• Radiocarbon and Uranium-Series Dating of the Plitvice Lakes Travertines

      Srdoč, Dušan; Osmond, J. K.; Horvatinčić, Nada; Dabous, Adel A.; Obelić, Bogomil (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1994-01-01)
      Radiocarbon and uranium-series ages of the calcareous deposits of the Plitvice Lakes show that travertines were deposited during three warm, humid, interglacial oxygen isotope stages. According to our measurements, only calcite crystals or crystal aggregates represent reliable material for both 230Th/234U and 234U/238U dating. Compact old travertine in the form of sandstone is less reliable; it can be dated by both methods provided that its detrital contamination is not significant, demonstrated by very low 14C activity (<1.5-2.0 pMC) and a high 230Th/232Th ratio. Old porous travertine contaminated with recent carbonates and Th-bearing clay (pMC > 5, 230Th/232Th < 5) gives erroneous results by both methods. Stage 1(Holocene) deposition is shown primarily by 14C dating corroborated by sedimentological and palynologic studies as well as by both 230Th/ 234U and 234U/238U disequilibrium methods. The intensive growth of travertine barriers coincided with significant climate warming in the Holocene. Stage 5 deposition is confirmed by the 230Th/234U dating of crystalline calcite aggregates embedded in the travertine matrix and by concordant 230Th/234U and 234U/238U ages, assuming that the 234U/238U activity ratio of 1.88 observed in modern streams and in Holocene deposits can be extended to past epochs. The travertine deposition period was very short, peaking ca. 120 +/- 10 ka BP. Stage 11 deposition is indicated by 234U/238U dating only, the period being within the 234U decay range, but not that of 230Th. Stage 11 travertine was deposited ca. 420 +/- 50 ka BP. We did not find travertine samples with U-series ages indicating a growth period during relatively warm Stages 7 and 9; due to the scarcity of old travertine outcrops, these and possibly other stages cannot be excluded on the basis of presented data. All of these isotopic dating results concur with the field relation of the travertine complex of the Plitvice Lakes.
    • Radiocarbon Calibration Curve Variations and Their Implications for the Interpretation of New Zealand Prehistory

      McFadgen, B. G.; Knox, F. B.; Cole, T. L. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1994-01-01)
      The shape of a distribution of calibrated 14C dates displays spurious peaks and troughs, brought about by changes in the slope of the calibration curve interacting with the spreading effect of the stochastic distribution of counting errors. The distortion results in a positive correlation between the numbers of dates per calendar year and the slopes of the calibration curves, for assemblages of archaeological dates from such widely separated areas as British Columbia, South Australia and New Zealand. The distortion also increases the possibility of date reversals, and increases the overall spread of calibrated 14C dates. After taking into account this systematic distortion and inbuilt age of charcoal and wood samples, we estimate dates for the initial settlement and first appearance of fortifications, and infer a likely trend of population growth for prehistoric New Zealand.
    • AMS 14C Age Determinations of Tissue, Bone and Grass Samples from the Ötztal Ice Man

      Bonani, Georges; Ivy-Ochs, Susan D.; Hajdas, Irena; Niklaus, Thomas R.; Suter, Martin (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1994-01-01)
      14C ages of samples from the Otztal Ice Man, found on the Hauslabjoch in the Tyrolean Alps in September 1991, were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Uncalibrated 14C ages of 4555 +/- 34 BP, 4560 +/- 65 BP and 4535 +/- 60 BP were measured on tissue (mean of four samples), bone and grass, respectively, from the Ice Man. The mean of all of our measurements is 4550 +/- 27 BP.
    • Calibration 1993

      Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1994-01-01
    • Liquid Scintillation Alpha Spectrometry

      Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1994-01-01
    • Late Quaternary Chronology and Paleoclimates of the Eastern Mediterranean [Announcement]

      Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1994-01-01
    • LSC 92

      Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1994-01-01
    • The Rapid Preparation of Seawater Sigma-CO2 for Radiocarbon Analysis at the National Ocean Sciences AMS Facility

      McNichol, A. P.; Jones, G. A.; Hutton, D. L.; Gagnon, A. R.; Key, R. M. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1994-01-01)
      We have established a laboratory for extracting Sigma-CO2 from seawater samples for AMS analysis of the radiocarbon content. The seawater samples are collected at sea, poisoned and stored until analysis in the laboratory. Each sample is acidified; the inorganic carbon is stripped out as CO2 with an inert carrier gas and then converted to graphite. We present results for Buzzards Bay surface H2O and Na2CO3 standards that demonstrate we strip >98% of inorganic carbon from seawater. Stable isotope analyses are performed to better than 0.2 per mil, and the reproducibility of 14C measurements on Buzzards Bay seawater is better than 13 per mil. Finally, we compare data from samples collected in 1991 to those collected in the 1970s and to large volume samples.
    • Radiocarbon, Volume 36, Number 2 (1993)

      Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1994-01-01
    • Gliwice Radiocarbon Dates XI

      Pazdur, Mieczysław F.; Awsiuk, Romuald; Goslar, Tomasz; Pazdur, Anna; Walanus, Adam; Zastawny, Andrzej (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1994-01-01)
    • 7th International Conference on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

      Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1994-01-01
    • From the Editors

      Long, Austin; Kra, Renee S.; Jull, A. J. T. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1994-01-01)
    • Radiocarbon Chronology of Late Glacial and Holocene Sedimentation and Water-Level Changes in the Area of the Gościąż Lake Basin

      Pazdur, Anna; Pazdur, M. F.; Goslar, Tomasz; Wicik, Bogumił; Arnold, Maurice (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1994-01-01)
      We obtained 14C ages on samples of lake marl and other sediments from cores taken in Gościąż Lake and its environs. Comparison of 14C dates of bulk samples of laminated sediment with varve chronology and available AMS dates of terrestrial macrofossils indicates a reservoir correction of 2000 +/120 yr for the basal series of lake sediments. 14C dates obtained on peat layers underlying the oldest lacustrine sediments in Gościąż and other lakes consistently locate the beginning of organogenic sedimentation in this area at ca. 13 ka BP. We distinguished three periods of lacustrine gyttja sedimentation in cores taken in Gościąż and adjacent lakes: 11.8-10.2 ka, 8-7 ka and 2.7-2.1 ka BP. From the 14C dates of lithological boundaries in these cores, we reconstruct a pattern of lake-level changes during the last 12 ka, remarkably similar to Swedish lakes and generally agreeing with available records from European and American lakes. The behavior of Gościąż Lake during the last 12 ka fairly well reflects global climate changes in the temperate zone during the Late Glacial and Holocene periods..
    • 14C Age Corrections in Antarctic Lake Sediments Inferred from Geochemistry

      Zale, Rolf (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1994-01-01)
      Sediment from Lake Boeckella, Antarctic Peninsula, is richer in Ca, Cd, Cu, P, Sr and Zn than that of six other lakes in the area. The elements originate from Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) guano on the lake shores. Changing Cu and P concentrations in the lake sediment are used as a proxy for penguin influence on the lake sediment from ca. 5850 BP to Present. A 14C dating model suggests that the 14C correction factor in the lake sediments depends on the penguin proxy, the apparent age of the penguin guano and the amount of particulate carbon originating from the carbon-bearing shales in the watershed. Glacial meltwater and dissolved carbonates do not contain enough "old" carbon to contribute significantly to the correction factor. Ages corrected with the 14C dating model agree with the depth vs. age curve based on independently 14C-dated tephra horizons. The reservoir effect has been constant since at least 5800 BP, implying long-term stability of the currents and water masses in the area. The existing chronology for Lake Boeckella has been recalculated. The period of glacial advance, previously thought to have culminated at 5000 BP, is now thought to have culminated at 4700 BP; deglaciatlon of the area is thought to have occurred at 6300 BP instead of 8680 BP.
    • Associate Editors

      Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1994-01-01
    • Rudjer Bošković Institute Radiocarbon Measurements XIII

      Obelić, Bogomil; Horvatinčić, Nada; Srdoč, Dušan; Krajcar Bronić, Ines; Sliepčević, Adela; Grgić, Sanja (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1994-01-01)
    • Gliwice Radiocarbon Dates XII

      Pazdur, Anna; Pazdur, Mieczysław F.; Zastawny, Andrzej (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1994-01-01)
    • Radiocarbon After Four Decades: An Interdisciplinary Perspective [Announcement]

      Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1994-01-01
    • Physical Research Laboratory (Chemistry) Radiocarbon Date List I

      Bhushan, Ravi; Chakraborty, Supriya; Krishnaswami, Seth (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1994-01-01)