Now showing items 21-40 of 2880

    • Reinterpreting the 1882 Bison Population Collapse

      Stoneberg, Holt, S. D. (Society for Range Management, 2018-08)
      Many people believe grazing management is vital to ecosystem health. Others feel ecosystems are only healthy when nature takes its course. The Great Plains bison population of the early 1800s supposedly supports the superiority of goal-free grazing management. By 1883, bison were virtually extinct, and hunting is usually blamed. However, records indicate that hunters killed less than the annual increase each year. Evidence implicates disease and habitat degradation instead. Comparing Allan Savory's observations in Africa, Lewis and Clark's observations in eastern Montana, and Blackfoot history, indications are the bison disappearance was perhaps triggered by the loss of intelligent human management. The Author
    • Influences of Precipitation on Bison Weights in the Northern Great Plains

      Licht, D. S.; Johnson, D. H. (Society for Range Management, 2018-08)
      We evaluated relationships between bison weights and prior precipitation during 1983 to 2015 for Wind Cave and 1998 to 2015 for Badlands National Parks. We generally found positive correlations between weights for most sex and age cohorts and precipitation during each of the preceding 7 years. The association was strongest for yearlings. We speculate that rainfall several years prior can improve forage, which affects the condition of cows, which affects neonatal weights and subsequent growth of young bison. Correlations were stronger for a moving average of previous precipitation, suggesting a cumulative effect. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of long-term monitoring for better understanding of grassland ecosystems.
    • Browsing the Literature

      Germino, M. (Society for Range Management, 2018-08)
    • Highlights

      Sheley, R. (Society for Range Management, 2018-08)
    • Forum: A Framework for Resetting Wild Horse and Burro Management

      Perryman, B. L.; McCuin, G.; Schultz, B. W. (Society for Range Management, 2018-10)
      There are now over 130,000 head of wild horses and burros in the Bureau of Land Management program. Management tools in the original authorizations (Wild Horse and Burro Act; Public Rangelands Improvement Act) have been inhibited or banned by subsequent appropriation riders. The original framework for horse and burro management has been undermined, leading to on-range populations in excess of legally mandated levels. New, creative approaches to horse and burro management are required to bring populations back to legally mandated and ecologically appropriate levels. The Society for Range Management
    • Utilization and Residual Measurements: Tools for Adaptive Rangeland Management

      Society for Range Management, 2018-10
      Utilization levels and residual height are tools for adaptive management, not management objectives. Utilization/residual measurements are subject to many sources of sampling, procedural and personal errors. Season of measurement has a strong influence on interpretation of results. Utilization/residual guidelines are not rigid limits to be met every year, but a tool to identify stocking rate or distribution problems over several years. Utilization/residual data must be relevant to management objectives. Time, location, and protocol for measurement must be documented in plans, reports or management decisions based on the use of the data. The Society for Range Management
    • The Influence of Protection From Grazing on Cholistan Desert Vegetation, Pakistan

      Zubair, M.; Saleem, A.; Baig, M. A.; Islam, M.; Razzaq, A.; Gul, S.; Ahmad, S.; Moyo, H. P.; Hassan, S.; Rischkowsky, B.; et al. (Society for Range Management, 2018-10)
      The information from this study is important for helping promote a more sustainable use of resources, such as grasses and shrubs, and in increasing an understanding of the utilization dynamics and their impact on potential recovery in the study area and beyond. This study contributes insight toward ensuring the achievement of conservation measures outside protected areas to restore biodiversity in degraded habitats, through comparing the plant characteristics between a protected and unprotected site. This study substantiates other findings, which suggest that using protected areas is one of several strategies that need to be adopted for recovering lost biodiversity and ensure their effective management. This study improves our understanding of how shifts in vegetation characteristics resulting from land use change and management can modify the recovery of, in the case of Cholistan, previously grazed vegetation. The Society for Range Management
    • Controlling One-Seed Juniper Saplings With Small Ruminants: What We Have Learned

      Estell, R. E.; Cibils, A. F.; Utsumi, S. A.; Stricklan, D.; Butler, E. M.; Fish, A. I.; Ganguli, A. C. (Society for Range Management, 2018-10)
      Protein supplements and polyethylene glycol increased juniper intake by small ruminants in all seasons except fall, when PSM concentrations were greatest. Terpenes were affected by season and sapling size, and were related to juniper intake by small ruminants. Small sapling browsing occurred most frequently in summer. Debarking of branches on taller saplings was greatest in spring. Ten years later, juniper kill ranged from 5-14%. Growth suppression was still evident after 10 years; browsed saplings averaged 13 cm shorter than controls. Strategies to target grazing of one-seed juniper are more likely to succeed if aligned with periods when PSM are lowest. The Society for Range Management
    • A Comparison of Two Herbaceous Cover Sampling Methods to Assess Ecosystem Services in High-Shrub Rangelands: Photography-Based Grid Point Intercept (GPI) Versus Quadrat Sampling

      Hulvey, K. B.; Thomas, K.; Thacker, E. (Society for Range Management, 2018-10)
      We used photography-based grid point intercept (GPI) analysis and Daubenmire to assess ecosystem services in high-shrub rangelands. Cover estimates were higher for some functional groups when using Daubenmire, likely because Daubenmire frames were situated below the shrub canopy and thus included subcanopy cover, whereas GPI photographs taken above the canopy could not eliminate shrubs that obscured subcanopy attributes. Choice of methods affected assessment of two ecosystem services: sage-grouse habitat quality and site biodiversity; each was higher when using Daubenmire. Understanding cover-estimate differences that stem from using GPI photo plots versus Daubenmire will allow practitioners to decide if GPI methods address project objectives.
    • Browsing the Literature

      Germino, M. (Society for Range Management, 2018-10)
    • Highlights

      Sheley, R. (Society for Range Management, 2018-10)
    • Foreword: Who Will Speak for the Land?

      Pluhar, J. (Society for Range Management, 2018-12)
    • Ecological Health of Grasslands and Sagebrush Steppe on the Northern Yellowstone Range

      Hunter, H. E.; Husby, P. O.; Fidel, J.; Mosley, J. C. (Society for Range Management, 2018-12)
      Native plant abundances within the grasslands and sagebrush steppe of the Northern Range decreased substantially during the 20th century and the degradation has continued during the 21st century. Forage production has declined precipitously, and ecological processes (i.e., water cycle, energy flow, and nutrient cycle) are impaired and degrading further. The declining health of Northern Range grasslands and sagebrush steppe is primarily caused by heavy grazing and browsing by bison and elk, not climatic changes. Excessive grazing and browsing is caused by modern-day management decisions that allowed bison and elk populations to become much larger than primeval times. National Park Service policy requires human intervention (i.e., active management) when human actions have impaired natural ecological processes or altered natural abundances of native plants and animals.
    • History and Status of Wild Ungulate Populations on the Northern Yellowstone Range

      Mosley, J. C.; Mundinger, J. G. (Society for Range Management, 2018-12)
      Native bison and elk co-dominate the assemblage of wild ungulates on the Northern Range, one of the largest and most diverse assemblages of wild ungulates in the western hemisphere. The elk population on the Northern Range in 2018 is 30% larger than the natural, primeval population. The Northern Range bison population in 2018 is 10 times (1,000%) larger than the natural, primeval population. It is unlikely that bison and elk populations inside Yellowstone National Park will be reduced by increased predation by wolves, grizzly bears, or mountain lions because the populations of these carnivores are unlikely to increase - they are controlled currently by intraspecific competition for territory. National Park Service policy requires human intervention (i.e., active management) when unnaturally high numbers of native animals and their negative impacts are caused by humans. The unnaturally high numbers of bison and elk on the Northern Range today resulted from modern-day management decisions based on a misguided paradigm that did not acknowledge the ecological importance of hunting by Native Americans. We suggest that National Park Service personnel work collaboratively with federal, tribal, state, and private partners to develop an adaptive management strategy to purposely restore Northern Range bison and elk populations to their natural, primeval sizes.
    • An Ecological Assessment of the Northern Yellowstone Range: Synthesis and Call to Action

      Mosley, J. C.; Fidel, J.; Hunter, H. E.; Husby, P. O.; Kay, C. E.; Mundinger, J. G.; Yonk, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 2018-12)
    • Human Influences on the Northern Yellowstone Range

      Yonk, R. M.; Mosley, J. C.; Husby, P. O. (Society for Range Management, 2018-12)
      For thousands of years before Yellowstone National Park was created in 1872, hunting and burning by Native Americans were fundamental components of the natural ecological processes on the Northern Range. Impacts by Euro-American fur trappers, miners, ranchers, natural resource managers, tourists, and others have shaped the land and wildlife of the Northern Range for the past two centuries. More controlled burning is needed today to purposely mimic the low-intensity fires set by Native Americans in the prehistoric and historical past. Greater control of bison and elk populations is needed today to sustain the natural abundances of native plants and animals and sustain the natural functioning of ecosystem processes. More controlled burning and greater control of bison and elk numbers are actions consistent with National Park Service policy and consistent with current management of other U.S. national parks.
    • The Condition and Trend of Aspen, Willows, and Associated Species on the Northern Yellowstone Range

      Kay, C. E. (Society for Range Management, 2018-12)
      Aspen, willows, cottonwoods and other deciduous shrubs and trees play a pivotal role in the natural ecosystem function of the Northern Range, and they provide critical habitat for numerous species of native plants and animals. Deciduous shrubs and trees were much more abundant on the Northern Range in primeval times than they are today, especially on the portion of the Northern Range inside Yellowstone National Park. The primary cause of the declines in deciduous shrubs and trees is repeated heavy browsing by elk and bison–not normal plant succession or climatic changes - and heavy browsing is continuing to further degrade most Northern Range aspen, willow, and cottonwood plant communities inside Yellowstone National Park. Excessive browsing is occurring because modern-day management has allowed bison and elk populations to become unnaturally large. Current policy directs the National Park Service to intervene with active management where primeval and present conditions differ because of human actions.
    • An Ecological Assessment of the Northern Yellowstone Range: Introduction to the Special Issue

      Mosley, J. C.; Fidel, J.; Hunter, H. E.; Husby, P. O.; Kay, C. E.; Mundinger, J. G.; Yonk, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 2018-12)