• Coral Reef Evolution at the Leeward Side of Ishigaki Island, Southwest Japan

      Yamano, Hiroya; Abe, Osamu; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Niu, Etsuko; Nakamura, Toshio (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2001-01-01)
      In comparison with windward coral reefs, the facies and evolution of leeward coral reefs has been discussed to a lesser extent. By accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) carbon-14 dating of coral specimens collected from the trench excavated across a modern coral reef during a fishery port repair, we revealed the internal facies and Holocene evolution of a leeward reef in Ishigaki Island, Ryukyu Island, southwest Japan. The reef facies can be split into three facies: the tabular Acropora reworked facies first formed a ridge by 3500 BP. Then, the tabular Acropora framework facies grew both upward and seaward. The accumulation rates of the tabular Acropora framework facies ranged from 2.2 to 8.3 m/ka. Thus, the reef framework facies and accumulation rates of this leeward reef is similar to those of windward reefs, although the age of the reef top is younger than that of windward reefs.
    • Environmental and Climatic Change as Recorded in Geological Sediments from the Arid to Semi-Arid Zone of China

      Zhou, Weijian; Zhengkun, Wu; Jull, A. J. T.; Burr, G.; Donahue, D. D.; Baosheng, Li; Head, J. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2001-01-01)
      Stratigraphic investigations together with climatic proxy data measurements and reliable radiocarbon dating show a history of fluctuations of dry and wet environmental conditions in the arid to semi-arid zone of northern China since the late Pleistocene. Based on these data, we are able to reconstruct shifts of the desert margin in two period extremes, the last glacial maximum (21-15 ka) and the Holocene Optimum (9-5 ka). We have compared the present desert margin with that for the two extremes. The results indicate that a southward shift of the present margin of about 3 degrees in latitude might be caused by anthropogenic impact. Hence the influence of human activity must be taken into consideration for sustainable development and environment protection. Future research will be to find a two-way feedback existing between climate and anthropogenic impacts.
    • Paleoenvironment in Dae-Am San High Moor in the Korean Peninsula

      Yoshioka, T.; Lee, J. Y.; Takahashi, H. A.; Kang, S. J. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2001-01-01)
      We discuss paleoenvironmental changes at the Dae-Am San high moor, located near the Demilitarized Zone at 38 degrees N. This area has been reported to be the only high moor in the Korean peninsula. The 14C age of the bottom sediment (75-80 cm in depth) at this site is about 1900 BP. Since the radiocarbon ages for the intervals at 50-55 cm and 75-80 cm were almost the same, we conclude that the deep layers (55-80 cm) in the high moor were all part of the original soil. Low organic C and N contents in the deeper layers support this inference. The 50-55 cm layer consists of sandy material with very low organic content, suggesting erosion from the surrounding area. The surface layer (0-5 cm) was measured as 190 BP, and the middle layer (30-35 cm) was 870 BP. The bulk sedimentation rate was estimated to be about 0.4 mm yr-1 for the 0-30-cm interval. The delta-13C value of organic carbon in the sediments fluctuated with depth. The delta-13C profile of the Dae-Am San high moor may be explained by climatic changes which occurred during the Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period.
    • Radiocarbon Ages of Beach Rocks and Late Holocene Sea-Level Changes in the Southern Part of the Nansei Islands, Southwest of Japan

      Omoto, Kunio (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2001-01-01)
      Beach rock is a good indicator of the past sea levels, as it is considered to have been formed within the range of intertidal zone. Radiocarbon dates of beach rocks collected from Iriomote Island, Ishigaki Island, and Miyako Island, in the southern part of the Nansei Islands, indicate that the beach rocks were formed between around 4000 BP and 400 BP. Late Holocene sea-level changes were revealed based on the elevations and 14C dates of the beach rocks. The results indicate that the sea level was similar to the present one for at least the past 4000 BP. Isotopic fractionations (delta-13C) of the beach rocks were between +9.4 per mil and -0.8 per mil, suggesting a different origin for calcium carbonate.
    • Radiocarbon Chronology of the Earliest Neolithic Sites in East Asia

      Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Keally, Charles T. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2001-01-01)
      The radiocarbon age of the earliest pottery from Russian Far East-Gromatukha and Osipovka cultures-is between around 13,300 BP and around 10,400 BP. This shows that the Amur River basin was one of the centers of origin of pottery in East Asia, at the end of the Pleistocene. Today, there are three areas within East Asia with pottery-associated 14C dates between around 14,000 BP and 13,000 BP—Southern China, the Japanese Isles, and Russian Far East.
    • Radiocarbon Dating of Charred Residues on the Earliest Pottery in Japan

      Nakamura, Toshio; Taniguchi, Yasuhiro; Tsuji, Sei Ichiro; Oda, Hirotaka (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2001-01-01)
      Recently, primitive-type pottery was discovered in the Russian Far East, China, and Japan. Radiocarbon ages of far earlier than 10,000 BP have been obtained, relating directly or indirectly to the pottery. As an example of these very old 14C ages for incipient pottery, we report here 14C ages of charred adhesions on five potsherds and three charred wood fragments that were collected with the archeological artifacts (stone tools from the Chojakubo Culture) in the loam layers at the Odai Yamamoto I site (41 degrees 03'44"N, 140 degrees 033'20"E) in Aomori prefecture, at the northern end of the Japanese main island. The carbonaceous remains on the surface of the potsherds could be ancient food residues or soot from fuel for cooking. These small carbon samples were dated at the Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating facility at Nagoya University, as well as by Beta Analytic Co. Ltd. Except for two charred wood 14C dates, 7070 +/40 and 7710 +/40 BP, all five charred-residue samples and one wood charcoal sample gave older 14C ages of 12,680-13,780 BP, corresponding to the period of the Chojakubo Culture in Japan. This culture marks the beginning of the Jomon Culture, which is characterized by pottery usage and bow-and-arrow hunting.