• 14C Dating of a Final Neolithic-Early Bronze Age Transition Period Settlement at Aghios Ioannis on Thassos (North Aegean)

      Maniatis, Y.; Papadopoulos, S. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2011-01-01)
      The transitional period known as the Final Neolithic-Early Bronze Age in Greece, falling in terms of absolute dates within the 4th millennium BC, is an obscure and enigmatic period. Few sites in northern Greece or the southern Balkans have produced evidence of 4th millennium BC occupation, and the sites that do are mainly concentrated in the last third of the 4th millennium toward the beginning of the EBA. This paper presents archaeological evidence and radiocarbon dates from a site that covers part of the gap, Aghios Ioannis on Thassos, the northernmost Aegean island. It is a coastal site of seasonal occupation and most probably depended on organized animal husbandry plus hunting and fishing activities. From the first excavations in 1996, there was evidence that the site was occupied during the Final Neolithic to the beginning of the Early Bronze Age. The 14C dates obtained fall towards the end of the 4th millennium if not closer to the middle. The presence of human activity in this last part of the 4th millennium 'gap' on Thassos is by itself an interesting discovery that enlarges our knowledge for this obscure period and is of environmental and cultural significance.
    • AMS Radiocarbon Dates from Three Shellmounds in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA

      Schneider, Tsim D. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2011-01-01)
      This paper presents a set of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates obtained from various archaeological samples collected from 3 shellmounds--CA-MRN-114, CA-MRN-115, and CA-MRN-328--within China Camp State Park, Marin County, California, USA.
    • Antarctic Radiocarbon Reservoir: The Case of the Mummified Crabeater Seals (Lobodon carcinophaga) in Bodman Cape, Seymour Island, Antarctica

      Negrete, Javier; Soibelzon, Esteban; Tonni, Eduardo P.; Carlini, Alejandro; Soibelzon, Leopoldo H.; Polja, Sebastian; Huarte, Roberto A.; Carbonari, Jorge E. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2011-01-01)
      The hypothesis is presented that an abrupt rise in atmospheric radiocarbon concentration evident in the Cariaco Basin varve record at 12,837 +/- 10 cal yr BP, contemporaneous with the Rancholabrean termination, may have been produced by a super-sized solar proton event (SPE) having a fluence of ~1.3 x 1011 protons/cm2. A SPE of this magnitude would have been large enough to deliver a lethal radiation dose of at least 3-6 Sv to the Earth's surface, and hence could have been a principal cause of the final termination of the Pleistocene megafauna and several genera of smaller mammals and birds. The event time-correlates with a large-magnitude acidity spike found at 1708.65 m in the GISP2 Greenland ice record, which is associated with high NO-3 ion concentrations and a rapid rise in 10Be deposition rate, all of which are indicators of a sudden cosmic-ray influx. The depletion of nitrate ions within this acidic ice layer suggests that the snowpack surface at that time was exposed to intense UV for a prolonged period, which is consistent with a temporary destruction of the polar ozone layer by solar cosmic rays. The acidity event also coincides with a large-magnitude, abrupt climatic excursion and is associated with elevated ammonium ion concentrations, an indicator of global fires.
    • Chronological Distribution of Brazilian Glyptodon sp. Remains: A Direct 14C Date for a Specimen from Iporanga, São Paulo, Brazil

      Hubbe, Alex; Vasconcelos, Andre G.; Vilaboim, Luciano; Karmann, Ivo; Neves, Walter (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2011-01-01)
      Glyptodon sp. fossil remains can be found throughout Brazil. However, little information is available about their chronological distribution. With the intention to contribute to this issue, we present, as far as we know, the first direct radiocarbon date for 1 specimen of this genus found in Brazil. The osteoderm MZSP-PV660 found in Abismo do Fóssil Cave (SP-145), Iporanga, São Paulo, Brazil, was dated by accelerator mass spectrometry at the Beta Analytic Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. The 14C date obtained was between 20,680 and 21,370 calibrated years before the present. Unfortunately, the scant (and often imprecise or unreliable) chronological data regarding this species and genus in Brazil and elsewhere in South America precludes a robust comparison among the dates available and the one presented here. Nevertheless, our finding supports the existence of this genus in South America at least until the Last Glacial Maximum.
    • Dating of Groundwater Recharge in Two Small Adjacent Aquifers in Israel and Their Initial 14C Activities

      Guttman, J.; Kronfeld, J.; Carmi, I. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2011-01-01)
      Radiocarbon and tritium determinations were carried out in 2 adjacent small aquifers in Israel. These aquifers have small storage capacities and good hydraulic properties. Darcy calculations suggest that the aquifers contain young waters, ~50 yr in age. 14C concentrations in the Pleistocene aquifer are between 23-60 pMC, with the lowest activity related to contamination by petroleum-based fertilizers with no 14C. 14C concentrations in the Judea Group aquifer range from 62 to 95 pMC. An apparent difference of ~1000 yr is indicated for the average recharge age between the 2 aquifers. The tritium data suggests that the water in both aquifers is quite young. The 1000-yr difference is an artifact of initial isotopic fractionation differences through the unsaturated zone as established elsewhere for these 2 aquifers. When these individual fractionation factors (0.54 for the Pleistocene and 0.62 for the Judea Group) are used, it is revealed that both aquifers contain young water, in agreement with the Darcy calculation, which was recharged at the beginning of the period of thermonuclear atmospheric testing in the early 1960s.
    • Development of Radiocarbon Dating Method for Degraded Bone Samples from Korean Archaeological Sites

      Kim, K. J.; Hong, W.; Park, J. H.; Woo, H. J.; Hodgins, G.; Jull, A. J. T.; Lee, Y. J.; Kim, J. Y. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2011-01-01)
      The development of radiocarbon dating for degraded bone samples collected at Korean archaeological sites has been successful through the characterization of raw bone C/N ratios and application of an ultrafiltration method. It was found that the C/N ratios of raw bone samples are inversely proportional to the carbon content and residue amount after gelatinization. We have examined a few dozen Korean archaeological bone samples for this study. Well-preserved bone samples are found to be physically dense. The range of C/N ratios of Korean raw bone samples ranged from 3.4 to 74. We found that the C/N ratios of degraded raw bone samples can be used to determine whether 14C samples are acceptable for normal pretreatment processing and eventual dating. The results of this study support that even if the C/N ratio of a degraded raw bone sample is 11, extraction of collagen for bone dating is feasible by a carefully designed ultrafiltration process. Our preliminary 14C dating results of a depth profile of Gunang-gul Cave, an archaeological site in Danyang, Korea, indicate that this site has been either geologically or anthropologically disturbed in the past, with 14C ages ranging from 28,910 +/- 200 to 48,090 +/- 1050 yr BP. The C/N ratios of the collagen samples of Gunang-gul were determined to be 3.2-3.6. Our study establishes a new guide for the pretreatment of degraded bone samples such as those collected in Korea for 14C dating.
    • Editorial Board

      Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2011-01-01
    • High-Resolution Age Model Based on AMS Radiocarbon Ages for Kettle Lake, North Dakota, USA

      Grimm, Eric C. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2011-01-01)
      A high-resolution age model was developed for Kettle Lake, North Dakota, USA, from a series of 53 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon ages calibrated with Bayesian statistical methods, which provide a monotonically increasing series of calibrated ages with depth. Evident in the sediment are several slumps, debris flows, or landslides, which are confirmed by 14C dating. Removal of these facies produces a continuous sedimentary sequence for the past 13,000 yr with exception of one ~260-yr hiatus associated with a 1.5-m-thick slump deposit. All ages except one are on terrestrial macrofossils and charcoal. A test age on aquatic organic detritus shows a hardwater effect of 600 yr at ~2000 cal BP. Two ages from the same level on herbaceous charcoal and Chenopodium seeds are statistically the same, which further demonstrates the suitability of charcoal from grassland environments for AMS 14C age control. However, 2 specimens of wood charcoal are too old relative to bracketing ages and glacial geologic history. These ages confirm the sedimentary interpretation of redeposition and provide a caution about the longevity of wood charcoal in the environment and its suitability for age control in lacustrine sediments.
    • IFAN Radiocarbon Laboratory Measurements I

      Ndeye, Maurice; Sene, Matar; Diallo, Alpha Oumar (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2011-01-01)
      Results obtained from a liquid scintillation counter using BGO (Bi4Ge3012) tubes have produced more precise radiocarbon dates in our laboratory. Duplicate analyses confirm the electronic stability of the counter with a background of 0.1 cpm. Our 14C dates agree well with those from another laboratory (Paris 6-LOCEAN). Most of the 14C dates in this study were obtained on samples taken from different archaeological sites. Calibration of the various dates with the appropriate software (CALIB 5.0 in our case) allows better interpretation of the results and their importance in this understudied region. In this paper, we investigate the performance of the counter by analyzing samples from archaeological and marine sites in Senegal and Mauritania, and report the results in our first laboratory date list.
    • Iron Age Mediterranean Chronology: A Rejoinder

      Fantalkin, Alexander; Finkelstein, Israel; Piasetzky, Eli (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2011-01-01)
      This article is a rejoinder to a recent paper in this journal by van der Plicht et al. (2009) who use radiocarbon determinations from several sites in Israel, Italy, Spain, and Tunisia to advocate a High Chronology system for the entire Mediterranean Basin. We contend that they reached mistaken conclusions due to problematic selection of sites and data. We argue that a reliable way to provide absolute dates for the Iron Age in the central and western Mediterranean is by employing a combination of well-identified Greek pottery found in well-stratified sites and radiometric results from short-lived samples. For the time being, this combination exists only in the Levant, and provides an anchor for Greek chronology, which supports the Conventional Chronology for the Aegean Basin, which corresponds to the Low Chronology in the Levant.
    • Iron Age Mediterranean Chronology: A Reply

      Bruins, Hendrik J.; Nijboer, Albert J.; van der Plicht, Johannes (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2011-01-01)
      This article is a reply to the preceding rejoinder by Fantalkin et al., which they wrote in response to our article concerning radiocarbon dates of Iron Age sites in the Mediterranean region measured at Groningen (van der Plicht et al. 2009). We do not agree with much of their criticism. Our reply is presented in detail with new viewpoints and evaluations concerning a number of sites in the Levant, including Tel Dan, Megiddo Stratum VIA (= K/4), Horvat Haluqim, Tell el-Qudeirat, Khirbet en-Nahas, Tel Rehov, as well as sites in the central and western Mediterranean region, particularly Carthage and Huelva. Our main conclusions are that 14C dating supports an Iron Age High Chronology for the above sites, though more 14C dating is required, particularly in Greece and the central and western Mediterranean region, to substantiate and refine the current state of knowledge. We prefer detailed investigations per individual site, evaluating both 14C dates and site stratigraphy, rather than the wholesale averaging of strata over many sites, which may lead to oversimplification and erroneous results, also on stratigraphic grounds. Contrary to Fantalkin et al. (2011), we emphasize the importance of 14C dating as an independent methodology--chronostratigraphy--to evaluate site stratigraphy. The 14C dates of Megiddo Stratum VIA (=K/4) clearly indicate field-stratigraphic problems at this site.
    • Radiocarbon and Stable Carbon Analysis of Dissolved Methane and Carbon Dioxide from the Profile of a Raised Peat Bog

      Garnett, M. H.; Hardie, S. L.; Murray, C. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2011-01-01)
      We developed and tested a new method to separate CO2 and CH4 from bulk gas samples for radiocarbon and stable-carbon analysis that utilizes a zeolite molecular sieve. To validate the technique, tests were performed using a suite of standard gases, composed of CO2 and CH4 of distinctly different isotopic composition. We employed the method to investigate the carbon isotopic composition of samples of dissolved CO2 and CH4 collected in situ from the near surface to deep layers of an ombrotrophic raised peat bog. Results showed that the age of both the CO2 and CH4 components of the dissolved gases increased with depth from ~0-300 BP at 0.25 m to ~4000 BP at 4 m. CH4 was mainly similar or slightly older in age compared to CO2, with the greatest difference in ages occurring at 1 m depth where CH4 was older by 430-615 yr. The 13C values of CO2 increased with depth from -12.4 and -8.0 at 0.25 m to +6.9 and +8.3 at 4 m, whereas the 13C of CH4 stayed in the range -58.4 to -70.6. The 14C results from the deepest layers are consistent with a similar source for both gases. 14C ages for the CO2 component were younger compared to CH4, within the shallower depths of the peat bog (1 m) and demonstrate the incorporation of acrotelm-derived respired CO2 into the catotelm.
    • Radiocarbon Anomalies from Old CO2 in the Soil and Canopy Air

      Soter, Steven (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2011-01-01)
      The canopies of forests and cultivated fields can retard the ventilation of CO2 respired from the soil. The plants in dense canopies can then acquire a small fraction of their carbon by recycling some of the respired CO2. Furthermore, some plants can assimilate a small fraction of their carbon by uptake of CO2 in the soil via their roots. In tectonically active areas, the diffuse flux of CO2 from geological sources may be comparable to that from normal soil respiration. In such areas, both the canopy and root uptake effects may allow plants to acquire a measurable fraction of their carbon from geological sources. Because this "old" carbon lacks radiocarbon, its assimilation would increase the apparent 14C ages of the plants. These effects may account for some of the discrepancies between archaeological and 14C dates.
    • Radiocarbon Concentrations of Wood Ash Calcite: Potential for Dating

      Regev, Lior; Eckmeier, Eileen; Mintz, Eugenia; Weiner, Steve; Boaretto, Elisabetta (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2011-01-01)
      Ash is formed when plant calcium oxalate crystals (CaC2O4) decompose to form calcite (CaCO3). We found that ash does retain the original calcium oxalate radiocarbon concentration, but in addition, there is another minor 14C source. This is shown by the presence of a consistent small shift in the pMC and 13C levels when comparing cellulose and ash from modern and archaeological woods. Possible mechanisms for 14C exchange during combustion or due to diagenesis are considered in order to define parameters for identifying better-preserved wood ash samples.
    • Radiocarbon Evidence from the Middle Bronze Age Settlement at Portella (Aeolian Islands, Italy): Chronological and Archaeological Implications

      Alberti, Gianmarco (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2011-01-01)
      This paper deals with radiocarbon determinations from the Middle Bronze Age site of Portella on the island of Salina (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy). The available 14C evidence is taken into account, in a simple Bayesian model, in order to explore the issue of the absolute chronology of both the settlement and the stage of the local cultural sequence to which Portella belongs. A high date is proposed for the start of the Aeolian (and Sicilian) Middle Bronze Age: 1556-1422 cal BC (95.4% confidence), with a a most likely (modal) date of about 1450 cal BC. Further, the analysis suggests that the Portella phase is likely to have been a very short one, with a span of 0-65 yr (68.2%) or 0-131 yr (95.4%). The archaeological implications are explored. The relation of these results to the evidence of ceramic phasing is also considered. Since Aegean datable ceramic imports are documented in Aeolian/Sicilian Middle Bronze Age contexts, the connection between Portella's chronology and the absolute dating of one of the Aegean phases (namely, Late Helladic IIIA1) is also investigated.
    • Radiocarbon-Dated Paleoenvironmental Changes on a Lake and Peat Sediment Sequence from the Central Great Hungarian Plain (Central Europe) During the Last 25,000 Years

      Sümegi, Pál; Molnár, Mihály; Jakab, Gusztáv; Persaits, Gergo; Majkut, Péter; Páll, Dávid G.; Gulyás, Sándor; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Törcsik, Tünde (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2011-01-01)
      One of Hungary's geological and environmental treasures is nestled in the heart of the Great Hungarian Plain. The catchment basin of Lake Kolon was subjected to detailed environmental historical studies starting in 2005. Undisturbed cores taken along transects of the basin were subjected to detailed sedimentological, paleoecological, and geochemical studies. To establish a reliable timeframe of the lacustrine and marshland sedimentary sequence identified, 22 samples were analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in the radiocarbon laboratories of Poznań and Tucson. With the new results in hand, we had the opportunity to elucidate the geological evolution of the area for the past 25,000 yr. This sequence is highly beneficial, as it is probably the most well-dated profile of the Quaternary from the area studied. The new absolute dates enabled the comparison of local geological evolution of the studied area with those of global climatic changes. As seen from our findings, the geological evolution of the catchment basin was congruent with major climatic events during the Pleistocene and the entire Holocene. However, a very peculiar trajectory was identified for the terminal part of the Pleistocene and the opening of the Holocene regarding the evolution of the landscape, the vegetation, and the fauna of this part of the Great Hungarian Plain.
    • Sampling Iron for Radiocarbon Dating: Influence of Modern Steel Tools on 14C Dating of Ancient Iron Artifacts

      Hüls, Matthias; Grootes, Pieter M.; Nadeau, Marie-Josée (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2011-01-01)
      Before the 17th century, charcoal was regularly used in the production of iron (smelting and forging) and some of this charcoal carbon was incorporated into the iron. Depending on the age of the wood used to produce the charcoal, the age of the carbon incorporated in the iron lattice can reflect the age of manufacture of the iron artifacts. A reliable preparation method allowing for the routine dating of iron artifacts would permit the dating of numerous objects for which now the age can only be estimated. In an earlier work (Hls et al. 2004), we tested the extraction of carbon from iron samples by closed-tube combustion. The samples were cut in small pieces to ease the release of the carbon from the lattice. During the tests, it became clear that the steel tools used to cut the samples can add contamination at the surface. As modern steel is made using coal, this leads to erroneously old ages. We have tested ways to reduce or eliminate this surface contamination from the sampling tools using iron artifacts of known ages. In order to quantify the contamination, we produced standard test materials from pure iron (99.998% Fe) melted with carbon of known 14C content and prepared samples using different cutting tools. The results of these tests indicate that the proper choice of cutting technique and tool, combined with an additional cleaning of the freshly cut surface, reduces sample contaminations to low levels; measured sample 14C concentrations are close to the 14C content of the charcoal used to produce these standard iron samples.
    • Table of Contents

      Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2011-01-01
    • The Influence of Soil Organic Matter Age Spectrum on the Reconstruction of Atmospheric 14C Levels via Stalagmites

      Fohlmeister, J.; Kromer, B.; Mangini, A. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2011-01-01)
      The imprint of the radiocarbon bomb peak was detected in the top of stalagmite ER-77 from Grotta di Ernesto (NE Italy). This recently grown stalagmite reveals a reservoir age, also known as dead carbon fraction (dcf), of ~1050 14C yr, or 12%. By applying a 14C soil-karst model, the age spectrum of soil organic matter (SOM) as well as the CO2 contribution of the single SOM reservoirs to the total soil CO2 can be derived. Under the assumption of constant vegetation, meaning both vegetation density and the age spectrum of SOM, it is possible to derive the soil-air 14C activity of the past using the 14C calibration curve (IntCal04). Hence, it is also possible to calculate an artificial stalagmite 14C data set covering the last 25,000 yr with parameters determined for stalagmite ER-77. With this artificially constructed data set, we derived the hypothetical atmospheric 14C activity by using the common method of applying a constant dcf on the modeled 14C data set of the stalagmite. This theoretical approach allows to analyze the impact of a constant and variable SOM age spectrum on atmospheric 14C reconstructions performed with real stalagmite 14C measurements. We observe deviations between IntCal04 and the atmospheric 14C activity as derived with our modeled 14C data set, which are larger for older SOM than for younger SOM and vary in time up to 2 pMC, depending on the strength of the variations in the atmospheric 14C level. This value is comparable with the 1-delta uncertainty given by IntCal04 for the last glacial. For a varying SOM age spectrum, the deviations between the calibration curve and 14C level of the atmosphere reconstructed with a stalagmite exceed 3 pMC, which is larger than the 1-delta uncertainty of IntCal04. In general, the SOM has smoothing, shifting, and 14C-depleting effects on the stalagmite 14C record and, therefore, on the stalagmite-derived atmospheric 14C activity. In this study, changes in soil-air pCO2 and carbonate dissolution conditions, which have also an important impact on the 14C record of a stalagmite, are not accounted for.