• INTCAL98 Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 24,000-0 cal BP

      Stuiver, Minze; Reimer, Paula J.; Bard, Edouard; Beck, J. Warren; Burr, G. S.; Hughen, Konrad A.; Kromer, Bernd; McCormac, Gerry; van der Plicht, Johannes; Spurk, Marco (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1998-01-01)
      The focus of this paper is the conversion of radiocarbon ages to calibrated (cal) ages for the interval 24,000-0 cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), based upon a sample set of dendrochronologically dated tree rings, uranium-thorium dated corals, and varve-counted marine sediment. The 14C age-cal age information, produced by many laboratories, is converted to 14C profiles and calibration curves, for the atmosphere as well as the oceans. We discuss offsets in measured 14C ages and the errors therein, regional 14C age differences, tree-coral 14C age comparisons and the time dependence of marine reservoir ages, and evaluate decadal vs. Single-year 14C results. Changes in oceanic deepwater circulation, especially for the 16,000-11,000 cal BP interval, are reflected in the Δ14C values of INTCAL98.
    • Variations of Radiocarbon in Tree Rings: Southern Hemisphere Offset Preliminary Results

      McCormac, F. G.; Hogg, A. G.; Higham, T. G.; Baillie, M. L.; Palmer, J. G.; Xiong, Limin; Pilcher, J. R.; Brown, David; Hoper, S. T. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1998-01-01)
      The Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland and University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand radiocarbon laboratories have undertaken a series of high-precision measurements on decadal samples of dendrochronologically dated oak (Quercus patrea) and cedar (Libocedrus bidwillii) from Great Britain and New Zealand, respectively. The results show a real atmospheric offset of 3.4 +/0.6% (27.2 +/4.7 14C yr) between the two locations for the interval AD 1725 to AD 1885, with the Southern Hemisphere being depleted in 4C. This result is less than the value currently used to correct Southern Hemisphere calibrations, possibly indicating a gradient in Delta-14C within the Southern Hemisphere.