fertilizer effects on native and interseeded wetland meadows

      Reece, P. E.; Nichols, J. T.; Brummer, J. E.; Engel, R. K.; Eskridge, K. M. (Society for Range Management, 1994-05-01)
      Studies of harvest date by fertilizer interactions on hay meadows are rare and none have been published for prairie meadows. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of initial harvest date (15 June, 15 July, and 15 August) and spring-applied N (0, 45, 90, and 135 kg ha-1) on first cutting and regrowth dry matter yield and forage quality from native and interseeded wetland meadow sites. Regrowth was harvested on all plots in late September. 'Garrison' creeping foxtail (Alopecurus arundinaceus Poir.) was interseeded on plots 4 years prior to application of treatments. Native vegetation was dominated by sedges (Carex spp.). Interseeded plots were dominated by Garrison creeping foxtail. Yield and quality on different dates and response to N were similar for vegetation types despite differences in duration of spring flooding between years. Harvest date by fertilizer interactions occurred for first cutting yield and crude protein concentration. Yield response to applied N ranged from 8.5 to 31.2 kg ha-1 kg-1 N. Fertilizer had no effect on digestibility and increased crude protein concentration only in herbage harvested on 15 June. Within levels of N, first cutting yield was about 60% of peak standing crop on 15 June and 90% on 15 July compared with 15 August. Greater plant growth rates and response to N after prolonged spring flooding compensated for initial differences between years by 15 July. Regrowth dry matter yield was not affected by spring-applied N and increased by about 43 kg ha-1 day-1 after initial harvest in both years. Sedge-dominated, prairie meadows are productive and provide predictable forage and wildlife habitat management alternatives.
    • Harvest frequency and burning effects on mono-cultures of 3 warm-season grasses

      Cuomo, G. J.; Anderson, B. E.; Young, L. J.; Wilhelm, W. W. (Society for Range Management, 1996-03-01)
      Harvest frequency and burning can affect forage yield of monocultures of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), and indiangrass [Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash]. Current information is based largely on results from mixed stands. A field experiment was established in 1986, and from 1988 to 1991 treatments were applied with burning in March, April, or May plus an unburned control. Growing-season yield was measured by harvesting 1 (June), 2 (June and July), or 3 (June, July, and August) times with unharvested control plots included. End-of-season standing crop from all plots was determined after plants became dormant. Treatments were applied to the same plots annually and were arranged in a split-split plot, randomized complete block design. The main plot was species, subplot was burn date, and sub-subplot was harvest frequency. Burning reduced yields (p<0.01), and yields were lowest in plots burned in May. Burning reduced yields of indiangrass most (57%) and big bluestem least (15%). In 1989, plots harvest- ed three times produced yields similar to plots harvested once for all species. By 1991, yields of plots harvested 3 times per growing-season were reduced (P=0.08) below those of plots harvested once. Yield response of species also varied across the study. Growing-season yields in 1991 were 113, 67, and 89% of 1989 yields for switchgrass, big bluestem, and indiangrass, respectively. Regardless of burning and harvest frequency combination, switchgrass produced as much or more herbage than the other species.
    • Harvest frequency and burning effects on vigor of native grasses

      Cuomo, G. J.; Anderson, B. E.; Young, L. J. (Society for Range Management, 1998-01-01)
      Burning and harvest frequency can affect the vigor of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), and indiangrass [Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash]. A field study was established in 1986 and from 1988 to 1991 treatments were applied with burning in March, April, or May with unburned controls. Forage was harvested from plots 1 (June), 2 (June and July), or 3 (June, July, and August) times with unharvested control plots included. Treatments were applied to the same plots annually and were arranged in a split-split plot, randomized complete block design. The main plot was species, the subplot was burning, and the sub-subplot was harvest frequency. Big bluestem produced 147 and 122% more etiolated biomass in spring than did switchgrass or indiangrass, respectively. Effects of harvest management on plant vigor occurred after 1 growing-season, but changed little during the remainder of the study. Etiolated biomass declined more as harvest frequency increased from 2 to 3 harvests than from 1 to 2 harvests (213, 205, and 162 g m-2 for 1, 2, and 3 harvests per summer, respectively). Big bluestem produced 95 and 33 % more tillers than switchgrass and indiangrass, respectively, and burning stimulated tillering an average of 32% across all species and harvest treatments. Harvest frequency increased tiller density. However, plant vigor as measured by etiolated growth decreased as harvest frequency increased. This suggests that with these species tillering may occur at the expense of energy storage with frequent defoliation. Vigorous spring etiolated growth and high tillering potential may partially explain the dominance of big bluestem in the tallgrass prairie.
    • Hay-meadows production and weed dynamics as influenced by management

      Magda, Daniele; Theau, Jean-Pierre; Duru, Michel; Coleno, François (Society for Range Management, 2003-03-01)
      Managers of extensive livestock systems generally have 2 goals for permanent grassland management: to obtain sufficient dry matter to feed animals and to avoid the establishment and dominance of unpalatable species. Hay production to French Pyrenean meadows is dependant on the need to balance grazing and cutting dates to produce maximum biomass for hay stock and to prevent seed recruitment of Chaerophyllum aureum L., one of the major invasive unpalatable species. Experiments and observations on a set of meadows within farms show that optimal dates calculated from degree-days for cutting or spring grazing of C. aureum fitted to see production and apex development, respectively, decreases hay yield. This decrease is related to the earliness of the cut in regard to sward growth or to the biomass loss by senescence due to the vegetative regrowth of the sward after spring grazing. Compromises and choices have to be made for each meadow by the farmer according to its potential production, the risk of invasion by C. aureum, and its role in the forage system.
    • Heat Dosage and Oviposition Depth Influence Egg Mortality of Two Common Rangeland Grasshopper Species

      Branson, David H.; Vermeire, Lance T. (Society for Range Management, 2013-01-01)
      Rangeland fire is a common naturally occurring event and management tool, with the amount and structure of biomass controlling transfer of heat belowground. Temperatures that grasshopper eggs are exposed to during rangeland fires are mediated by species-specific oviposition traits. This experiment examined egg mortality in two slant-faced grasshopper species with differing oviposition traits, namely Aulocara elliotti (Thomas) and Opeia obscura (Thomas). We hypothesized that A. elliotti egg mortality would increase with fire intensity because the shallow egg location below the soil surface would result in exposure to higher temperatures, and that the deeper O. obscura eggs would not be affected by fire intensity. Fire intensity did not significantly affect the mortality of O. obscura eggs, with very low mortality in all treatments. Fire intensity significantly affected mortality of A. elliotti eggs, which are laid in shallow egg pods with the midpoint of the egg clutch at a depth of ~0.825 cm. Aulocara elliotti egg mortality increased with higher levels of heat application, with 79% egg mortality in the 4 500 kg ha-1 heat treatment. Heat effects on A. elliotti egg mortality were similar to those previously observed for another shallow-egg-layingspecies. Limited research has examined if rangeland fires reduce population densities of specific economically important grasshopper species. The results from this experiment indicate that grasshopper species with the midpoint of the egg pod less than 1 cm below the surface are likely in general to be vulnerable to fire-induced egg mortality during rangeland fires.
    • Heat Effects on Nutrient Release from Soils Under Ponderosa Pine

      White, E. M.; Thompson, W. W.; Gartner, F. R. (Society for Range Management, 1973-01-01)
      Litter and mor of ponderosa pine-forest soils released more water-soluble K and P following heating to 200 C than at higher or lower temperatures. The upper A1 horizon released the most water-soluble P and K following, respectively, 200 C and 500 C heat treatments. Total nitrogen decreased in the samples heated in excess of 200 C. Prescribed burning to control noncommercial pine on rangeland apparently would have little detrimental effect on K and P availability and cause a slight reduction in total nitrogen if heating is kept below 200 or 300 C.
    • Heated substrate and smoke: influence on seed emergence and plant growth

      Blank, R. R.; Young, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 1998-09-01)
      Combustion products of burning vegetation can increase seed germination of many species of fire-prone plant communities. We tested the influence of heating sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) subcanopy soil, aqueous extracts of artificially burned soil, and sagebrush smoke on the emergence of several range plant species of the sagebrush-steppe. In addition, test seeds were exposed to sagebrush smoke and aqueous slurries of artificially burned sagebrush subcanopy soil to determine their effect on plant growth. As compared to the control, substrates previously heated from 250 to 750 degrees C significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) increased the emergence of Thurber's needlegrass [Achnatherum thurberianum (Piper) Barkworth] and needle-and-thread [Hesperostipa comata (Trin. & Rupr.) Barkworth]. Sagebrush smoke and aqueous slurries of artificially burned soil significantly increased the emergence of Sierra Nevada needlegrass [Achnatherum occidentalis (Thurber) Barkworth], Indian ricegrass [Achnatherum hymenoides (Roemer & Schultes) Barkworth], and antelope bitterbrush [Purshia tridentata (Pursh) DC.]. Rates of new leaf production and leaf elongation following treatment of seeds with the smoke of burning sagebrush were significantly greater for cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), basin wildrye [Leymus cinereus (Sribner & Merr.) A. Löve], Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis Elmer ), Sierra Nevada needlegrass, and needle-and-thread as compared to the control. After 83 days of growth, smoke-treated seeds of basin wildrye and needle-and-thread produced significantly greater plant mass than their controls. Smoke treatment of certain seeds before sowing is potentially useful for range plant seedings.
    • Heavy Precipitation Influences Saline Clay Flat Vegetation

      Buckley, P. E.; Dodd, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 1969-11-01)
      A vegetational analysis was made of the native grasses on a saline clay flat range site located on the Rio Grande Plains of Texas prior to and two months following Hurricane Beulah in 1967. Data prior to the hurricane indicated a mean grass plant density of about 26,000 per acre with negligible yield. Following the hurricane, an influx of annual and short-lived perennial grasses increased the density to approximately 700,000 grass plants per acre. Herbage yields increased to over 1200 pounds per acre. Presence of short-lived grasses provided forage and a desirable microenvironment for the establishment of seedlings of the more desirable grasses.
    • Heavy stocking and early-season deferment of grazing on Mediterranean-type grassland

      Gutman, M.; Holzer, Z.; Baram, H.; Noy-Meir, I.; Seligman, N. G. (Society for Range Management, 1999-11-01)
      An experiment with beef cows grazing Mediterranean-type grassland was conducted to study the effect of grazing deferment at the beginning of the growing season on pasture productivity and animal performance under intensive herd management conditions. The grazing trial was composed of 4 treatments (deferred grazing at stocking rates of 0.83 and 0.67 cows per ha and continuous grazing at 0.67 and 0.5 cows per ha) replicated in 2 blocks and continued for 5 consecutive years. The herds were given low-energy supplemental feed during deferment and during the dry summer. At the intermediate stocking rate, at which both deferred and continuous grazing were compared, herbage production was significantly reduced by grazing during the 'deferment period' and calf weaning weights without deferment were significantly lower than in the deferred grazing treatments. Weaned live weight per cow was significantly lowest in the continuous intermediate treatment. Weaned weight per hectare was greatest at the highest stocking rate (with deferment). Utilization of supplementary feed per unit weaned live weight was significantly greater in the deferred treatments. Only about a third of the herbage production was grazed, even at the heavy stocking rates. Herbage production varied more between years than between treatments. It is concluded that in the system studied, deferment with supplementary feeding becomes important for both animal and vegetation production as stocking rate approaches and exceeds 0.67 cows ha-1. With deferment, herbage production during the main growing season can be maintained even under heavy grazing pressure. This result can be explained with a simple dynamic growth and grazing model.
    • Heifer nutrition and growth on short duration grazed crested wheatgrass

      Olson, K. C.; Malechek, J. C. (Society for Range Management, 1988-05-01)
      Animal performance and nutrition under short duration grazing (SDG) and season-long grazing (SLG) were compared on spring-grazed crested wheatgrass [Agropyron desertorum (Fisch.) Schult. and A. cristatum (L.) Gaertn.] range to determine if SDG has the potential to improve livestock production on such rangelands. Livestock performance was evaluated by measuring weight gains twice per grazing season. Diet quality was assessed by determining crude protein concentration and in vitro organic matter digestibility of extrusa samples collected from esophageally fistulated heifers. Three variables of ingestive behavior were measured: ingestion rate, biting rate, and grazing time. Daily forage intake was calculated as the product of ingestion rate and grazing time. Animals in the SLG treatment gained significantly more than those under SDG in 1983 (1.07 vs. 0.81 kg/hd/d), but no statistical differences were detected in 1984 (1.13 vs. 1.07 kg/hd/d for SDG and SLG, respectively). In 1985, animals under SDG gained the most (1.03 vs. 0.87 kg/hd/d for SDG vs. SLG, respectively). No differences were detected in diet quality between SDG and SLG throughout the study. No treatment differences were detected in ingestive behavior during 1984, but ingestion rate was greater and grazing time less under SDG than SLG during 1985. Results indicate that forage intake was greater, while energy expenditures were lower under SDG than SLG in 1985. The hypothesis that SDG extends the season of nutritious forage was not supported.
    • Heifer Performance Under Two Stocking Rates on Fourwing Saltbush-Dominated Rangeland

      Derner, Justin D.; Hart, Richard H. (Society for Range Management, 2005-09-01)
      The efficiency of livestock production in shortgrass steppe may be increased by grazing fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens [Pursh] Nutt)-dominated rangeland in late fall and/or early spring, but there is a paucity of information concerning stocking rates and animal gains. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of light and moderate stocking rates on weight gains of heifers grazing twice-replicated 16-ha pastures in late fall (November to mid-January) from 1996 to 1998, and in early spring (April to mid-May) from 1996 to 1999. Stocking rates for late fall (light: 1.3-1.5 ha animal unit month-1 [AUM-1] vs. moderate: 0.8-1.0 ha AUM-1) and early spring (light: 3.7-4.0 ha AUM-1 vs. moderate: 2.3-2.5 ha AUM-1) were achieved using 5 (for light grazing) and 8 (for moderate grazing) Hereford heifers, with initial average weights of 405 +/- 5.7 (mean +/- 1 SE) kg for the late fall grazing period and 267 +/- 3.8 kg for the early spring grazing period across the study years. Average daily gain was 58% greater for light (0.65 +/- 0.06 kg head-1 d-1) compared to moderate (0.41 +/- 0.05 kg head-1 d-1) stocking rates in the late fall grazing period, and 115% greater with light (0.59 +/- 0.06 kg head-1 d-1) than with moderate (0.27 +/- 0.07 kg head-1 d-1) stocking rates in the early spring grazing period. Beef production did not differ between stocking rates for either the late fall (16.4 +/- 3.9 vs. 17.4 +/- 4.5 kg gain ha-1, light vs. moderate stocking rates) or early spring (9.6 +/- 2.7 vs. 7.6 +/- 4.8 kg gain ha-1) grazing periods. We suggest that land managers employ light stocking rates during both grazing periods to obtain adequate individual animal gains without sacrificing gains per unit land area. Lengthening the grazing season in the shortgrass steppe should be economically desirable to land managers because feed costs could be lowered and animal gains obtained through minimal input.  
    • Heifer Production on Rangeland and Seeded Forages in the Northern Great Plains

      Haferkamp, M. R.; MacNeil, M. D.; Grings, E. E.; Klement, K. D. (Society for Range Management, 2005-09-01)
      Integrating use of seeded perennial cool-season grass pastures with native rangeland can increase available forage and provide a high plane of nutrition for grazing livestock. Our objective was to compare performance of yearling beef heifers grazing native rangeland with those grazing an integrated system that included seeded forages. Twice-replicated, 3-ha pastures seeded to either ‘Rosana’ western wheatgrass (Pascopyron smithii [Rydb.] A. Love), ‘Luna’ pubescent wheatgrass (Elytrigia intermedia [Host] Nevski), or ‘Hycrest’ crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum [L.] Gaertn. ssp. desertorum [Fisch. ex Link] A. Love) were grazed in spring, whereas twice-replicated, 3.24-ha pastures seeded to either ‘Alkar’ tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum [Podp.] ZW Liu RC Wang), ‘NewHy’ hybrid wheatgrass (Elymus hoffmannii KB Jensen KH Asay), ‘Bozoisky’ Russian wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea [Fisch.] Nevski.), or ‘Prairieland’ Altai wildrye (Leymus angustus [Trin.] Pilger) were grazed in autumn. Native rangeland was grazed during summer in the integrated system and spring, summer, and autumn in the rangeland treatment. Heifers exhibited greater weight gains on seeded pastures than on native rangeland in spring and autumn of most years. In 2 out of 3 years, heifers that grazed native rangeland during spring gained more (P = 0.012 for gain head-1 and P = 0.021 for gain head-1 day-1) while grazing native rangeland during summer than heifers that grazed seeded pastures in spring. Spring + summer gains averaged (mean +/- SE) 0.56 +/- 0.01 kg head-1 d-1 and 73.1 +/- 1.6 kg head-1. Livestock managers need to consider their livestock marketing and management strategies when using seeded pastures for seasonal grazing.  
    • Herbaceous Biomass Dynamics and Net Primary Production Following Chemical Control of Honey Mesquite

      Heitschmidt, R. K.; Schultz, R. D.; Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1986-01-01)
      The effect of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa Torr.) control on herbaceous growth dynamics, forage production, and root and crown biomass was investigated in 1979 and 1980 on a site aerially treated with a 1:1 mixture of 2,4,5-T plus picloram at 0.6 kg/ha in May 1974. Density, height, and canopy of honey mesquite trees 5 years after treatment were 248 plants/ha, 0.9 m, and 3.1%, respectively, compared to 963 plants/ha, 2.2 m, and 34.6%, respectively, in the adjacent untreated control plot. Yet, there were no differences between sprayed and untreated plots after 6 and 7 growing seasons relative to species composition, growth dynamics, and production of herbaceous plants. Averaged across years and treatments, estimated aboveground net primary production was 2,525 kg/ha. Crown and root biomass in the top 10 cm of the soil profile averaged 685 and 3,837 kg/ha, respectively, with no significant treatment or year effects. Lack of treatment difference partially validates a conceptual model presently used for economic analysis of herbicide sprays for honey mesquite control. Further, it supports the hypothesis that honey mesquite trees provide critical habitat for the more productive midgrasses indigenous to this site; and that elimination of this habitat in sparse stands of the shrub subsequently limits post-treatment herbage response.