• Proper Use: Old Concept—New Ideas

      Lawson, Henry (Society for Range Management, 1971-07-01)
    • Properties of Saline Range Soils of the Rio Grande Plain

      Fanning, C. D.; Thompson, C. M.; Issacs, D. (Society for Range Management, 1965-07-01)
      Range conditions on saline soils are poor as a result of overgrazing. Reseeding plans need to consider species and drought-inducing effects of excess salts. Soil properties suggest that proper vegetative cover would enhance salt removal.
    • Property Rights Orientations and Rangeland Management Objectives: Texas, Utah, and Colorado

      Kreuter, Urs P.; Nair, Malini V.; Jackson-Smith, Douglas; Conner, Richard J.; Johnston, Janis E. (Society for Range Management, 2006-11-01)
      In response to substantial economic and social dislocations in the United States, many rangeland owners are changing land use and management practices. Changes in land use can significantly affect the services rangeland ecosystems provide. Decisions associated with such changes are likely mediated by landowner views regarding individual rights, social responsibilities, and the future security of property rights. In this paper, we examine the extent to which landowners are likely to adopt, without public compensation, socially desirable land management objectives that enhance ecosystem services from rangelands. The study consisted of a mail survey of landowners with at least 40 ha: 500 in Texas, 500 in Utah, and 694 in Colorado. Adjusted responserates were 62% in Texas, 46% in Utah, and 51% in Colorado. Regression analyses showed that willingness to adopt socially desirable rangeland management objectives was positively correlated with the social responsibility dimension of respondents’ property rights orientations but negatively correlated with the rights erosion dimension. Our results also suggested that landowners in private land states, such as Texas, might be less willing than landowners in states with more public land to manage their land for the maintenance of ecosystem services without being compensated. Although the scope of our study was limited, the results suggest that agencies tasked with maintaining ecosystem services on private rangelands might more successfully achieve their mission by promoting social responsibility among landowners. Including community leaders with a highly developed sense of social responsibility in programs aimed at improving land stewardship and including peer-pressure incentives in such programs might enhance social responsibility perspectives among landowners. Such programs should also be adaptable at the state-level to account for differences in property-rights orientations relative to landowner dependence on private and public land.
    • Protecting Range Forage Plots from Rodents

      Howard, Walter E.; Kay, Burgess L. (Society for Range Management, 1957-07-01)
    • Protection of Instrument Wires in the Field

      Brown, R. W.; Collins, J. M. (Society for Range Management, 1979-11-01)
      Electrical wires used with field instruments are frequently damaged by adverse environmental conditions and animal activities. Such damage can be minimized by enclosing the wires in a housing made of polyvinyl chloride water pipe as described in this paper.
    • Protein quality of cottontail rabbit forages following rangeland disturbance

      Pietz, D. G.; Lochmiller, R. L.; Leslie, D. M.; Engle, D. M. (Society for Range Management, 1997-09-01)
      Seasonal changes in the botanical composition of diets and protein quality of forages consumed by cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were monitored on disturbed and undisturbed upland hardwood forest-tallgrass prairies in central Oklahoma. Our primary objective was to evaluate the seasonal dynamics of levels of selected amino acid nutrients in forages required for maintenance, growth, or reproduction, and explore bow these changes respond to habitat disturbance resulting from the use of herbicides and fire. Microhistological analyses of stomach digesta indiccated that summer diets were dominated by Panicum oligosanthes Schultes, Croton spp. and Sporobolus asper (Michx.) Kunth; winter diets were dominated by Bromus spp., P. oligosanthes, and Antennaria spp. Differences in the botanical composition and quality of diets between disturbed and undisturbed habitats were of little biological significance. Changes in the concentration of essential amino acids due to plant maturity were minimal in both summer and winter. Estimated levels of nitrogen and essential amino acids in reconstructed diets (based on food habits) appeared to be low, especially for the sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine + cystine) in summer.
    • Protein supplementation and 48-hour calf removal effects on range cows

      Sowell, B. F.; Wallace, J. D.; Parker, E. E.; Southward, G. M. (Society for Range Management, 1992-03-01)
      In 1984, 99 Angus X Hereford cows (4- to 6-yr-olds) were assigned randomly to a 4-yr, 2 X 2 factorial study. Treatment assignment was permanent, and no new cows were added during the study. By 1987, 71 cows remained, and over-all, 335 complete cow-calf data sets were used. Main effect treatments were beginning time (prepartum [PRE] vs postpartum [POST]) for crude protein (CP) supplementation (twice weekly feeding of 41% CP cottonseed meal pellets at 1.58 kg cow-1 feeding-1) and temporary calf removal (48 hour [48-H] vs 0 hour [CONT]) just before the breeding season. For analyses, sex of calf was included as a third main effect (2 X 2 X 2) and year was included as a random factor; the 4-way interaction served as the testing term for repeated measures over years. Year was the dominant source of variation for most traits; we attributed this mainly to different amounts and timing of precipitation among years. Very few interactions were observed. The PRE supplemented cows had reduced (P<0.01) spring body weight losses and higher prebreeding body condition scores (4.9 vs 4.5; P<0.01) compared with POST cows. Reproductive performance did not differ between PRE and POST cows. Use of 48-H calf removal vs CONT did not influence (P>0.10) reproductive traits measured. Likewise, 48-H treatment did not impair health or reduce weaning weights of calves. In a separate, within-year analysis used to examine age of dam effects, productivity of 4-yr-old cows during 1984 was slightly below that of older cows for some traits. Cow age effects were not detected in other years. We conclude that control cows in our study were approaching optimum fertility and production levels in concert with their environment and that improvement beyond these levels with the treatments imposed was unlikely.
    • Protein supplementation of steers grazing tobosa-grass in spring and summer

      Pitts, J. S.; McCollum, F. T.; Britton, C. M. (Society for Range Management, 1992-05-01)
      A 3-year study evaluated weight gain, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and fecal nitrogen (FN) of beef steers fed 0.00, 0.34, or 0.68 kg/hd/day of cottonseed meal (41% CP) while grazing mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa Torr.)/tobosagrass (Hilaria mutica [Buckl.] Benth.) range between April and July. Mixed breed beef steers (avg wt 230 kg) were allocated to three 6-pasture grazing cells and group-fed prorated amounts of supplement 3 days a week. Individual weights were recorded every 21 days. Crude protein in clipped forage samples remained above 7.0% except in July, 1985 (6.5%). Gain response varied among periods within year but the primary effects occurred in the first 40 to 60 days of grazing. In 1985, daily gains over 92 days were 0.38, 0.44, and 0.67 kg/hd/day for the 0.00, 0.34, and 0.68 kg supplement groups, respectively. In 1986 and 1987, daily gains during 85-day trials were 0.65, 0.66, and 0.71 kg/hd/day and 0.98, 1.08, and 1.07 kg/hd/day, respectively. Blood and feces were collected from 10 steers in each treatment group on each weigh date during the first 2 years. The 0.68 kg/hd/day supplement maintained higher (P<0.05) BUN and FN than the control group but response to 0.34 kg supplement was inconsistent. Performance and BUN data suggested that protein concentrate was not the appropriate supplement for steers grazing tobosagrass in the spring and summer.
    • Protein supplementation of stocker cattle in the Northern Great Plains

      Grings, E. E.; Adams, D. C.; Short, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1994-07-01)
      A comparison of the response of varying classes of growing beef cattle to protein supplementation was conducted on Northern Great Plains rangeland during the summer and early fall. Response was evaluated in 2 experiments, conducted in 1988 and 1989, by measuring organic matter intake and body weight gain in 13-month-old (spring-born steers) and 7-month-old steers (fall-born steers), which received either a 26% crude protein supplement or no supplement. Weight gain was also monitored in 7-month old heifers (fall-born heifers). In experiment 1, spring-born steers were fed 1.28 kg and fall-born steers and heifers 1.64 kg of protein supplement every other day. During experiment 2, spring-born steers were fed supplement at a rate of 1 kg and fall-born steers and heifers at 1.8 kg every other day. Intake of forage organic matter for steers was not affected (P > 0.10) by supplementation in either experiment. In experiment 1, total organic matter intake tended to be increased by protein supplementation in June but not in August (date X supplementation level interaction, P = 0.08). Forage organic matter digestibility was greater (P < 0.01) in June than in August during experiment 1 and in August than September in experiment 2. In experiment 1, this difference was greater for fall-born steers than spring-born steers. In experiment 1, supplementation increased (P < 0.01 average daily gain of cattle from 0.63 to 0.78 kg/day. In experiment 2, daily pin of cattle was increased (P < 0.01) from 0.62 0.82 kg/day with protein supplementation. Also, in experiment 2, cattle receiving supplement were 18 kg heavier (P < 0.05) at the end of the grazing season than unsupplemented controls. Protein supplementation increased weight pins of growing cattle in the late summer in the Northern Great Plains. The advantage was most consistent for fall-born steers with higher relative protein requirements.
    • Protein, P, and K Composition of Coastal Bermudagrass and Crimson Clover

      Adams, W. E.; Stelly, M.; McCreery, R. A.; Morris, H. D.; Elkins, C. B. (Society for Range Management, 1966-09-01)
      Increasing levels of N, P and K fertilization increased total nutrient uptake and the percentage of protein, P and K, in the Coastal bermudagrass forage. P and K content of associated crimson clover increased with increasing rates of application of each nutrient. Percent recovery of N and P in the forage declined with increasing rates of fertilization of each nutrient, but percent K recovery increased with increasing K rates. N-K balance was important in maintaining an optimum K level in the forage and reducing K-deficiency symptoms. Tame pastures supplement forest range and reduce the overall cost below that of tame pastures above.
    • Protocol for monitoring standing crop in grasslands using visual obstruction

      Benkobi, L.; Uresk, D. W.; Schenbeck, G.; King, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 2000-11-01)
      Assessment of standing crop on grasslands using a visual obstruction technique provides valuable information to help plan livestock grazing management and indicate the status of wildlife habitat. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a simple regression model using easily measured visual obstruction to estimate standing crop on sandy lowland range sites in the Nebraska Sandhills, (2) provide sampling and monitoring suggestions in the use of visual obstruction on this grassland type, and (3) compare the visual obstruction technique to the standard clip and weigh procedure. Visual obstruction precisely predicted average standing crop dry weights for the sandy lowland range sites (r2=0.88). A prediction accuracy of ± 295 kg ha-1was found using a test data set. Two sampling options (A and B) were evaluated using a 2-stage sampling protocol. Option A (1 transect/quarter section) provided more precise estimates applicable to extensive grasslands than option B. However, option A was not applicable to a section (259 ha) or a few sections. Option B (3 transects/section) provided estimates applicable to each section and to the entire area, but it required more intensive sampling than option A to attain the same precision. The visual obstruction technique provided more precise estimates of standing crop than the standard clip and weigh technique when clipping and weighing up to 6 plots per transect. When 7 or more clipped and weighed plots per transect were sampled, standing crop estimates were more precise than using visual obstruction readings. However, since 20 visual obstruction readings/transect (25 minutes) can be sampled in about half the time spent clipping and weighing 6 plots/transect (45 minutes), visual obstruction in combination with a previously estimated regression model provides a simple, reliable, and cost effective alternative to the clip and weigh technique. Regression models should be developed for other grassland types following the methodology described in this paper.
    • Public Land Policy

      Lewis, O. (Society for Range Management, 1955-05-01)
    • Public land policy and the market value of New Mexico ranches, 1979-94

      Torell, L. A.; Kincaid, M. E. (Society for Range Management, 1996-05-01)
      Proposals outlined in Rangeland Reform '94 have been perceived to greatly alter grazing use on public lands. In addition to new rules and regulations, the grazing fee would double under this reform proposal. The debate about these controversial policies would be expected to affect the market value of public kind grazing permits. Regression models were developed using over 700 ranch sales to determine recent trends in market value for New Mexico ranches, including public land ranches. After 1988, nominal deeded ranch values were found to have increased by 3% per annum, but remained unchanged in 1992 constant dollars. This follows a 50% decline in real value from 1982-88. Ranches heavily dependent on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land for grazing capacity decreased in real value by about 1.8% per annum over the 1988-94 study period. The United States Forest Service (USFS) has recently had the most controversial land use polices and the highest average total grazing costs. This has been reflected in the market value of USFS ranches, with a continued decrease in permit value; USFS ranches in New Mexico have lost 75% of their real value since 1982. Doubling grazing fees on New Mexico state trust lands contributed to a downward trend in leasehold value. Somewhat surprising, given the higher grazing fee on state trust lands, these permits increased in market value in both real (1.7% per year) and nominal (5% per year) terms after controversy about state lands subsided and federal land policies became more controversial.
    • Public Perceptions of Sagebrush Ecosystem Management in the Great Basin

      Shindler, Bruce; Gordon, Ryan; Brunson, Mark W.; Olsen, Christine (Society for Range Management, 2011-07-01)
      Intact sagebrush communities in the Great Basin are rapidly disappearing because of invasion of nonnative plants, large wildfires, and encroachment of pinyon and juniper woodlands. Land management options, including the use of prescribed fire, grazing, herbicides, or mechanical treatments, can reduce the potential for wildfire and restore plant communities. Public acceptance of management actions, and trust in agencies to carry out those actions, is a critical component of developing and implementing successful long-term land management plans. This study examines citizens’ opinions and perceptions about rangeland management in the Great Basin. In fall 2006 we conducted a mail survey of randomly selected households in three urban and three rural regions of the Great Basin, receiving 1 345 valid responses for a 45% response rate. Overall, respondents perceived that the environment is moderately healthy; however, they do recognize threats to sagebrush ecosystems. Public acceptance is relatively high for the use of prescribed fire, grazing, felling woodland trees, and mowing shrubs, but low for herbicide treatment and chaining. Although respondents indicated high levels of acceptance for some management actions, they expressed relatively low levels of trust in land management agencies to implement these actions.
    • Punch Planting to Establish Grass Seed

      Hauser, V. L. (Society for Range Management, 1982-05-01)
      Perennial grasses are difficult to establish from seed in the Southern Great Plains. The conventional planting practice is to plant grass seeds 1 to 2 cm deep in the soil; but that soil layer often dries quickly, thus preventing plant establishment. I investigated punch planting, which may avoid the problem of soil drying around grass seeds. Punch planting is defined as the placement of seeds in open, small-diameter holes, punched in the soil to a much greater depth than conventional planting. Under drying conditions, punch planting produced satisfactory stands for 5 grasses, but conventional planting produced failures. Where the soil was kept wet, both methods produced satisfactory grass stands. Optimum depth of punch planting was related to seed size and seedling vigor. Small-diameter holes (0.6 cm) produced best plant emergence, because soil at the bottom of these holes dried slower than at the bottom of large holes. Punch planting may offer a solution to the problem of seeding failures.
    • Putting Range Management Facts to Work

      Rogers, A. (Society for Range Management, 1951-09-01)
    • Pyric-Herbivory and Cattle Performance in Grassland Ecosystems

      Limb, Ryan F.; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Engle, David M.; Weir, Johhn R.; Elmore, R. Dwayne; Bidwell, Terrance G. (Society for Range Management, 2011-11-01)
      Achieving economically optimum livestock production on rangelands can conflict with conservation strategies that require lower stocking rate to maintain wildlife habitat. Combining the spatial and temporal interaction of fire and grazing (pyric- herbivory) is a conservation-based approach to management that increases rangeland biodiversity by creating heterogeneous vegetation structure and composition. However, livestock production under pyric-herbivory has not been reported. In both mixed-grass prairie and tallgrass prairie, we compared livestock production in pastures with traditional fire and grazing management (continuous grazing, with periodic fire on tallgrass prairie and without fire on mixed-grass prairie) and conservation-based management (pyric-herbivory applied through patch burning) at a moderate stocking rate. Stocker cattle weight gain, calf weight gain, and cow body condition score did not differ (P > 0.05) between traditional and conservation- based management at the tallgrass prairie site for the duration of the 8-yr study. At the mixed-grass prairie site, stocker cattle gain did not differ in the first 4 yr, but stocker cattle gained more (P < 0.05) on conservation-based management and remained 27% greater for the duration of the 11-yr study. Moreover, variation among years in cattle performance was less on pastures under conservation management. Traditional management in mixed-grass prairie did not include fire, the process that likely was associated with increased stocker cattle performance under conservation management. We conclude that pyric-herbivory is a conservation-based rangeland management strategy that returns fire to the landscape without reduced stocking rate, deferment, or rest.
    • Pyric-Herbivory to Promote Rangeland Heterogeneity: Evidence From Small Mammal Communities

      Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Townsend, Darrell E.; Elmore, R. Dwayne; Engle, David M. (Society for Range Management, 2010-11-01)
      Management of rangelands has largely operated under the paradigm of minimizing spatially discrete disturbances, often under the objective of reducing inherent heterogeneity within managed ecosystems. This has led to a simplified understanding of rangelands and in many cases simplified rangelands. We argue that this type of management focus is incapable of maintaining biodiversity. An evolutionary model of disturbance (pyric-herbivory) suggests that grazing and fire interact through a series of feedbacks to cause a shifting mosaic of vegetation patterns across the landscape and has potential to serve as a model for management of grasslands with an evolutionary history of grazing. Our study demonstrates that the spatially controlled interaction of fire and grazing can be used to create heterogeneity in grassland ecosystems and the resulting heterogeneity in vegetation is expressed through other trophic levels, specifically small mammals in this study. Discrete fires were applied to patches, and patchy grazing by herbivores promoted a shifting vegetation mosaic across the landscape that created unique habitat structures for various small mammal species. Peromyscus maniculatus was about 10 times more abundant on recently burned patches (1-2 mo) than the uniform treatment or unburned patches within the shifting mosaic treatment. Chaetodipus hispidus was about 10 times greater in patches that were 15-20 mo post-fire in the shifting mosaic treatment than in the uniform treatment. Sigmodon hispidus, Microtus ochrogaster, and Reithrodontomys fluvescens became dominant in the shifting mosaic in patches that were more than 2 yr post-fire. This study, along with others, suggests that by managing transient focal patches, heterogeneity has the potential to be a new central paradigm for conservation of rangeland ecosystems and can enhance biological diversity and maintain livestock production across broad scales. 
    • Pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale L.)

      Pfister, J. A.; Molyneux, R. J.; Baker, D. C. (Society for Range Management, 1992-05-01)
      Houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale L.) is a biennial weed infesting pasture, hayfields, and disturbed areas throughout North America. Houndstongue contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) that are hepatotoxic. First and second year's growth of houndstongue were harvested from emergence to maturity. Nuclear magnetic resonance was used to determine the levels of total PAs, free base, and N-oxide forms of the alkaloids in leaves, stems, buds, flowers, and pods. PA levels generally were highest (1.5 to 2.0% dry weight) in immature plant tissue, with a gradual decline during maturation. Most plant parts contained greater quantities of the N-oxide form of PAs (60-90%) compared to the free base form. Leaves and pods of mature houndstongue contained sufficient PAs to be potentially toxic if ingested by livestock.