• AMS-14C Chronology of a Lacustrine Sequence from Lake Langano (Main Ethiopian Rift): Correction and Validation Steps in Relation with Volcanism, Lake Water and Carbon Balances

      Gibert, Elisabeth; Travi, Yves; Massault, Marc; Tiercelin, Jean-Jacques; Chernet, Tesfaye (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01)
      Located in the Ziway-Shala Basin of the Main Ethiopian Rift, Lake Langano is part of an asymmetric half-graben, defined by a series of north-northeast-trending faults in the tectonically active zone of the rift. A 15-m deep succession of organic homogeneous muds, silts, bioclastic sands, and pyroclastic layers was cored in 1994. The definition of a certified radiocarbon chronology on these deposits required the indispensable establishment of modern hydrological and geochemical balances. The isotopic contents of the total dissolved inorganic carbon (TDIC) of surface water clearly show the influence of a deep CO2 rising along the main fault crossing the lake basin. The 5.8 pMC disequilibrium existing in 1994 with the atmosphere likely produces the aging of authigenic materials developing at the lake surface. However, with a mean residence time of approximately 15 years, this apparent 14C aging of Lake Langano water still integrates the 14C produced by the nuclear tests in the 1960s. Reconstructing the natural 14C activity of the lake TDIC allows for the quantification of the deep CO2 influence, and for the correction of AMS-14C datings performed along the core. The correction of the AMS14C chronology defined on Lake Langano allows for a better understanding of paleohydrological changes at a regional scale for at least the last 12,700 cal BP.
    • Carbon Dynamics in Vertisols as Revealed by High-Resolution Sampling

      Becker, Heidmann Peter; Andresen, Olaf; Kalmar, Dov; Scharpenseel, Hans Wilhelm; Yaalon, Dan H. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01)
      Two Vertisol soil profiles under xeric soil moisture regimes, located at Qedma and Akko, Israel, were investigated and compared to a profile under ustic moisture regime, located in Hyderabad, India. Samples were taken in complete successive 2 cm thin layers down to about 180 cm depth or more. Organic and inorganic carbon were analyzed with regard to 13C and 14C concentrations. While all soils have radiocarbon ages of several thousand years BP, the depth distributions reveal substantial differences between the soil carbon dynamics. 14C and, less pronounced, delta-13C clearly reflect the pedoturbation process. Further, its strength is found to be related to mainly soil moisture regime, then clay content and land use. In one soil, a change of growing from C4 to C3 crops in the past can be concluded from the delta-13C depth distribution.
    • Soil Organic Matter Decomposition and Turnover in a Tropical Ultisol: Evidence from delta-13C, delta-15N and Geochemistry

      Krull, Evelyn S.; Bestland, Erick A.; Gates, Will P. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2002-01-01)
      Soil organic matter (SOM), leaf litter, and root material of an Ultisol from the tropical rainforest of Kakamega, Kenya, were analyzed for stable carbon (delta-13C) and nitrogen (delta-15N) isotopic values as well as total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents in order to determine trends in SOM decomposition within a very well-developed soil under tropical conditions. In addition, we quantified mineralogy and chemistry of the inorganic soil fraction. Clay mineralogical variation with depth was small and the abundance of kaolin indicates intense weathering and pedoturbation under humid tropical conditions. The soil chemistry was dominated by silica, aluminium, and iron with calcium, potassium, and magnesium as minor constituents. The relative depletion of base cations compared with silica and aluminium is an indicator for intense weathering and leaching conditions over long periods of time. Depth profiles of delta-13C and delta-15N showed a distinct enrichment trend down profile with a large (average 13Delta-C = 5.0 per mil average 15Delta-N = 6.3 per mil) and abrupt offset within the uppermost 10-20 cm of the soil. Isotopic enrichment with depth is commonly observed in soil profiles and has been attributed to fractionation during decomposition. However, isotopic offsets within soil profiles that exceed 3 per mil are usually interpreted as a recent change from C4 to C3 dominated vegetation. We argue that the observed isotopic depth profiles along with data from mineralogy and chemistry of the inorganic fraction from the Kakamega Forest soil are a result of intense weathering and high organic matter turnover rates under humid tropical conditions.