• A High-Resolution Radiocarbon Calibration Between 11,700 and 12,400 Calendar Years BP Derived from 230Th Ages of Corals from Espiritu Santo Island, Vanuatu

      Burr, G. S.; Beck, J. Warren; Taylor, F. W.; Récy, Jacques; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Cabioch, Guy; Corrège, Thierry; Donahue, D. J.; O'Malley, J. M. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1998-01-01)
      This paper presents radiocarbon results from a single Diploastrea heliopora coral from Vanuatu that lived during the Younger Dryas climatic episode, between co. 11,700 and 12,400 calendar yr BP. The specimen has been independently dated with multiple 230Th measurements to permit calibration of the 14C time scale. Growth bands in the coral were used to identify individual years of growth. 14C measurements were made on each year. These values were averaged to achieve decadal resolution for the 14C calibration. The relative uncertainty of the decadal 14C data was below 1% (2 sigma). The data are in good agreement with the existing dendrochronology and allow for high-resolution calibration for most years. Variations in the fine structure of the 14C time series preserved in this specimen demonstrate sporadic rapid increases in the Delta-14C content of the surface ocean and atmosphere. Certain sharp rises in Delta-14C are coincident with gaps in coral growth evidenced by several hiatuses. These may be related to rapid climatic changes that occurred during the Younger Dryas. This is the first coral calibration with decadal resolution and the only such data set to extend beyond the dendrochronology-based 14C calibration.
    • Revision and Tentative Extension of the Tree-Ring Based 14C Calibration, 9200-11,855 cal BP

      Kromer, Bernd; Spurk, Marco (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1998-01-01)
      We report radiocarbon calibration data based on the revised German oak and pine series. The age range of the absolutely dated German oak series has been extended to 10,430 cal BP. The German pine series is tentatively linked to the oak series by 14C, and now reaches back to 11,871 cal BP (+/20 yr). The revisions of the tree-ring time scale of the German oak chronology solved long-standing apparent discrepancies in the mid-Holocene 14C calibration data sets. The calibration data set based on the floating German pine is now in close agreement with the Preboreal part of 14C calibration series obtained from most varve chronologies and corals.
    • Revisions and Extension of the Hohenheim Oak and Pine Chronologies: New Evidence About the Timing of the Younger Dryas/Preboreal Transition

      Spurk, Marco; Friedrich, Michael; Hofmann, Jutta; Remmele, Sabine; Frenzel, Burkhard; Leuschner, Hanns Hubert; Kromer, Bernd (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1998-01-01)
      Oak and pine samples housed at the Institute of Botany, University of Hohenheim, are the backbone of the early Holocene part of the radiocarbon calibration curve, published in 1993 (Becker 1993; Kromer and Becker 1993; Stuiver and Becker 1993; Vogel et al. 1993). Since then the chronologies have been revised. The revisions include 1) the discovery of 41 missing years in the oak chronology and 2) a shift of 54 yr for the oldest part back into the past. The oak chronology, was also extended with new samples as far back as 10,429 BP (8480 BC). In addition, the formerly tentatively dated pine chronology (Becker 1993) has been rebuilt and shifted to an earlier date. It is now positioned by 14C matching at 11,871-9900 BP (9922-7951 BC) with an uncertainty of +/20 yr (Kromer and Spurk 1998). With these new chronologies the 14C calibration curve can now be corrected, eliminating the discrepancy in the dating of the Younger Dryas/Preboreal transition between the proxy data of the GRIP and GISP ice cores (Johnsen et al. 1992; Taylor et al. 1993), the varve chronology of Lake Gościąż (Goslar et al. 1995) and the pine chronology (Becker, Kromer and Trimborn 1991).