• A Discussion of an Alternate Approach to the Evaluation of Sample Contamination

      Gurfinkel, D. M. (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      An approach to the evaluation of sample contamination based on the monitoring of contaminant removal during pretreatment is described. Spot tests and colorimetric reactions which could be adapted for this purpose are suggested.
    • Archaeologic Sherd Dating: Comparison of Thermoluminescence Dates with Radiocarbon Dates by Beta Counting and Accelerator Techniques

      Johnson, R. A.; Stipp, J. J.; Tamers, M. A.; Bonani, Georges; Suter, Martin; Wölfli, Willy (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      Sherds can be dated by four independent methods. 14C beta counting on associated material, accelerator mass spectrometry on carbon traces on and within the sherd, thermoluminescence studies on minerals within the sherd, and stylistic form. Age analyses of materials and sherds from several sites are shown in this work. Each technique has its own frequently encountered non-laboratory sources of error. A combination of at least two independent techniques is indispensable for the highest level of confidence.
    • Chemical Isotope Dilution for 14C AMS and the Potential for GC/AMS

      Gillespie, Richard (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
    • Dating of Holocene Stratigraphy with Soluble and Insoluble Organic Fractions at the Lubbock Lake Archaeological Site, Texas: An Ideal Case Study

      Haas, Herbert; Holliday, Vance; Stuckenrath, Robert (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      The Lubbock Lake site, on the Southern High Plains of Texas, contains one of the most complete and best-dated late Quaternary records in North America. A total of 117 14C dates are available from the site, determined by the Smithsonian and SMU Laboratories. Of these dates, 84 have been derived from residues (humin) and humates (humic acids) of organic-rich marsh sediments and A horizons of buried soils. Most of the ages are consistent with dates determined on charcoal and wood, and with the archaeologic and stratigraphic record. The dates on the marsh sediments are approximate points in time. Dates from the top of buried A-horizons are a maximum for burial and in many cases are close to the actual age of burial. Dates from the base of the A-horizons are a minimum for the beginning of soil formation, in some cases as much as several thousand years younger than the initiation of pedogenesis. A few pairs of dates were obtained from hurnin and humic acid derived from split samples; there are no consistencies in similarities or differences in these age pairs. It also became apparent that dates determined on samples from scraped trench walls or excavations that were left open for several years are younger than dates from samples taken from exactly the same locations when the sampling surfaces were freshly excavated.
    • delta-13C and Diet: Analysis of Norwegian Human Skeletons

      Johansen, Olav Sverre; Gulliksen, Steinar; Nydal, Reidar (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      The relationship between 13C content of human bone and the marine fraction in the individual diet is well established. In the present investigation human skeletons from inland and coastal areas in Norway were analyzed. Both regional and chronologic differences are revealed, and larger variability than expected at specific sites indicate more complex cultural adaptations than earlier recognized. Extremely high delta-13C values, comparable with those obtained from Eskimo sites, are found for material from Early Stone Age fishing/hunting communities.
    • Discordant Ages Related to Reservoir Effect of Associated Archaeologic Remains from the Tunel Site, Beagle Channel, Argentine Republic

      Albero, Miguel C.; Angiolini, Fernando E.; Piana, Ernesto L. (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      Evidence of a tradition of human maritime adaptation was recovered from various sites at Beagle Channel dating back to ca 6000 yr BP. Final occupations date to European settlement in the 19th century. The Túnel site exhibits discontinuous human occupation ranging from 6000 to 500 yr BP, represented by different archaeologic remains in each layer. Associated charcoal, mollusk shells, and Lama guanicoe and Arctocephalus australis bones were dated. Shells and Arctocephalus are consistently older than charcoal, demonstrating the reservoir effect at Beagle Channel. Results encourage further work in the area to evaluate the spatial and temporal magnitude of the effect.
    • Early Slavonic Settlements and Navigation at the Mouth of the Odra River

      Awsiuk, Romuald; Filipowiak, Władyslaw; Goslar, Tomasz; Pazdur, Anna; Pazdur, Mieczysław F. (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      An attempt is presented to establish an absolute chronology of early Slavonic habitation in the region of the mouth of the Odra River up to the Baltic and to find associations with a series of stave boats and dugouts of different levels of technology and navigation. The methodology of the research project is presented and some conclusions of a general nature are drawn from the results already obtained.
    • Is Radiocarbon Dating Obsolescent for Archaeologists?

      Ottaway, Barbara S. (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      This paper will deal with two major points: 1) the lack of feedback between archaeologists supplying samples and using radiocarbon dating, and physicists carrying out 14C dating measurements; and 2) the problem of calibrating groups of 14C dates in a statistically meaningful way.
    • Lódź Radiocarbon Dates II

      Kanwiszer, Andrzej; Trzeciak, Pawel (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
    • Origins of Carbon in Potsherds

      Gabasio, Martine; Evin, Jacques; Arnal, Gaston Bernard; Andrieux, Philippe (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
    • Pretoria Radiocarbon Dates III

      Vogel, J. C.; Fuls, Annemarie; Visser, Ebbie (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
    • Radiocarbon Accelerator (AMS) Dates for the Epipaleolithic Settlement at Abu Hureyra, Syria

      Moore, A. M. T.; Gowlett, J. A. J.; Hedges, R. E. M.; Hillman, G. C.; Legge, A. J.; Rowley-Conwy, P. A. (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      The prehistoric settlement of Abu Hureyra in Syria was occupied in both the Epipaleolithic and Neolithic periods. It has provided significant evidence for changes in economy at the time of the inception of agriculture in southwest Asia. Twenty accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates have been obtained to determine the duration of occupation of the Epipaleolithic settlement there and the precise age of samples of cereal grains and animal bones found within it. The results have demonstrated that the AMS technique can answer such questions because it dates exceedingly small samples with high precision. The dates indicate that the Epipaleolithic settlement was inhabited for about a millennium, from before 11,000 to nearly 10,000 BP, significantly longer than had been anticipated from study of the artifacts.
    • Radiocarbon Dates from an Upland Site of the Kona Field System, Hawai'i Island, Hawaii

      Kawachi, C. T. (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      The following samples were excavated in July 1985 in an upland (elev 609 m) prehistoric agricultural site in the Kona Field System on the west coast of Hawai'i Island. 14C measurements were done by Beta Analytic Inc, Coral Gables, Florida. The samples were first carefully examined and picked for rootlets and any other non-contemporaneous carbonaceous materials. They were then subjected to an alternating series of hot acid and alkali solutions, interspersed with washings to neutrality with hot distilled water to eliminate carbonates and humic acids. After gentle drying the clean charcoal was benzene synthesized and counting of the 14C activity with a liquid scintillation spectrometer measured for 14C content. All steps in the analysis proceeded normally. Soil descriptions are based on information supplied by Patti Spears and Jeff Yamauchi. Hawaii Puaa, North Kona series Charcoal from 2 loci within project site (19 degrees 38'30"N, 155 degrees 56'30"E).
    • Radiocarbon Dating Blood Residues on Prehistoric Stone Tools

      Nelson, D. E.; Loy, T. H.; Vogel, J. S.; Southon, J. R. (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      We report here the first radiocarbon dating of blood residues on prehistoric stone tools. The residues found on two stone artifacts were subjected to various exploratory biochemical techniques to identify the species from which they were derived and to separate a suitable sample for dating by accelerator mass spectrometry. Although these techniques need much further development and detailed testing, the ages obtained in this first study were consistent with other data, indicating that the concept is viable. For the first time, the time of use of stone tools has been found directly, rather than by stratigraphic or other archaeologic inferential techniques.
    • Sample Credentials Necessary for Meaningful High-Precision 14C Dating

      Jope, E. M. (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      Samples presented for high-precision 14C dating must satisfy stringent requirements if the 14C determinations are to yield meaningful sharp calendric dates, such as are now possible with the bidecadal high-precision calibration curve. The total carbon content should come from a confined time range 10-20 years (10-20 tree rings in wood or charcoal) appropriate for the bidecadal calibration curve. For accurate calendric dating the relation of these rings to the outer growth rings must be known. Application of the high-precision calibration curve to some archaeologic examples is discussed. It is now up to archaeologists and geoscientists to use this refined chronometric instrument to fullest advantage.
    • The AMS Dating of Separate Fractions in Archaeology

      Batten, R. J.; Gillespie, Richard; Gowlett, J. A. J.; Hedges, Robert E. M. (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
    • The Prehistoric Expansion of Farming Into "Arctic" Norway: A Chronology Based on 14C Dating

      Johansen, Olav Sverre; Vorren, Karl-Dag (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      Palynologic and archaeologic studies using 14C dating indicate that elements of farming were introduced even further north than the Arctic Circle during the Neolithic period, ca 4000 BP. A second stage with heavier reliance on farming and with probable establishment of permanent farmsteads is dated to 2000-2500 BP.
    • University of Granada Radiocarbon Dates III

      Gonzalez-Gomez, Celilio; Sanchez-Sanchez, Purificacion; Villafranca-Sanchez, Elena (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
    • University of Lund Radiocarbon Dates XIX

      Håkansson, Sören (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
    • University of Wisconsin Radiocarbon Dates XXIII

      Steventon, Raymond L.; Kutzbach, John E. (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)