• Iron Age Mediterranean Chronology: A Reply

      Bruins, Hendrik J.; Nijboer, Albert J.; van der Plicht, Johannes (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2011-01-01)
      This article is a reply to the preceding rejoinder by Fantalkin et al., which they wrote in response to our article concerning radiocarbon dates of Iron Age sites in the Mediterranean region measured at Groningen (van der Plicht et al. 2009). We do not agree with much of their criticism. Our reply is presented in detail with new viewpoints and evaluations concerning a number of sites in the Levant, including Tel Dan, Megiddo Stratum VIA (= K/4), Horvat Haluqim, Tell el-Qudeirat, Khirbet en-Nahas, Tel Rehov, as well as sites in the central and western Mediterranean region, particularly Carthage and Huelva. Our main conclusions are that 14C dating supports an Iron Age High Chronology for the above sites, though more 14C dating is required, particularly in Greece and the central and western Mediterranean region, to substantiate and refine the current state of knowledge. We prefer detailed investigations per individual site, evaluating both 14C dates and site stratigraphy, rather than the wholesale averaging of strata over many sites, which may lead to oversimplification and erroneous results, also on stratigraphic grounds. Contrary to Fantalkin et al. (2011), we emphasize the importance of 14C dating as an independent methodology--chronostratigraphy--to evaluate site stratigraphy. The 14C dates of Megiddo Stratum VIA (=K/4) clearly indicate field-stratigraphic problems at this site.