• Yield and Nutritional Quality of Intermediate Wheatgrass Infested by Black Grass Bugs at Low Population Densities

      Malechek, J. C.; Gray, A. M.; Haws, B. A. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
      Black grass bugs (Labops hesperius) at a population density of 156 bugs per square meter did not affect herbage yields of intermediate wheatgrass but depressed seedhead production 56%. They caused a small but significant increase in concentrations of crude protein and a slight decrease in cellular contents.
    • Yield and Protein Content of Sandyland Range Forages as Affected by Three Nitrogen Fertilizers

      Pettit, R. D.; Deering, D. W. (Society for Range Management, 1974-05-01)
      A west Texas sandyland range site was fertilized with two rates, (30 and 60 kg/ha of actual N) of ammonium nitrate (AN), ammonium sulfate (AS) and ammonium phosphate-sulfate (APS) on June 2, 1972. Yield samples taken in mid-August showed all fertilizer treatments to significantly increase total yields. The 60 kg/ha of N treatments of AS and APS produced more herbage than all other fertilizer treatments. Climax decreasers on the site, little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) and sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), showed less yield response to fertilization than increaser and invader grasses. Crude protein analysis of leaf tissue showed the grasses of the control (ON) to contain significantly less and the grasses treated with 60 kg/ha of N as AN to contain more protein than other treatments. Sulfur appears to be more important than phosphorus in increasing yields on this site. Also, range condition should be at least high fair before fertilizer is applied to minimize competition between the desirable and invader plants.
    • Yield and Quality of Annual Range Forage Following 2,4-D Application on Blue Oak Trees

      Johnson, W.; McKell, C. M.; Evans, R. A.; Berry, L. J. (Society for Range Management, 1959-01-01)
    • Yield and Quality of Creeping Bluestem as Affected by Time of Cutting

      Kalmbacher, R. S.; Martin, F. G.; Andrade, J. M. S. (Society for Range Management, 1981-11-01)
      Creeping bluestem (Schizachyrium stoloniferum Nash.) is a rhizomatous native grass that is the dominant species on many Florida rangelands. To evaluate its grazing potential, dry matter yield, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL), were measured in plants cut at 10 and 20 cm stubble heights during 70-day intervals from June to October (summer), August to December (summer-fall), and October to February (winter). Winter yields were significantly greater (2,090 kg/ha) than summer yields (1,600 kg/ha) with summer-fall yields intermediate (1,860 kg/ha). After 3 years there was a significant decline in dry matter in plants cut at 10 cm, but yield was sustained in plants cut at 20 cm. Herbage regrowth in July to August was high in IVOMD (37.8%). Crude protein and IVOMD percentages were also greater in November to December regrowth (7.5 and 36%, respectively) and January to February regrowth (6.8 and 37%, respectively). However, since forage yield was lowest at the time, yield of protein and digestible organic matter were lowest. Percent NDF, ADF, and ADL were not greatly affected by initial growth or regrowth periods and averaged 80.0, 42.3 and 5.8%, respectively. Creeping bluestem may be one of Florida's greater yielding native grasses, but will require protein and energy supplements to provide good livestock performance.
    • Yield and quality of RS-2, a quackgrass X bluebunch wheatgrass hybrid

      Haferkamp, M. R.; Adams, D. C.; Borman, M. M.; Grings, E. E.; Currie, P. O. (Society for Range Management, 1995-07-01)
      Understanding the effect of defoliation frequency and N fertilization on plant growth, forage yield, and quality of RS-2, a quackgrass [Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski.] x bluebunch wheat grass [Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh.) Love] hybrid, will help promote efficient use of this hybrid in livestock production systems. Plants were fertilized with 0, 112, or 224 kg N ha-1 in spring 1988 and 1989, or with a 112 + 112 kg N ha-1 split in spring and summer. One set of plants was unmowed or mowed to a 5cm stubble height once in July or August in 1988 and another set was mowed initially in May, June, July, August, September, or October 1989 and monthly thereafter through October. Peak standing crop of unmowed plants was 3,470 kg ha-1 in 1988 and 5,850 kg ha-1 in 1989. In 1989 yields of fertilized plants exceeded those of unfertilized plants by 1,000 kg ha-1. In 1988, crude protein exceeded 12% in unmowed forage and in 1989 varied from 20% in May to 8% in August. After fertilization, crude protein was increased by 2 to 4 percentage units in 1988 and by 2 percentage units in 1989, but fertilization had no effect on in vitro digestible organic matter. Regrowth contained more crude protein (15-22%) and digestible organic matter (29-40%) than unmowed forage. Sequential harvesting enhanced quality of regrowth, but standing crops did not exceed 350 kg ha-1; except in June 1989. Sixty percent of the accumulated yield was harvested with the first mowing during May through August. Plots harvested initially in September and October were only harvested once. Our findings indicate an increase in forage yield potential and forage quality of RS-2 after harvesting and fertilizing the RS-2 hybrid.
    • Yield and quality of warm-season grasses in central Texas

      Sanderson, M. A.; Voigt, P.; Jones, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1999-03-01)
      Warm-season perennial bunchgrasses frequently are used for hay and grazing in central Texas. We compared 6 alternative grasses with 2 more commonly grown species ['Ermelo' weeping lovegrass, (Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees var. curvula Nees) and 'Selection-75' kleingrass (Panicum coloratum L.] on 2 soils during 2 years. Grasses were transplanted into field plots at Stephenville and Temple, Tex. 1993 and harvested 3 times in 1994 and 1995. Weeping lovegrass and 'WW-B.Dahl' old world bluestem [Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz) S.T. Blake] were the highest yielding (P < 0.05) grasses and averaged 9,350 and 7,630 kg dry matter ha(-1) in 1994 and 1995, respectively. 'Irene' tufted digitgrass (Digitaria eriantha Stued.) and kleingrass produced similar (P > 0.05) yields (6,560 and 6,340 kg dry matter ha(-1)). Experimental line 409-704 buffelgrass [Cenchrus ciliaris L. syn. Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link], 'Carostan' flaccidgrass (Pennisetum flaccidum Greisb.), 'Palar' Wilman lovegrass (Eragrostis superba Peyr.), and P.I. 269961 Oriental pennisetum (Pennisetum orientale Rich) yielded less than 3,000 kg dry matter ha(-1) at Stephenville and were invaded by weeds. Tillers per plant generally explained most of the yield differences as plant density was held constant. Ermelo lovegrass and WW-B.Dahl old world bluestem produced 2 to 3 times more tillers plant(-1) than other grasses. Concentrations of neutral detergent fiber were higher (P < 0.05) in digitgrass and the lovegrasses than in other grasses (39 vs 36% of dry matter). These data indicate that WW-B.Dahl old world bluestem and Irene tufted digit-grass should be useful in forage-livestock systems in central Texas.
    • Yield and quality of WW-Iron Master and caucasian bluestem regrowth

      White, L. M.; Dewald, C. L. (Society for Range Management, 1996-01-01)
      Old World bluestems (Bothriochloa spp.) have been seeded on over a million hectares of marginal farmland in Oklahoma and Texas, yet we know little about their regrowth yield and quality. The objective was to determine seasonal pattern of forage regrowth yield and quality of leaves and stems of WW-Iron Master (B. ischaemum [L.] Keng) and Caucasian (B. caucasica [Trin.] C.E. Hubb.) bluestem when 4-week regrowth was harvested at weekly intervals from early May through mid-September. Four plots of each bluestem were established in each of the 4 blocks (32 plots total). Harvesting was rotated so that 4-week regrowth of each bluestem was harvested weekly from 1 of the 4 plots in each block during 1988 and 1989 to determine regrowth yield, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), and crude protein (CP) of leaves and stems. Forage regrowth of both species peaked in June both years. Regrowth during August averaged 10 and 35% of June regrowth in 1988 and 1989. WW-Iron Master produced 80 and 45 % greater 4-week regrowth than Caucasian in 1988 and 1989. WW-Iron Master produced 75 and 28% greater leaf regrowth than Caucasian in 1988 and 1989 and twice as many stems both years. Leaf and stem IVDMD of WW-Iron Master averaged 2 to 6 percentage units higher than Caucasian. Leaf CP of WW-Iron Master averaged 2 percentage units higher than Caucasian during May and June. However, stem CP of WW-Iron Master averaged 1 percentage unit lower than Caucasian. Grazing management plans need to consider that the majority of bluestem forage production was restricted to a 1 month period in June. This technique of sampling 4-week regrowth every week during the growing season was an effective method for determining the seasonal regrowth pattern.
    • Yield Increases from Nitrogen on Native Range in Southern British Columbia

      Mason, J. L.; Miltimore, J. E. (Society for Range Management, 1969-03-01)
      Response of native range to nitrogen fertilizer has been variable in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Yields have been approximately doubled at many sites reported, but at others virtually no increase has been obtained. It is therefore of interest to report results at 9 additional locations. Average yields from 7 locations over periods from 1 to 4 years from a single fertilizer application were 507 lb/acre without fertilizer, 701 lb from 60 lb/acre N and 880 lb from 240 lb/acre N. Yield increases from 60 lb N averaged from 4 locations declined from 68% in the first year to 35% in the second, 14% in the third, and 6% in the fourth. However, yield increases from 240 lb N remained high with 73% increase the first year, 58% in the second, 92% in the third, and 101% in the fourth year. Cost of the increased yield ranged from $6.40 to $98.00/ton.
    • Yield of Crested Wheatgrass Following Release from Sagebrush Competition by 2,4-D

      Robertson, J. H. (Society for Range Management, 1969-07-01)
      Rate of increase in yield of crested wheatgrass following use of herbicide on associated sagebrush was measured over four years, including the year of treatment. Significant increases in yield, which were probably worthwhile economically, did not begin until the third year after spraying.
    • Yield of Three Range Grasses Grown Alone and in Mixtures with Legumes

      McGinnies, W. J.; Townsend, C. E. (Society for Range Management, 1983-05-01)
      Four legumes and 3 grasses in combination, and the 3 grasses alone were evaluated for forage yield and persistence for 9 years in north-central Colorado. Sicklepod milkvetch (Astragalus falcatus), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) or crownvetch (Coronilla varia) were planted in alternate rows with crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum), Russian wildrye (Elymus junceus), or pubescent wheatgrass (A. trichophorum). Crownvetch failed to become established. Sainfoin, a short-lived species under Colorado range conditions, was gone within 5 years. Alfalfa persisted 7 years; it was killed by a combination of drought and pocket gophers. Sicklepod milkvetch persisted for the entire period. This site was too dry for pubescent wheatgrass and its stand declined rapidly. Crested wheatgrass with sicklepod milkvetch or alfalfa, and Russian wildrye with alfalfa produced the highest total yields. All grass-legume mixtures involving crested wheatgrass and Russian wildrye produced significantly more forage than the grasses grown alone in 30 cm row spacing. Crude protein content was higher for grass-legume mixtures than for the grass alone.
    • Yield response of needle-and-thread and threadleaf sedge to moisture regime and spring and fall defoliation

      Koehler, A. E.; Whisenhunt, W. D.; Volesky, J. D.; Reece, P. E.; Holman, T. L.; Moser, L. E. (Society for Range Management, 2014-01)
      Little information is available to help managers of cool-season dominated semiarid rangelands determine when to begin and end grazing in the spring and fall. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of clipping spring and fall growth on subsequent-year yield of needle-and-thread (Hesperostipa comata [Trin. & Rupr.] Barkworth) and threadleaf sedge (Carex filifolia Nutt.) (USDA-NRCS 2012) using a randomized complete block, split-plot experimental design with fall moisture regimes (ambient or supplemental water) applied to main plots and defoliation treatments applied to subplots. Two combinations of spring defoliation, one for each fall moisture regime, were composed of a factorial array of three spring clipping dates (early May, late May, mid-June) and three levels of defoliation (0%, 40%, 80%). A third combination of treatments was composed of the supplemental water regime and an array of a single spring clipping date (late May), a single fall clipping date (late September, after regrowth), and three levels of defoliation (0%, 40%, 80%) in the same year. Ambient fall moisture was low, leading to continued senescence of needle-and-thread and threadleaf sedge, whereas the application of 10 cm of supplemental water in mid-August stimulated fall growth. The study was replicated with two sets of main plots at four sites in consecutive years, 2002 and 2003. Yield data were collected in mid-June of the year following treatment. Subsequent-year yield of needle-and-thread was not affected by defoliation under average plant-year precipitation conditions (2003) (P > 0.05); however, it was reduced following heavy (80%) late spring (late May or June) defoliation during a drought year (2002) (P > 0.05). Subsequent-year yield of threadleaf sedge was not affected by defoliation in either year (P > 0.05). Because it is difficult to predict when drought will occur, avoiding heavy late-spring grazing in needle-and-thread-dominated pastures in consecutive years would be prudent. © 2014 The Society for Range Management.
    • Yield Response to Time of Burning in the Kansas Flint Hills

      Owensby, C. E.; Anderson, K. L. (Society for Range Management, 1967-01-01)
      The effect of time of spring burning on herbage yields in pastures grazed throughout the growing season was investigated. Early and mid-spring burning reduced forage yields but late-spring burning caused no reduction. Weed yield was significantly reduced by late-spring burning. Differences in grazing distribution apparently affected treatment responses in ordinary upland and limestone breaks range sites.
    • Yield, Survival, and Carbohydrate Reserve of Hardinggrass in Relation to Herbage Removal

      McKell, C. M.; Whalley, R. D.; Brown, V. (Society for Range Management, 1966-03-01)
      Frequent removal of herbage from hardinggrass plants during the most active period of growth resulted in reduced yields and an increase in plant death. Intensive clipping also appeared to reduce the concentration of carbohydrate reserves in stem bases. Total sugar percent was higher and fructosan percent was lower in intensively clipped plants than in plants clipped only at maturity.
    • Yield, Vigor, and Persistence of Sand Lovegrass (Eragrostis trichodes (Nutt.) Wood) Following Clipping Treatments

      Moser, L. E.; Perry, L. J. (Society for Range Management, 1983-03-01)
      Individual sand lovegrass [Eragrostis trichodes (Nutt.) Wood.] plants on a choppy sands range site in Nebraska's Sandhills were clipped with 7 different harvest regimes for 3 years to determine critical defoliation times. After 3 years unclipped plants had the greatest survival rate and plants harvested only once a year on June 10 or July 10 survived better than those with other harvest regimes. Top and root yields, new tiller counts, and total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) levels were all reduced severely with multiple harvests within one year. Sand lovegrass plants cannot tolerate close defoliation at anytime of the year although a single June defoliation appeared to be less detrimental than August defoliation. Sand lovegrass is difficult to manage when it makes up a small component of a pasture. Sand lovegrass will probably persist and yield best in a rotational grazing program where it is defoliated only once a year and some leaf area remains at the close of the grazing period. Plants are normally short lived so they should be managed to allow seed production periodically. A grazing management program necessary to maintain small amounts of sand lovegrass in a mixture may not be practical.
    • Yields and Consumption in a Southern Illinois Bluegrass-Broomsedge Pasture

      Voigt, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1953-07-01)
    • Yields of Dissolved Solids from Aspen-Grassland and Spruce-Fir Watersheds in Southwestern Alberta

      Singh, T. (Society for Range Management, 1976-09-01)
      Water quality samples representing various flow conditions were collected from the main creeks of Streeter and Marmot experimental watersheds in southwestern Alberta. Total dissolved solids were determined gravimetrically after evaporating aliquots of filtered samples. An excellent correlation between stream discharge and yield of dissolved solids was found in the two watersheds. The regression models thus established were used to estimate the yields of total dissolved solids from the streamflow data on a daily, monthly, and annual basis. The highest yield occurred in the month of June and the lowest during the low-flow months of winter. The yield of total dissolved solids transported annually amounted to 27 metric tons per square kilometer for aspen-grassland vegetation, compared to 69 metric tons per square kilometer for spruce-fir forest.
    • Yields, Nutrient Quality, and Palatability to Sheep of Fourteen Grass Accessions for Potential Use on Sagebrush-Grass Range in Southeastern Idaho

      Murray, R. B. (Society for Range Management, 1984-07-01)
      Fourteen grass accessions were evaluated in terms of yields, nutrient quality, and palatability to sheep at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station in southeastern Idaho. The interspecific hybrid (Agropyron cristatum × A. desertorum) produced the greatest amount of total biomass (which includes leaves, stems, and heads), but Russian wildryes (Psathrostachys juncea), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), and the RS- hybrid (Elytrigia repens × E. spicata) produced a greater proportion of leaf material. Crude protein contents declined with advance in plant maturity in all accessions, except Russian wildryes (Bozoisky-Select and RWR-V13) in which crude protein contents declined only slightly between June 30 and September 15. All accessions contained adequate Ca, Mg, and Mn levels in the forage throughout the spring, summer and fall. Phosphorus and Zn levels were inadequate for sheep during late summer and fall. Sulfur content was below recommended levels for sheep. Potassium levels dropped below recommended rates in some accessions on September 15, and certain accessions indicated a proneness towards inducing grass tetany in early spring based on K: (Ca + Mg) ratios. Copper levels were adequate for sheep on June 30, but 10 of 14 accessions were below recommended levels on September 15. When preference is considered without interference from seedstalks, all accessions were preferred similarly by sheep. However, preference decreased as numbers of seedstalks increased. Burning in mid-March removed dead standing seedstalks and litter providing more accessible forage, but tended to aggravate the problem by increasing the number of new seedstalks. Heavy use in the spring may reduce flowering, and produce a greater proportion of vegetative stems. An index based on leaf yields, crude protein content, and sheep preference was used to rank species. This index ranked the Russian wildrye (Bozoisky-Select) first followed by RWR-V13 second.
    • You Can't Turn 'Em Loose—Or Can You?

      Jones, Dale A.; Paddock, Raymond (Society for Range Management, 1966-03-01)
    • Ytterbium-Labeled forage as a Marker for Estimation of Cattle Fecal Output

      Musimba, N. K. R.; Galyean, M. L.; Holechek, J. L.; Pieper, R. D. (Society for Range Management, 1987-09-01)
      This study evaluated the accuracy of a once daily dose of ytterbium (Yb)-labeled forage as a marker to estimate fecal output of cattle grazing at the National Range Research Station, Kiboko, Kenya. Ytterbium-labeled forage was administered daily to 15 zebu steers for 10 consecutive days for each of 3 trials. During the last 5 days of each trial, fecal grab samples were collected at 6-h intervals. During this same 5-day period, total fecal output was collected from 9 of the steers. Ytterbium estimates of fecal output were 114%, 104%, and 144% of actual fecal output for March, April, and July trials, respectively. Dry matter and organic matter intake estimates between Yb and total collection procedures differed (P<.05) in the July trial, but not the March and April trials. Compared with total fecal collection, Yb overestimated organic matter intake by 20, 2, and 40%, respectively for March, April and July trials. Based on our results, daily dosing of Yb-labeled forage will provide reasonable estimates of fecal output when relative estimates of intake between range management treatments are needed.