• Radiocarbon Dating of Deep-Sea Corals

      Adkins, Jess F.; Griffin, Shelia; Kashgarian, Michaele; Cheng, Hai; Druffel, E. R. M.; Boyle, E. A.; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Shen, Chuan-Chou (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01)
      Deep-sea corals are a promising new archive of paleoclimate. Coupled radiocarbon and U-series dates allow 14C to be used as a tracer of ocean circulation rate in the same manner as it is used in the modern ocean. Diagnetic alteration of coral skeletons on the seafloor requires a thorough cleaning of contaminating phases of carbon. In addition, 10% of the coral must be chemically leached prior to dissolution to remove adsorbed modern CO2. A survey of modern samples from the full Delta-14C gradient in the deep ocean demonstrates that the coralline CaCO3 records the radiocarbon value of the dissolved inorganic carbon.
    • 14C Level at Mt Chiak and Mt Kyeryong in Korea

      Park, J. H.; Kim, J. C.; Cheoun, M. K.; Kim, I. C.; Youn, M.; Liu, Y. H.; Kim, E. S. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01)
      We have observed Delta-14C concentrations in the northern hemisphere temperate region in the bomb pulse period, using cross-dated tree ring samples. The tree-ring samples were taken from one 70-year-old and two 50-year-old red pines (Pinus densiflora) on Mt Chiak, Korea and from a 50-year-old red pine (Pinus densiflora) on Mt Kyeryong, Korea. Twenty-two tree-ring samples from four red pines ranging from 1950 to 2000 AD were pretreated to obtain holo-cellulose, combusted to CO2 by an element analyzer (EA) and converted to graphite for Delta-14C measurement using the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facility at Seoul National University. Our results for Delta-14C showed good agreement with those measured by other researchers at similar latitudes. The observed steady decrease of Delta-14C from 1965 to 2000 AD is described by a single exponential function with a lifetime tau = 15.99 +/0.43 yr. This lifetime is similar to that of the high-latitude region in Europe.
    • Peopling of Western Japan, Focusing on Kyushu, Shikoku, and Ryukyu Archipelago

      Takamiya, Hiroto; Obata, Hiromi (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01)
      The discovery of the Iwajuku site in Japan is the beginning of the study of the first Paleolithic cultures in the region. In this paper we examine the timing of the earliest colonization of southern Japan, especially focusing on the areas of Kyushu, Shikoku, and the Ryukyu archipelago. Osteological studies have proposed the ultimate origin of these western Japanese Paleolithic populations in Southeast Asia. If this hypothesis is correct, Native Americans may be remotely related to the populations of this region. Greater attention to data from areas such as Japan is necessary to understand the timing and nature of New World colonization.
    • Correcting for Contamination in AMS 14C Dating

      Mueller, Ken; Muzikar, Paul (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01)
      When using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for radiocarbon dating, it is important to correct for carbon contamination that is added to the sample and the standard during chemical processing. We derive an equation for making this correction that generalizes previous work in several ways. We treat the case in which contaminating carbon is added during both the combustion step and graphitization step. Taking this two-stage contamination process into account is particularly important when only a fraction of the CO2 produced in the combustion is graphitized. We also allow for the fact that the 13C fractions of the sample, the standard, and the contaminants may be different.
    • Radiocarbon and Stable Isotope Analyses on the Earliest Jomon Skeletons from the Tochibara Rockshelter, Nagano, Japan

      Yoneda, Minoru; Hirota, Masashi; Uchida, Masao; Tanaka, Atsushi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masatoshi; Akazawa, Takeru (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01)
      This study presents the results of carbon and nitrogen isotopic analyses of six human skeletons excavated from the Tochibara rockshelter (Nagano, Japan). The human skeletons were reported to be accompanied by "Oshigata-mon" type pottery dating to the Earliest Jomon period (8900 BP approximately 6600 BP). A radiocarbon determination from charcoal associated with the human remains was reported to be 8650 +/180 BP (GaK-1056). However, the depositional context of human skeletons was uncertain because they were recovered by excavations that were dug by prescribed levels. Our results indicated that these skeletons date to the Earliest Jomon period; the 14C determinations place these remains between 8260 +/100 BP (TERRA-b030799ab38) and 8580 +/100 BP (TERRA-b011300a35). This coincides with the archaeological evidence that these specimens are some of the oldest Jomon skeletal materials. Furthermore, delta-13C and delta-15N values provide evidence for the first reconstruction of the diet of an inland Earliest Jomon population. Although the distribution of data indicated a possibility that they had exploited small amounts of seafood, the isotopic data point to this group having relied heavily on a terrestrial ecosystem based on C3 plants.
    • Radiocarbon, Volume 44, Number 2 (2002)

      Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01
    • Initial Human Colonization of the Americas: An Overview of the Issues and the Evidence

      Fiedel, Stuart J. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01)
    • New Radiocarbon Dates from the Balkans (Dubene-Sarovka): Approach to the Early Bronze Absolute Chronology in Upper Thrace

      Nikolova, Lolita; Görsdorf, Jochen (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01)
      This paper addresses the absolute chronology of the earlier Yunatsite and Ezero cultures in Upper Thrace (South Bulgaria), from Early Bronze I and the beginning of Early Bronze II. The two newly obtained radiocarbon dates from Early Bronze Dubene-Sarovka (the Upper Stryama Valley) are published and discussed in a detailed stratigraphic and comparative Early Bronze I-Early Bronze II context. Date Bln-5233 (3490-3120 cal BC) is the first 14C date from the Upper Maritsa valley from Early Bronze I with well-defined stratigraphic context and values earlier than 3100 BC. This date adds new arguments to the discussion of the 14C dates from Yunatsite 15 and Plovdiv-Nebet Tepe, and addresses the question of the comparative chronology of Yunatsite I and Ezero I cultures from the late fourth millennium BC. The sample of the date Bln-5231 (2870-2620 cal BC) comes from a level on the border between Early Bronze I and Early Bronze II. On one hand, its values preceded the values of the earlier-obtained 14C dates from IIB layer and confirmed the stratigraphic sequence at Dubene-Sarovka tell. On the other hand, the calibrated values seem to be later than the vast comparative chronology of the end of the Dubene IIA-the beginning of Dubene IIB (ca. 3000 BC). Similar problems occur with dates from Yunatsite and Ezero. The published new dates from Dubene-Sarovka are part of the project on complex elaborating of the Early Bronze absolute chronology in the Balkans, and especially on contextual analysis of the 14C dates.
    • Radiocarbon Dates from the Ice-Free Corridor

      Arnold, Thomas G. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01)
      The Ice-Free Corridor has been hypothesized as the main migration route into the Americas since the 1930s. Radiocarbon dates have been used by archaeology, geology, and palynology to date the corridor. A total of 564 14C dates ranging between 20,000 and 8000 BP from the corridor area were gleaned from the published literature. After assessing these dates for suitability, 255 were plotted over four time periods. The results indicate that the corridor was not feasible as an early human migration route until after 11,000 BP, or after the appearance of Clovis south of the continental glaciers.
    • Radiocarbon Dates from the Jewish Catacombs of Rome

      Rutgers, Leonard V.; De Jong, Arie F. M.; van der Borg Klaas (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01)
      This paper reports on the first chronological assessment of the Jewish Catacombs of the ancient Rome performed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating of small-size charcoal fragments scattered in the mortar used for sealing off the graves in the Villa Torlonia Catacomb complex. The significance of the obtained 14C readings has been carefully evaluated by taing into consideration the known technologies of quicklime production during Roman and recent times. The new data are of great concern for providing evidence that the Jewish catacombs were used for burial since the first century AD, thus some two centuries prior to the period traditionally believed to be the starting point of burial in the Jewish catacombs of ancient Rome. Such a significant aging of the Jewish catacombs could result in a deep re-examination of the current understanding of the beginning and the evolution of the custom of catacomb burial in both Jewish and early Christian communities in Rome.
    • Rudjer Bošković Institute Radiocarbon Measurements XV

      Obelić, Bogomil; Krajcar Bronić, Ines; Horvatinčić, Nada (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01)
    • Dating the First Australians

      Gillespie, Richard (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01)
      The dating of selected archaeological and megafaunal sites from the Australian region is reviewed, with emphasis on recent work at some of the oldest sites. Improved chemical procedures with decreased analytical background for 14C analysis, combined with new luminescence dating methods, has confirmed many of the results processed decades ago and significantly increased the maximum age for some others. The oldest occupation horizons in four different regions reliably dated by defendable multi-method results are in the range 42-48,000 calendar years ago, overlapping with the age range for similarly well-dated undisturbed sites containing the youngest extinct megafauna. There is less secure evidence suggesting some archaeology may be earlier and some megafauna may have survived later than this period.
    • Pre-Bomb Radiocarbon Variability Inferred from a Kenyan Coral Record

      Grumet, Nancy S.; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Dunbar, Robert B. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01)
      We report results from AMS radiocarbon measurements (Delta-14C) in corals recovered off the coast of Kenya. Bimonthly samples which span the pre-bomb era average -51 per mil (+/3.7; n=43), when age and Suess effect are corrected, and over the time of interest (1946-1954) do not exhibit any discernible seasonality. Relative to regional pre-bomb Delta-14C values in the western Indian Ocean, our results indicate 14C enrichment off the coast of Kenya. Furthermore, the absence of a distinct subannual Delta-14C signal suggests that open and coastal upwelling is negligible off the coast of Kenya. Unlike pre-bomb values south of the equator near Seychelles and Madagascar, our pre-bomb value are enriched by more than 10 per mil. The enrichment of pre-bomb Kenyan Delta-14C values relative to sites around Mauritius, northern Madagascar and Seychelles, suggest that the influence of depleted Delta-14C water transported in the SEC is limited to regions south of 3 to 4 degrees S.
    • Comment on 'Determination of the Radiocarbon Age of Parchment of the Vinland Map'

      Ludwig, K. R. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01)
    • Radiocarbon Dates and Archaeology of the Late Pleistocene in the Japanese Islands

      Ono, Akira; Sato, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Takashi; Kudo, Yuichiro (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01)
      We discuss the radiocarbon chronology of Late Pleistocene archaeology in the Japanese islands. In sum, 429 samples from more than 100 archaeological sites were compiled and then divided into three periods and four stages. The Early Upper Paleolithic, characterized by Trapezoid industries, lasted during approximately 34-26 ka. The Late Upper Paleolithic period includes both the backed-blade stage and point-tool stage, the latter appearing chronologically later than the former. This stage covers approximately 25-15 ka. The Final Upper Paleolithic and Incipient Jomon are distinguished by the appearance of microblade industries and the emergence of pottery at the end of this period. This period covers approximately 14-12 ka. The microblade tradition, in the broadest sense, is strongly connected to the background of peopling of the New World. New data on the transitional stage from the Middle to the Upper Paleolithic are also discussed in regards to three archaeological sites. Issues on the application of the 14C calibration to the whole Japanese Upper Paleolithic are critically evaluated.
    • Editorial Board

      Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01
    • Radiocarbon-Based Chronology of the Paleolithic in Siberia and its Relevance to the Peopling of the New World

      Vasil'ev, Sergey A.; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Orlova, Lyubov A.; Dementiev, Vyacheslav N. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01)
      The territory of Siberia is of crucial importance for the study of early human dispersal and the peopling of the New World. A Siberian Paleolithic Radiocarbon Database has been compiled. The Database allows us to compile a chronological framework for human colonization of Northern Asia. There are 446 14C dates for 13 Middle and 111 Upper Paleolithic sites older than around 12,000 BP. Seventeen percent of the dates were obtained by the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) technique, and the remaining 83% are conventional. From the viewpoint of the spatial distribution of the 14C-dated sites, the majority of these are located at the Yenisey River Basin, Transbaikal, and the Altai Mountains. The general outline of the Upper Paleolithic colonization of Siberia is given here. The earliest traces of modern human occupation are dated to around 43,000-39,000 BP in the southern part of Siberia. It seems that by around 13,000 BP, almost all of northern Asia, including the extreme northeastern Siberia had been colonized by modern humans. We discuss some controversial problems that have provoked heated debates in current Russian archaeology. Notable among these are the surprisingly early AMS dates for the Early Upper Paleolithic, the age of the Dyuktai culture of Yakutia, the problem of human presence in Siberia at the time of the Last Glacial Maximum (20,000-18,000 BP), and the timing of the initial settling of the Chukchi Peninsula and northeastern Siberia.
    • Radiocarbon Dates from Paleolithic Sites in Korea

      Bae, Kidong (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01)
      Fewer than 20 radiocarbon dates have been obtained from Paleolithic sites on the Korean Peninsula. It is still unknown how and when Korean Middle Paleolithic stone industries developed, despite the handful of dates older than 40,000 BP obtained from some sites. A lower boundary for the Korean Upper Paleolithic of approximately 30,000 BP can be inferred from the few dates associated with stone blade industries. 14C dates associated with microlithic industries of 24,000 BP are considered too old in light of evidence from other areas of East Asia. Most such assemblages are post-Last Glacial Maximum in age. Improved understanding of the Korean Paleolithic sequence will depend ultimately on the further accumulation of 14C dates, as well as the application of alternative dating techniques and attention to the reconstruction of site formation process.
    • Introduction

      Kuzmin, Yaroslav V. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01)