• AMS Dating of a Late Quaternary Tephra at Graham's Terrace, New Zealand

      Gillespie, Richard; Hammond, A. P.; Goh, K. M.; Tonkin, P. J.; Lowe, D. C.; Sparks, R. J.; Wallace, Gavin (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      The radiocarbon dating of volcanic ash (tephra) deposits in New Zealand has been difficult on sites remote from the eruption, which contain either little carbon or degraded and contaminated charcoal. Although many studies of contamination removal from macroscopic charcoals from tephra sequences have been made, little attention has been paid to those containing no visible charcoal, because of the difficulty of obtaining sufficient carbon for radiometric dating. We report here experiments using accelerator mass spectrometry to establish a reliable method for dating a low-carbon aeolian and peat deposit containing a tephra horizon. Results so far demonstrate that improvements to existing chemical pretreatment methods are possible, and that dates obtained on oxidized fine-grained residues can approach the maximum age determined on good quality chaffed wood samples.
    • AMS Dating of Alluvial Sediments on the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia

      Gillespie, Richard; Prosser, I. P.; Dlugokencky, Edward; Sparks, R. J.; Wallace, Gavin; Chappell, J. A. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      The dating of alluvial deposits is frequently hampered by a lack of good-quality charcoal or other material for radiocarbon samples. We have dated two sites in southeastern Australia using traditional radiometric methods with minimal pretreatment. Results yielded an inconsistent chronology, affected by contamination with younger humic materials. A more consistent and older chronology was achieved using AMS dating of rigorously pretreated samples of fine-grained charcoal. The results have important implications for the radiocarbon dating of many Late Quaternary stratigraphic sequences with low charcoal abundance.
    • Associate Editors

      Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01
    • Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Rome Radiocarbon Dates I

      Calderoni, Gilberto; Petrone, Vincenzo (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      We report here, in part, dates measured on samples from Italy since the construction of a new 14C lab in 1990 for research in the fields of geology, paleomorphology and the biogeochemical cycle of carbon. We use liquid scintillation counting (LSC), following sample conversion to benzene through the four classical chemical steps: 1) combustion or hydrolysis to CO2; 2) production of Li2C2; 3) hydrolysis to C2H2; 4) trimerization of acetylene to C6H6 with specific catalysts. The vacuum line for benzene synthesis has been designed following a comparative review of the literature (Tamers 1960; Noakes et al. 1963; Scharpenseel & Pietig 1970; Harkness & Wilson 1973; Polach, Gower & Fraser 1972; Gupta & Polach 1985), and the valuable suggestions of many colleagues from well-established labs abroad. The compact vacuum line is mostly modular with “O”-ring-joined components, and is equipped with greaseless stopcocks. We use commercial two-stage rotary pumps, pressure transducers and gauges; an electrovalve coupled with a pressure control unit supplies the purified oxygen for sample combustion while holding constant, just higher than 1 atm, the gas pressure inside the combustion tube.
    • From the Editors: A View from the West

      Kra, Renee (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
    • From the Editors: ACL - East

      Long, Austin (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
    • Harwell Radiocarbon Measurements XI

      Hardiman, M. A.; Fairchild, J. E.; Longworth, Geoffrey (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      Following Harwell Measurements VIII (Walker, Williams & Otlet 1990), this is the final series of lists of English archaeological dates commissioned for measurement by the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission (HBMC) for England within prescribed contractual periods. This list, containing 127 dates, refers to the period April 1988 to March 1990, and results are reported irrespective of whether the associated projects are completed or ongoing.
    • Illinois State Geological Survey Radiocarbon Dates X

      Liu, Chao-Li; Asch, D. L.; Fisher, B. W.; Coleman, D. D. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      The following is a partial list of samples of archaeological interest processed between February 1981 and October 1985 at the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. The list contains samples from west-central Illinois that were related to projects conducted by current or former researchers at the Center for American Archeology (CAA) (formerly Foundation for Illinois Archaeology) and Northwestern University, Department of Anthropology, or, as noted, by colleagues from other institutions. Although some of the samples reported here came from non-cultural contexts and are primarily of geological significance, all were from or related to archaeological investigations.
    • Institut Royal du Patrimoine Artistique Radiocarbon Dates XIV

      Dauchot-Dehon, Michele; Van Strydonck, Mark (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      This list contains the results of 14C determinations that we obtained in 1988 and 1989. delta-13C was measured by the Free University, Brussels. Our dating techniques have been described previously (Dauchot-Dehon & Heylen 1971; Dauchot-Dehon, Van Strydonck & Heylen 1986).
    • Isotope Dating of Pleistocene Dung Deposits from the Colorado Plateau, Arizona and Utah

      Mead, Jim I.; Agenbroad, Larry D. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      Identified dung and keratinous remains of large mammals are considered the most reliable materials to 14C date, when the initial question includes the application of the date to the time of local extirpation and extinction. The Colorado Plateau provides a unique preservation habitat (desiccation), found in greater abundance of deposits than anywhere else in North America. We review 20 localities from the Colorado Plateau that contain dung of megaherbivores. Seven species of herbivores were identified utilizing dung: Bison (bison), Equus (horse), “Euceratherium“ (shrubox), Mammuthus (mammoth), Nothrotheriops (ground sloth), Oreamnos (mountain goat) and Ovis (bighorn), and 79 14C dates were measured from the sites. Most sites contain additional associated 14C and U/Th dates on skeletal and botanical remains.
    • Liquid Scintillation Counter Characterization, Optimization and Benzene Purity Correction

      McCormac, F. G. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      In liquid scintillation counting (LSC), small variations in benzene purity can cause 14C pulse-height spectra to move with respect to the counting window. Thus, one must carefully monitor the purity of each benzene sample and apply corrections for spectral shifts. I describe here the techniques used at Queen's University Belfast for deriving correction factors for observed small variations in benzene purity. I also describe the methods used at our laboratory to fine-tune our Quantulus LS counters for high-precision dating. The tuning of the instruments minimizes the effect of fluctuations in gain that may occur during the long counting periods required for high-precision dating. Any remaining influences on efficiency owing to gain changes are corrected for, along with the purity correction, by continuous monitoring of the spectrum produced by the external source.
    • North American Archaeologist

      Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01
    • Radiocarbon – Price List

      Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01
    • Radiocarbon, Volume 34, Number 1 (1992)

      Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01
    • Rehovot Radiocarbon Measurements IV

      Carmi, Israel; Segal, Dror (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      The following list consists of dates of archaeological samples, obtained by gas-proportional counting of ethane, between 1985 and the end of 1991. During this time a close cooperation has been established with the Israel Antiquities Authority, which now has an archaeologist (D.S.) participating in the operation of the lab and serving as a liaison officer with the archaeological community.
    • Rudjer Bošković Institute Radiocarbon Measurements XII

      Srdoč, Dušan; Horvatinčić, Nada; Krajcar Bronić, Ines; Obelić, Bogomil; Sliepčević, Adela (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      We present here radiocarbon analyses made since our previous list (Srdoč et al. 1989). Sample pretreatment, combustion and counting techniques are essentially the same as described previously (Srdoč, Breyer & Sliepčević 1971), supplemented by new techniques for groundwater processing (Srdoč et al. 1979). The calculation of ages follows conventional protocol (Stuiver & Polach 1977). These ages can be converted from the 5570-year half-life to the chronometrically more correct half-life of 5730 years by multiplying by the factor, 1.029. Ages and standard deviations of all samples are adjusted for stable isotope fractionation according to the recommendations in Stuiver and Polach (1977), except for groundwater, calcareous deposits and aquatic plants. The delta-13C values of the latter reflect the environmental conditions during their formation or growth rather than fractionation (Mook 1976; Krajcar Bronić et al. 1986; Marčenko et al. 1989). Thus, any percent modern (pMC) correction based on delta-13C values is meaningless or even misleading. Sample descriptions are prepared in collaboration with collectors and submitters. Calibrated ages were calculated using the program of Stuiver and Reimer (1987).
    • Send for a Free Sample Copy of...Quaternary International

      Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01
    • Send for a Free Sample Copy of...Quaternary Science Reviews

      Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01
    • University of Granada Radiocarbon Dates VI

      Gonzalez-Gomez, Cecilio (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1992-01-01)
      This paper includes determinations of archaeological, geological, palaeobotanical and other samples from Spain, Portugal and Bolivia, measured at the University of Granada Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory, mostly from 1989 to 1990. Pretreatment of charcoal and wood samples is a standard acid-basic procedure using 8% HCl and 2% NaOH at boiling temperature. We obtain collagen from bone samples using the Longin (1971) method.