• Age Determination of Fossil Bones from the Vindija Neanderthal Site in Croatia

      Wild, Eva Maria; Paunovic, Maja; Rabeder, Gernot; Steffan, Ilse; Steier, Peter (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2001-01-01)
      Vindija cave in Croatia is famous for the Neanderthal bones found in layer G of its sediment profile. Radiocarbon dating has been performed mainly on this layer due to the great interest in its fossils. In addition to Neanderthal remains, the sediment in layer G contains bones from the cave bear. Cave bear bones are found also in other layers of the sediment profile and offer the possibility of studying the bears' evolutionary mode. Therefore, we tried to determine the time span covered by the entire profile. The U/Th age determination method was applied to cave bear bones from different layers of the profile. For the younger part of the profile, the U/Th ages were compared with the results of the 14C and the amino-acid racemization method. The agreement of the different methods indicates that closed-system behavior can be assumed for the fossil bones from Vindija cave. From this finding it may be deduced that bones from the lower sediment layers are also closed systems and that the U/Th ages of these layers are reliable. This conclusion is corroborated by the stratigraphy of the cave profile.
    • New Chronological Frame for the Young Neolithic Baden Culture in Central Europe (4th Millennium BC)

      Wild, Eva Maria; Stadler, Peter; Bondár, Maria; Draxler, Susanne; Friesinger, Herwig; Kutschera, Walter; Priller, Alfred; Rom, Werner; Ruttkay, Elisabeth; Steier, Peter (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2001-01-01)
      The Baden Culture is a widely spread culture of the Young Neolithics in east-central Europe. In southeast Europe, several parallel cultures are found at different places. The main innovations in east-central Europe associated with the Baden Culture were traditionally thought to originate in southeast Europe, Anatolia, and the Levant. However, in recent years, doubt about this theory has arisen among archaeologists. Here, we try to contribute to this question by increasing the radiocarbon data set available for the Baden Culture. Thirty-two age determinations of samples from different sites assigned to the Baden Culture were performed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating. The new data were combined with previously published 14C dates. Data from the individual cultural phases of the entire Baden period and the parallel cultures in southeast Europe (Sitagroi, Cernavoda, and Ezero) were analyzed by sum calibration. Comparison of the results indicates that the southeastern cultures cannot be synchronized with the Boleráz period, the early phase of the Baden Culture. It seems that these cultures were parallel to the Baden Classical period. This finding, which has to be verified by more data from the southeastern cultures, contradicts the theory of the east–west spreading of these cultures.