• High-Precision Radiocarbon Age Calibration for Terrestrial and Marine Samples

      Stuiver, Minze; Reimer, Paula J.; Braziunas, Thomas F. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1998-01-01)
      Single-year and decadal radiocarbon tree-ring ages are tabulated and discussed in terms of 14C age calibration. The single-year data form the basis of a detailed 14C age calibration curve for the cal AD 1510-1954 interval ("cal" denotes calibrated). The Seattle decadal data set (back to 11,617 cal BP, with 0 BP = AD 1950) is a component of the integrated decadal INTCAL98 14C age curve (Stuiver et al. 1998). Atmospheric 14C ages can be transformed into 14C ages of the global ocean using a carbon reservoir model. INTCAL98 14C ages, used for these calculations, yield global ocean 14C ages differing slightly from previously published ones (Stuiver and Braziunas 1993b). We include discussions of offsets, error multipliers, regional 14C age differences and marine 14C age response to oceanic and atmospheric forcing.
    • INTCAL98 Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 24,000-0 cal BP

      Stuiver, Minze; Reimer, Paula J.; Bard, Edouard; Beck, J. Warren; Burr, G. S.; Hughen, Konrad A.; Kromer, Bernd; McCormac, Gerry; van der Plicht, Johannes; Spurk, Marco (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1998-01-01)
      The focus of this paper is the conversion of radiocarbon ages to calibrated (cal) ages for the interval 24,000-0 cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), based upon a sample set of dendrochronologically dated tree rings, uranium-thorium dated corals, and varve-counted marine sediment. The 14C age-cal age information, produced by many laboratories, is converted to 14C profiles and calibration curves, for the atmosphere as well as the oceans. We discuss offsets in measured 14C ages and the errors therein, regional 14C age differences, tree-coral 14C age comparisons and the time dependence of marine reservoir ages, and evaluate decadal vs. Single-year 14C results. Changes in oceanic deepwater circulation, especially for the 16,000-11,000 cal BP interval, are reflected in the Δ14C values of INTCAL98.