Browsing Radiocarbon, Volume 43, Number 2A (2001 by Title
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Sample Preparation of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Groundwater for AMS 14C AnalysisThis study describes a sample preparation technique used to isolate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in groundwater for radiocarbon analysis using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The goal of the work is to improve our ability to determine groundwater residence times based on 14C measurements of the DOC fraction in groundwater. Water samples were collected from carbonate and volcanic rock aquifers in southern Nevada. Multiple measurements of total dissolved organic carbon (TDOC) in groundwater from one site are used to demonstrate the reproducibility of the analytical procedure. The reproducibility of the method is about one percent (1sigma) for a 0.5 mg sample. The procedural blank for the same size sample contains about 1 percent modern carbon (pMC).

Searching Solar Periodicities in the Late Glacial Record of Atmospheric RadiocarbonAccelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14C) dating of the late glacial section of laminated sediments from Lake Gościąż and Lake Perespilno, Poland, performed with time resolution of 2030 years suggests quasiperiodic oscillations of Delta14C. The regularity of oscillations has been checked by the Maximum Entropy and Fast Fourier Transform methods (MEM and FFT), which revealed peaks at 200 and 230 yr. These periods are similar to those found in the highprecision Holocene Delta14C record, and attributed to the changing sun. The analytical assessment of the significance of the FFT and MEM peaks is problematic because of nonuniform spacing and various uncertainties in the input data. The significance of the peaks has therefore been studied by the MonteCarlo method. Because the original data were approximated with a spline function, the amplitude of the MEM and FFT peaks depends on the stiffness of the spline, which is strongly related to the "real" uncertainty of 14C ages. The MonteCarlo experiments demonstrate that the significance levels of the MEM and FFT peaks also depend on the spline stiffness. Therefore, the existence of solar 14C variations in the Late Glacial remains an open question.

Seasonal Fluctuation of Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition in Japanese Cypress Tree Rings from the Last Glacial Period—Possibility of Paleoenvironment ReconstructionSeasonal variations of delta13C were analyzed for two Japanese cypress trees (Chamaecyparis obtusa), one buried and one living. Both trees were different in age but sampled in areas geographically close to each other in central Japan. A buried cypress with 394 annual rings was excavated from Old Fuji mudflow, the last glacial strata of the dormant Mt. Fuji volcano. The accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon date of this glacial sample was 18,600 +/120 BP (NUTA4884). A living tree stem, which has 192 rings, was cut from the Izu Peninsula in 1986. In order to measure the seasonal delta13C fluctuation, the tree rings were divided equally into three earlywood and one or two latewood consecutive sections. The delta13C value within an annual ring generally increased from the first to the third or fourth sections then decreased in the last section. This pattern of the variation was similar in the glacial and modern samples. The delta13C value within an annual ring seems to be controlled by environmental factors (not plant physiological ones), since there was no isotopic shift in the seasonal delta13C variation at the earlywoodlatewood boundary, which was controlled by plant physiology. The result suggests the potential to reconstruct the paleoenvironment within a year using the seasonal delta13C variation, though sitespecific conditions such as soil characteristics would also affect to its fluctuation.

Solar Activity and Regional ClimateWe performed a statistical analysis of the data on summer temperature anomalies in northern Fennoscandia (81995 AD) and found that a 70130yr cycle is present in this series during most of the time period. A comparison of the reconstructed northern Fennoscandia temperature with different indicators of solar activity (Wolf numbers, the length of solar Schwabe cycle, extended bidecadal radiocarbon series, and data on sunspots observed by naked eye) shows that the more probable cause of the periodicity is the modulation of regional northern Fennoscandia climate by the longterm solar cycle of Gleissberg. The effect of this centuryscale solar modulation of the global Northern Hemisphere temperature is weaker.

Thanks from RadiocarbonDepartment of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 20010101

The Chemical and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Archaeological Wood Cellulose and Monosaccharide Purification by High pH Anion Exchange Chromatography for CompoundSpecific Radiocarbon DatingPreliminary experiments were carried out on archaeological wood to investigate methods of cellulose hydrolysis and carbohydrate monomer purification for the purpose of compoundspecific radiocarbon dating. The Chelford log, a known 14C dead source of wood cellulose, was selected for study in order to investigate the levels of contamination introduced during sample purification. Two methods of hydrolysis were examined, mineral acid hydrolysis and enzyme hydrolysis using cellulase from Penicillium funiculosum. Under the conditions described, enzymolysis was far superior to acid hydrolysis in terms of the glucose monomer yield. Glucose monomer purification was accomplished using high pH anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. This high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method does not require sample derivatization and the chromatography products can be collected in water. These characteristics make it potentially well suited to carbon dating applications. 14C dating of chromatographically purified glucose fractions revealed significant levels of contamination had accumulated during both protocols. Glucose contamination from the cellulase enzyme preparation was a major source of contamination within the enzymatically hydrolyzed samples. Ultrafiltration of the enzyme removed some but not all of this contamination. The contamination must be reduced 10fold before the methodology could be viable for dating. This hydrolysis/HPLC method is also being investigated for 14C dating of other carbohydrate polymers such as chitin.

The Filling of Gaps in Geophysical Time Series by Artificial Neural NetworksNowadays, there is a large number of time series of natural data to study geophysical and astrophysical phenomena and their characteristics. However, short length and data gaps pose a substantial problem for obtaining results on properties of the underlying physical phenomena with existing algorithms. Using only an equidistant subset of the data with coarse steps leads to loss of information. We present a method to recover missing data in time series. The approach is based on modeling the time series with manifolds of small dimension, and it is implemented with the help of neural networks. We applied this approach to real data on cosmogenic isotopes, demonstrating that it could successfully repair gaps where data was purposely left out. Multifractal analysis was applied to a true radiocarbon time series after recovering missing data.

Transition Dating' – A Heuristic Mathematical Approach to the Collation of Radiocarbon Dates from Stratified SequencesA heuristic approach, nicknamed "transition dating," was used to date sequences of early Iron Age contexts using a series of 14C determinations. The basic principles of transition dating are simple and intuitive: 1) attempt to date transitions between periods, phases, etc. Rather than the phases themselves, and 2) the most plausible date for that transition is one that is later than the dates from contexts preceding it, and is still earlier than the dates succeeding it. Hypotheses regarding the actual date of each transition may be evaluated using an appropriate loss function. These loss functions can also be adjusted or weighted by the user to account differentially for the various factors causing the distortion or "fuzz" in the dates.

'Wiggle Matching’ Radiocarbon DatesThis paper covers three different methods of matching radiocarbon dates to the "wiggles" of the calibration curve in those situations where the age difference between the 14C dates is known. These methods are most often applied to treering sequences. The simplest approach is to use a classical Chisquared fit of the 14C data to the 14C curve. This gives the calendar date where the data fit best and allows tests of how good the fit is. The only drawback of this method is that it is difficult to ascertain the uncertainty in the date found in this way. An extension of this technique uses a MonteCarlo simulation to sample possible 14C concentrations consistent with the measurement made and for each of these possibilities performs a Chisquared fit. This method yields a distribution of values in the calendrical timescale, from which the overall dating uncertainty can be derived. A third, rather different approach, based on Bayesian statistics, calculates the relative likelihood of each possible calendar year fit. This can then be used to calculate a range of most likely dates in a similar way to the probability method of 14C calibration. The theories underlying all three methods are discussed in this paper and a comparison made for the fitting of specific model sequences. All three methods are found to give consistent results and the application of any one of them depends on the nature of the scientific question being addressed.