Now showing items 61-80 of 2930

    • Highlights

      Sheley, R. (Society for Range Management, 2018-04)
    • Browsing the Literature

      Germino, M. (Society for Range Management, 2018-04)
    • Impact of Grasshopper Control on Forage Quality and Availability in Western Nebraska

      Bradshaw, J. D.; Jenkins, K. H.; Whipple, S. D. (Society for Range Management, 2018-06)
      Grasshopper outbreaks in Nebraska have resulted in losses over $2 million per year due to lost forage for livestock. As much as 23% of western U.S. forage is consumed by grasshoppers annually. Controlling grasshoppers reduced grasshopper numbers without negatively impacting beneficial insects. In 2011, 29 more 318 kg steers could have grazed a 1000 hectare pasture for a 5 month growing season due to grasshopper suppression. In 2012 (a drought year), 54 more steers could have been grazed if grasshoppers were controlled. Grasshopper infestation can result in significant reduction in livestock grazing capacity especially in dry conditions.
    • Viewpoint: An Alternative Management Paradigm for Plant Communities Affected by Invasive Annual Grass in the Intermountain West

      Perryman, B. L.; Schultz, B. W.; McAdoo, J. K.; Alverts, R. L.; Cervantes, J. C.; Foster, S.; McCuin, G.; Swanson, S. (Society for Range Management, 2018-06)
      Over 400,000 km2 of the Intermountain West is colonized by cheatgrass and other annual grasses. Planning and management actions designed to foster perennial grass health throughout the region have never addressed how annual grasses would respond. For decades, the most significant landscape-level management approach toward invasive annual grasses has been to complain. We now know how to begin the process of taking the Intermountain West back from the domination of invasive annual grasses: through the management of standing dead litter. Sustaining perennial bunchgrasses at landscape scales will require an integrated ecological approach to fuels management. The Society for Range Management
    • Ranching Sustainability in the Northern Great Plains: An Appraisal of Local Perspectives

      Haggerty, J. H.; Auger, M.; Epstein, K. (Society for Range Management, 2018-06)
      In eight counties in Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska characterized by high levels of intact Northern Great Plains grassland habitat, ranchers observe the following sustainability challenges: Land prices and lack of land for purchaseProfitabilityFamily succession and community change (depopulation)Notably, they do not anticipate extensive cropland conversion in the western edge of the Northern Great Plains. We observed differences in the experience of these challenges based on the ranch ownership lifecycle. In response, we recommend that conservation and government programs focused on sustainable ranching should adopt a framework for strategy and program evaluated based on the lifecycle framework. Assisting emerging ranchers, according to this research effort, will demand more than coming up with loan funds or extra forage. Rather it will mean rethinking the existing pathway that operators follow on the route from emerging to established ranchers. In addition, conservation and government programs and future research should address the impacts and patterns of land agglomeration in the Northern Great Plains. The Society for Range Management
    • Highlights

      Sheley, R. (Society for Range Management, 2018-06)
    • Browsing the Literature

      Germino, M. (Society for Range Management, 2018-06)
    • Army Cutworm Outbreak Produced Cheatgrass Die-offs and Defoliated Shrubs in Southwest Idaho in 2014

      Salo, C. (Society for Range Management, 2018-08)
      Army cutworms consumed cheatgrass to produce cheatgrass die-offs at low elevations in southwest Idaho in 2014. The larvae also consumed foliage and bark of native shrubs. Army cutworm outbreaks seem to occur after many adult moths lay eggs in areas experiencing drought, which received late summer rain to germinate winter annuals, but little subsequent precipitation through the following winter. Army cutworms hide in plain sight by feeding at night in winter and hiding in soil or under objects during the day. A network of observers in the Intermountain West could help rangeland managers identify die-offs for reseeding with desirable species. The Society for Range Management
    • Reinterpreting the 1882 Bison Population Collapse

      Stoneberg, Holt, S. D. (Society for Range Management, 2018-08)
      Many people believe grazing management is vital to ecosystem health. Others feel ecosystems are only healthy when nature takes its course. The Great Plains bison population of the early 1800s supposedly supports the superiority of goal-free grazing management. By 1883, bison were virtually extinct, and hunting is usually blamed. However, records indicate that hunters killed less than the annual increase each year. Evidence implicates disease and habitat degradation instead. Comparing Allan Savory's observations in Africa, Lewis and Clark's observations in eastern Montana, and Blackfoot history, indications are the bison disappearance was perhaps triggered by the loss of intelligent human management. The Author
    • Influences of Precipitation on Bison Weights in the Northern Great Plains

      Licht, D. S.; Johnson, D. H. (Society for Range Management, 2018-08)
      We evaluated relationships between bison weights and prior precipitation during 1983 to 2015 for Wind Cave and 1998 to 2015 for Badlands National Parks. We generally found positive correlations between weights for most sex and age cohorts and precipitation during each of the preceding 7 years. The association was strongest for yearlings. We speculate that rainfall several years prior can improve forage, which affects the condition of cows, which affects neonatal weights and subsequent growth of young bison. Correlations were stronger for a moving average of previous precipitation, suggesting a cumulative effect. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of long-term monitoring for better understanding of grassland ecosystems.
    • Browsing the Literature

      Germino, M. (Society for Range Management, 2018-08)
    • Highlights

      Sheley, R. (Society for Range Management, 2018-08)
    • Forum: A Framework for Resetting Wild Horse and Burro Management

      Perryman, B. L.; McCuin, G.; Schultz, B. W. (Society for Range Management, 2018-10)
      There are now over 130,000 head of wild horses and burros in the Bureau of Land Management program. Management tools in the original authorizations (Wild Horse and Burro Act; Public Rangelands Improvement Act) have been inhibited or banned by subsequent appropriation riders. The original framework for horse and burro management has been undermined, leading to on-range populations in excess of legally mandated levels. New, creative approaches to horse and burro management are required to bring populations back to legally mandated and ecologically appropriate levels. The Society for Range Management
    • Utilization and Residual Measurements: Tools for Adaptive Rangeland Management

      Society for Range Management, 2018-10
      Utilization levels and residual height are tools for adaptive management, not management objectives. Utilization/residual measurements are subject to many sources of sampling, procedural and personal errors. Season of measurement has a strong influence on interpretation of results. Utilization/residual guidelines are not rigid limits to be met every year, but a tool to identify stocking rate or distribution problems over several years. Utilization/residual data must be relevant to management objectives. Time, location, and protocol for measurement must be documented in plans, reports or management decisions based on the use of the data. The Society for Range Management
    • The Influence of Protection From Grazing on Cholistan Desert Vegetation, Pakistan

      Zubair, M.; Saleem, A.; Baig, M. A.; Islam, M.; Razzaq, A.; Gul, S.; Ahmad, S.; Moyo, H. P.; Hassan, S.; Rischkowsky, B.; et al. (Society for Range Management, 2018-10)
      The information from this study is important for helping promote a more sustainable use of resources, such as grasses and shrubs, and in increasing an understanding of the utilization dynamics and their impact on potential recovery in the study area and beyond. This study contributes insight toward ensuring the achievement of conservation measures outside protected areas to restore biodiversity in degraded habitats, through comparing the plant characteristics between a protected and unprotected site. This study substantiates other findings, which suggest that using protected areas is one of several strategies that need to be adopted for recovering lost biodiversity and ensure their effective management. This study improves our understanding of how shifts in vegetation characteristics resulting from land use change and management can modify the recovery of, in the case of Cholistan, previously grazed vegetation. The Society for Range Management
    • Controlling One-Seed Juniper Saplings With Small Ruminants: What We Have Learned

      Estell, R. E.; Cibils, A. F.; Utsumi, S. A.; Stricklan, D.; Butler, E. M.; Fish, A. I.; Ganguli, A. C. (Society for Range Management, 2018-10)
      Protein supplements and polyethylene glycol increased juniper intake by small ruminants in all seasons except fall, when PSM concentrations were greatest. Terpenes were affected by season and sapling size, and were related to juniper intake by small ruminants. Small sapling browsing occurred most frequently in summer. Debarking of branches on taller saplings was greatest in spring. Ten years later, juniper kill ranged from 5-14%. Growth suppression was still evident after 10 years; browsed saplings averaged 13 cm shorter than controls. Strategies to target grazing of one-seed juniper are more likely to succeed if aligned with periods when PSM are lowest. The Society for Range Management
    • A Comparison of Two Herbaceous Cover Sampling Methods to Assess Ecosystem Services in High-Shrub Rangelands: Photography-Based Grid Point Intercept (GPI) Versus Quadrat Sampling

      Hulvey, K. B.; Thomas, K.; Thacker, E. (Society for Range Management, 2018-10)
      We used photography-based grid point intercept (GPI) analysis and Daubenmire to assess ecosystem services in high-shrub rangelands. Cover estimates were higher for some functional groups when using Daubenmire, likely because Daubenmire frames were situated below the shrub canopy and thus included subcanopy cover, whereas GPI photographs taken above the canopy could not eliminate shrubs that obscured subcanopy attributes. Choice of methods affected assessment of two ecosystem services: sage-grouse habitat quality and site biodiversity; each was higher when using Daubenmire. Understanding cover-estimate differences that stem from using GPI photo plots versus Daubenmire will allow practitioners to decide if GPI methods address project objectives.