• Radiocarbon Dating of Bone Osteocalcin: Isolating and Characterizing a Non-Collagen Protein

      Ajie, H. O.; Kaplan, I. R.; Hauschka, P. V.; Kirner, Donna; Slota, P. J. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      Osteocalcin, a non-collagen bone-matrix protein, has been examined as a possible source of autochthonous 14C data in fossil bones where collagen has been seriously degraded. Extraction procedures for osteocalcin yield a wellcharacterized product that can be clearly distinguished from collagen. The Gla content indicates that osteocalcin is present in the fossil bones at levels similar to the range present in modern bone. However, it appears to be extracted primarily as proteolytic polypeptide fragments rather than as an intact protein. Concordant 14C determinations are obtained on osteocalcin and gelatin extracts from the same bone when the collagen is relatively well preserved. However, increasing discordances in the 14C values of the osteocalcin and gelatin fractions are associated with reduced concentrations of the gelatin extract in the bone.
    • Radiocarbon Dating of Copper-Preserved Organics

      Beukens, R. P.; Pavlish, L. A.; Hancock, R. V.; Farquhar, R. M.; Wilson, G. C. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      The small but vital role of 14C dating in archaeometric research is clearly shown in the copper project reported herein. The 14C ages place a time perspective on the "Old Copper Culture Complex," substantiating early Libby dates that had been questioned. The respective roles of INAA, PGE and Pb isotope work are briefly summarized. A long tradition of heat treatment from Paleoindian stone to Archaic copper is suggested.
    • Radiocarbon Dating of Fourteen Dead Sea Scrolls

      Bonani, Georges; Ivy, Susan; Wölfli, Willy; Broshi, Magen; Carmi, Israel; Strugnell, John (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      The name Dead Sea Scrolls refers to some 1200 manuscripts found in caves in the hills on the western shore of the Dead Sea during the last 45 years. They range in size from small fragments to complete books from the holy scriptures (the Old Testament). The manuscripts also include uncanonized sectarian books, letters and commercial documents, written on papyrus and parchment. In only a few cases, direct information on the date of writing was found in the scrolls. In all other cases, the dating is based on indirect archaeological and paleographical evidence. To check this evidence, radiocarbon ages of 14 selected scrolls were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry. The calibrated radiocarbon ages agree well, except in one case, with the paleographic estimates or the specific dates noted on the scrolls.
    • Radiocarbon Dating of Groundwater in a Confined Aquifer in Southeast Arizona

      Robertson, Frederick N. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      Radiocarbon, delta-13C and major-element data were used to construct a geochemical framework for interpretation of the hydrological flow system in the lower San Pedro basin, southeastern Arizona, USA. The 14C and major-element data show a regional confined aquifer that extends throughout most of the basin. Groundwater ages, after correcting for chemistry, are greater than 10 ka BP. The groundwater ages do not increase in a downvalley direction, the assumed direction of groundwater movement in most intermontane basins in the region, but along general flow paths normal to the mountains toward the center of the basin. Recharge to the confined aquifer originates from infiltration of precipitation and runoff near the alluvium-mountain contact along the Galiuro Mountains and is discharged by evapotranspiration along the center of the basin. The hydrogeological concept of the 14C model is supported by the water chemistry and by the mass transfer defined by the chemical model. Weathering of primary silicate minerals in the confined aquifer does not occur downvalley, but only along the direction of flow. Hydraulic conductivities calculated for the aquifer from 14C velocities are about an order of magnitude slower than those determined through hydrological methods. The lower hydraulic-conductivity values are attributed to a thick confining layer overlying the discharge area along the San Pedro River.
    • Radiocarbon Dating of Iron Artifacts

      Cresswell, R. G. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      During the late 1960s, N. J. van der Merwe (1969) obtained 14C measurements on 11 iron pieces, ranging in carbon content from medium carbon (0.22%) wrought iron (1.2 kg used) to high carbon (3.2%) cast iron (30 g), thereby demonstrating the feasibility of the technique for 14C dating iron. In the early 1980s, Sayre et al. (1982) repeated two of van der Merwe's measurements, and carried out two analyses on a recently rediscovered Elizabethan(?) iron bloom. Thirty grams were required of this medium carbon wrought iron to obtain an age using small proportional counters. A number of iron artifacts have recently been analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at IsoTrace. Samples ranged in size from 3.4 g of a medium carbon (approximately equal to 0.4%) wrought iron bloom to 274 mg for a high carbon (1.79%) wootz steel fragment. AMS now permits analysis of samples that previously were too small or too valuable to be analyzed. For larger samples, multiple analyses can reveal variations that may aid the evaluation of sample history.
    • Radiocarbon Dating of Lime Fractions and Organic Material from Buildings

      Van Strydonck, Mark J. Y.; van der Borg, Klaas; De Jong, Arie F. M.; Keppens, Eduard (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      We have dated carbonate fractions and organic material from different types of mortar from two sites in Belgium. We demonstrate the difficulties in obtaining good dates from carbonate samples. We also discuss the need for new types of dating material when the mortar comes from contaminated and disturbed sites, where even charcoal can yield aberrant results.
    • Radiocarbon Dating of Travertines Precipitated from Freshwater

      Mas-Pla, Joseph; Trilla, Josep; Valls, M. L. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      We have studied the isotopic composition of recently precipitated travertines to determine the initial 14C activity of ancient travertine deposits. We found that the 14C activity of recent travertines of northeastern Spain was a function of the distance from the spring, resulting in variations in the initial 14C activity of the ancient travertine formations. We calculated the ancient travertine radiocarbon ages by using the ratio between the 14C activity of recent travertines and that of present atmospheric CO2 as the initial 14C activity.
    • Radiocarbon Dating: A Didactic Videotape

      Rauret, Gemma; Mestres, J. S.; García, J. F. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
    • Radiocarbon Measurements in South Pacific Ocean Waters in the Vicinity of the Subtropical Convergence Zone

      Sparks, R. J.; Drummond, G. W.; Brailsford, G. W.; Lowe, D. C.; Lassey, K. R.; Manning, M. R.; Taylor, C. B.; Wallace, Gavin (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      Distribution profiles of radiocarbon in dissolved inorganic carbonate have been measured along two transects in the southern Pacific, east of New Zealand. Use of accelerator mass spectrometry, with its small-sample-size capability, made it possible to sample near-surface waters with a depth resolution of a few tens of meters. Sampling of deeper water was guided by salinity and temperature data transmitted by a conductivity-temperature-depth probe. The measurements, taken over the Chatham Rise, show highly structured profiles that can be correlated with known circulation patterns in this region.
    • Radiocarbon Results for the British Beakers

      Ambers, Janet; Bowman, Sheridan; Gibson, Alex; Kinnes, Ian (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      The beginning of the Bronze Age in the British Isles has traditionally been marked by the appearance, in the archaeological record, of Beaker assemblages, mainly characterized by the Beaker pottery form itself. Ceramic typologies based on this style, which is undoubtedly continental in origin, have been used both for relative dating and as evidence of the social and economic developments of the period. Systematic radiocarbon dating has been attempted for the continental European Beaker material (Lanting, Mook & van der Waals 1973), but no such program has been carried out on British material. An examination of the existing radiocarbon results for the British Beakers showed many to be flawed in some way, particularly in the use of materials, such as mature wood, where there is no a priori reason for assuming a direct relationship between sample death and context. An attempt has been made at the British Museum to test the validity of archaeologically derived chronologies for the Beaker pottery of the British Isles. This involved analysis of a group of carefully selected human bone samples from Beaker burials, where there is a known direct association between ceramic usage and the cessation of carbon exchange. Twenty such samples have been identified and measured. The results presented here, combined with other previously produced determinations, show no obvious relationship between pottery style and calendar date of deposition.
    • Radiocarbon Variations from Tasmanian Conifers: First Results from Late Pleistocene and Holocene Logs

      Barbetti, Mike; Bird, Trevor; Dolezal, George; Taylor, Gillian; Francey, Roger; Cook, Edward; Patterson, Mike (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      Dendrochronological studies have begun on two conifer species in the Stanley River area of western Tasmania. The chronology extends to 273 BC for Huon pine (Lagarostrobos franklinii) and to AD 1450 for celery-top pine (Phyllocladus aspleniifolius). Apart from living or recently felled trees, sections have been taken from 58 logs preserved in floodplain sediments. Two of these logs have late Pleistocene ages, centered around 13.0 and 12.7 k 14C yr BP. Four logs are between 8 and 9 ka BP, and one is centered at 7.3 ka BP. The remaining logs have various ages between 6.2 ka BP and the present. 14C measurements have been performed on decadal samples from the two late Pleistocene logs, providing short (260-yr) records of atmospheric 14C variations when plotted against individual ring numbers. Decadal measurements on the 7300-yr-old log have been wiggle-matched with 14C calibration curves from German oak and bristlecone pine. Measurements for the period, AD 1600-1800, show good agreement with northern hemisphere results, and a nearly zero offset between the hemispheres
    • Rapid Production of Graphite Without Contamination for Biomedical AMS

      Vogel, John S. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      The application of AMS to the detection of 14C makes possible a new class of sensitive experiments in molecular biology. Such experiments inherently produce large numbers of samples for the determination of biological variability in molecular interactions. The samples vary in 14C concentration over many orders of magnitude. We added TiH2 to aid the reduction of CO2 by zinc in a sealed tube to reproducibly make graphite without sample cross-contamination. The CO2 is transferred from a combustion tube to the reaction tube through a disposable plastic manifold. The sealed tubes are heated to a single-reaction temperature in a muffle furnace. The process is complete within 5 h. Bulk isotopic fractionation in the finished graphite is less than 0.5%.
    • Reaction-Path Formulation of a Simple Dissolution Model for Radiocarbon Dating Groundwater

      Cheng, Songlin (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      Since the pioneer publication of K. O. Münnich (1957),14C systematics have been used in many hydrogeological studies. Because of the complexity of carbon geochemistry, numerous models have been proposed to correct the dilution effect of "dead" carbon in groundwater. All the 14C correction models for dating groundwater are based on either openor closed-system conditions. I present here a simple model that accounts for the effects of both openand closed-system dissolution of carbonate and aluminosilicate minerals. For systems involving precipitation of carbonate minerals and redox reactions of organic matter, reaction-path simulations are essential for reliable 14C dating of groundwater.
    • Reduction of CO2-to-Graphite Conversion Time of Organic Materials for 14C AMS

      Thomsen, M. S.; Gulliksen, Steinar (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      Graphite is the most common type of target for 14C accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). It is readily produced by catalytic reduction of CO2, but the presence of a small amount of impurities (e.g., sulfur compounds) may retard the reaction. We have tested some techniques to find a method that reduces the impurity content of CO2 produced by combustion of organic material. We found that using water during combustion reduces the average time for graphite conversion of CO2 from organic matter from >3 h to ca. 2 h. This is the time for graphite production from CO2 obtained by acid hydrolysis of calcite. Measurements of known-age and background samples show that this combustion method neither changes the isotopic ratios nor introduces any additional background.
    • Renee Kra: Managing Editor of Radiocarbon for 25 of Its 34 Years of Existence...

      Long, Austin; Stuiver, Minze; Rubin, Meyer (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
    • Report of the Workshop, "Liquid Scintillation Counting", 18-19 May 1991

      Polach, Henry A. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
    • Report of the Workshop, "Paleoenvironments of the Eastern Mediterranean", 19 May 1991

      Kra, R. S.; Bar-Yosef, Ofer (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
    • Report of the Workshop, "Prospects for Temporal Extension of the Radiocarbon Calibration"

      Hughes, Malcolm K.; Leavitt, Steven W. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
    • Results and Methods in the Radiocarbon Dating of Pottery

      Hedges, R. M.; Tiemei, Chen; Housley, R. A. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      The main problem with dating pottery by radiocarbon is that many different carbon sources, of different radiocarbon age, may contribute to the potsherd carbon content. Also, the process of firing is liable to destroy information that might help separate possible sources. We describe several pottery dating projects in which we have dated separate fractions (such as humics, lipids and classes of residual carbon). Although in some cases consistency between results is sufficient to accept that this approach can give a credible date, in other cases, no date has been possible, and general conclusions are difficult to make.