• Geomagnetic-Heliomagnetic Modulation of Atmospheric Radiocarbon Production

      Damon, Paul E.; Linick, Timothy W. (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      New Arizona high precision Delta-14C data back to 6500 BC plot close to an 11,300-yr period sinusoid extrapolated from the post 5300 BC data (offset = +32 per mil, half amplitude = 51 per mil and phase lag = 2.29 radians). The trend curve is modulated by high latitude components of the non-dipole field with a fundamental period of 2400 yr. Based upon a model of Lund and Banerjee (1985), the non-dipole field rotates and every 1200 yr the high latitude maxima pass over the north magnetic pole and near the south magnetic pole in reversed polarity. This modulates cosmic ray production producing extended maxima ca AD 1700, 700 BC, 3100 BC, and 5500 BC. The 2400 period appears to be stationary. The magnetic field also modulates the amplitude of the solar activity induced cycles of periods 200, 80, and 11 yr as can be seen in the Zürich-Bern Camp Century ice core data as well as in the Delta-14C fluctuation data. Reinterpretation of the Camp Century 10Be data indicates that it is in agreement with magnetic field as well as solar activity modulation of terrestrial radioisotope production.
    • Global and Local Effects of 14C Discharges from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

      McCartney, Martin; Baxter, M. S.; McKay, Keith; Scott, E. Marian (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      The radiologic impact of 14C produced by the nuclear fuel cycle is assessed at both global and local levels. In the former context, it is predicted here that the specific activity of atmospheric CO2 in the year 2050 will be ca 7.6 pCig^(-1)C. Although this is similar to the present level, the subsequent collective dose commitment could be highly significant. The enhancement of 14C concentrations around the nuclear fuel-reprocessing plant at Sellafield (Windscale) in Cumbria, UK has been monitored over recent years. For example, maximum levels of 27.2 pCig^(-1)C (~350% above natural) during 1984 were observed <1 km from the plant, with enhanced activities detectable to at least 29km. Nevertheless, it is clear that the radiologic significance to the local population is low. The spatial distribution of the excess 14C allows atmospheric dispersion models to be tested in the context of continuous releases and the results thus far show that the Gaussian plume model performs successfully.
    • Groningen 14C Data Base

      Endelsman, F. M. R.; Taayke, E.; Mook, W. G. (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
    • Ice-Core Dating of the Pleistocene/Holocene Boundary Applied to a Calibration of the 14C Time Scale

      Hammer, Claus U.; Clausen, Henrik B.; Tauber, Henrik (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      Seasonal variations in 18O content, in acidity, and in dust content have been used to count annual layers in the Dye 3 deep ice core back to the Late Glacial. In this way the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary has been absolutely dated to 8770 BC with an estimated error limit of +/- 150 years. If compared to the conventional 14C age of the same boundary a value of Delta-14C = 53 +/- 13 per mil is obtained. This Delta-14C value suggests that 14C levels during the Late Glacial were not substantially higher than during the Postglacial.
    • Increase of 14C Activity of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Along a River Course

      Srdoč, Dušan; Krajcar-Bronić, Ines; Horvatinčić, Nada; Obelić, Bogomil (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      Results of measurements for 3 years (1981-1983) of 14C activity of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in water samples from the Korana River, as well as that of recent tufa and aquatic plants, showed that 14C concentration increases from karst spring to the estuary. A model describing the increase of 14C activity was developed assuming that the increase is due to the exchange of the dissolved CO2 in stream water with atmospheric CO2 and to dissolution of CO2 from the decay of organic material and root respiration. It is possible to distinguish these two contributions by measuring the delta-13C values of DIC in water. As expected, our data show that the exchange process between atmospheric CO2 and DIC dominates at rapids and waterfalls, while biologic contribution is much higher in lakes and along the lowland flow of the Korana River. Agreement between the calculated and the measured activities supports the proposed mechanisms of chemical and isotopic exchanges in stream waters.
    • Is Radiocarbon Dating Obsolescent for Archaeologists?

      Ottaway, Barbara S. (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      This paper will deal with two major points: 1) the lack of feedback between archaeologists supplying samples and using radiocarbon dating, and physicists carrying out 14C dating measurements; and 2) the problem of calibrating groups of 14C dates in a statistically meaningful way.
    • Isotopic Fractionation of Carbon During CO2 Absorption by Mortar

      Pachiaudi, Christiane; Marechal, Joelle; Van Strydonck, Mark; Dupas, Michel; Dauchot-Dehon, Michele (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
    • Laser Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Krypton-81 Analysis

      Lehmann, B. E.; Loosli, H. H.; Oeschger, Hans; Rauber, Dominique; Hurst, G. S.; Allman, S. L.; Chen, C. H.; Kramer, S. D.; Thonnard, Norbert; Willis, R. D. (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      A new laser-based analytical technique is described for isotope selective noble gas atom counting. The method has been used to detect 81Kr atoms in a groundwater sample.
    • Measurement of 10Be and 26Al with a Tandetron Accelerator Mass Spectrometer Facility

      Yiou, Francoise; Raisbeck, Grant M.; Bourles, Dider; Lestringuez, Jacques; Deboffle, Dominique (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      A description is given of the use of a Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer system for measuring the isotopes10Be and 26Al.
    • Measurement of 14C Directly from CO2 Using a Tandetron Accelerator Mass Spectrometer Facility

      Raisbeck, Grant M.; Yiou, Françoise; Arnold, Maurice; Duplessy, Jean Claude (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      Tests have been carried out on the measurement of 14C directly from CO2, using a source designed by Middleton, and a Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer system. These tests were very promising from the point of view of minimum quantity of carbon necessary (<50 micrograms), but suffered from a background (apparently not memory effect) giving an equivalent age of 25,000 years. As a demonstration of the technique, a single thread from the mummy wrapping of the Egyptian king Ramses II was dated.
    • Multiple Dating of a Long Flowstone Profile

      Geyh, Mebus A.; Hennig, G. J. (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      Dense speleothem samples are considered as closed systems and are, therefore, possibilities for any dating method. Four dating methods (14C, U/Th, paleomagnetism, and electron spin resonance = ESR) were used for samples up to 1,000,000 yr old and taken along a vertical flowstone profile in the Heggen cave in West Germany. Also delta-18O and delta-13C analyses were carried out. The reliability of the results of each method is dependent on the diagenetic processes that took place during the complex growth history of the flowstone. Speleothem growth was interrupted during glacial periods. During interglacial periods, at least the stalagmite growth rate was greater by one order of magnitude than during interstadial periods. During the periods of low interstadial growth rate various processes might have changed the 14C, 18O, and 13C concentrations, leaching might have removed uranium, recrystallization might have moved thorium several centimeters, and increased content of radon in the cave might have exaggerated the accumulated dose (AD) at the speleothem surface. As a result, 14C ages may be too small and U/Th as well as ESR data may be too large.
    • On the Initial 14C Activity of Karst Aquifers with Short Mean Residence Time

      Krajcar-Bronić, Ines; Horvatinčić, Nada; Srdoč, Dušan; Obelić, Bogomil (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      The 14C activity of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) as well as tritium activity and stable isotope content (13C, 2H, 18O) of spring water were measured for 3 consecutive years at 3 karst springs that feed Plitvice Lakes, NW Yugoslavia. The constant chemical and stable isotope composition and temperature indicated well mixed aquifers. A very short mean residence time of underground water (2-5 yr) was determined by tritium activity measurements. Measured 14C activities of 3 karst springs varied from 60.0% to 82.5%. The measured 14C activities were compared with calculated 14C activities based on various models using measured values of 14C activity of soil at different depths and 13C content of limestone, plants, and soils from the recharge area. Our measurements indicate that recharge systems in karst aquifers are open to the atmosphere. The atmospheric CO2 contributes to the 13C content and the 14C activity of ground water to an estimated extent which varies between 10 and 40% of DIC.
    • Operation of the NSF-Arizona Accelerator Facility for Radioisotope Analysis and Results from Selected Collaborative Research Projects

      Linick, T. W.; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, L. J.; Donahue, D. J. (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      Radiocarbon dating at the Arizona accelerator facility has improved substantially in the last three years. Since starting to use graphite targets (see Jull et al, 1986), we have been able to obtain routinely a precision of ca +/- 1 % (ca 80 yr) for relatively modern material. Our routine technique of tuning and operating the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS) and our method of calculating 14C results are discussed in detail. Data on activity ratios of oxalic acid-II/oxalic-I are presented. Examples of the wide variety of projects on which we have collaborated are given. Brief discussions of three such projects are presented for our colleagues who were unable to attend this conference: an Arizona Indian archaeologic project, a study of megafaunal extinctions, and a study of the growth of phosphorite nodules on the sea floor off the Peruvian coast.
    • Optimization of Liquid Scintillation Counting for 14C Dating

      Angiolini, Fernando E.; Albero, Miguel C. (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      The effects of different measurement conditions and sample preparation in liquid scintillation counting of benzene for 14C dating were tested. The goal of this work was to find the highest figure of merit through the variation of scintillation cocktail to benzene ratio, and measurement windows. Measurements were performed on 5m1 of benzene plus increasing quantities of scintillation cocktail (7g of PPO and 0.5g of Me2POPOP in IL of scintillation-grade toluene). Spectra of both background and standard were obtained and the counting windows selected for the highest figure of merit (Q). The best condition was 5m1 of benzene plus 0.75ml of scintillation cocktail. This spectrum is compared with that of I) pure toluene-14C plus cocktail, and 2) pure benzene-14C in which the equivalent amount of PPO and Me2POPOP present in 0.75ml of cocktail was dissolved. A correlation between the increase of the aniount of cocktail and the broadening of the spectrum was observed. The effect of wrapping the upper part of the counting vial with aluminum foil to reduce background was also tested. A drastic background increment was observed in the low energy range, for unwrapped vials; the standard spectrum showed a broadening and a lower counting efficiency which reduced the figure of merit.
    • Origins of Carbon in Potsherds

      Gabasio, Martine; Evin, Jacques; Arnal, Gaston Bernard; Andrieux, Philippe (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
    • Palaeosols Within Loess: Dating Palaeoclimatic Events in Kashmir

      Kusumgar, Sheela; Agrawal, D. P.; Juyal, Navin; Sharma, Prabhakar (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      The 14C dates of Kashmir loess-palaeosols form five clusters. The dates, mineral magnetic, stable isotopic, and pollen data help decipher major climatic oscillations as distinct from the minor ones.
    • Precise Calendrical Dating of Known Growth-Period Samples Using a 'Curve Fitting' Technique

      Pearson, G. W. (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      Absolute high-precision radiocarbon time-scale calibration is now available and is shown by Stuiver and Pearson (1986) and Pearson and Stuiver (1986) to be internationally valid. The technique of curve fitting presented in this paper shows how certain samples may be dated calendrically to within a very narrow band width ca +/- 20 years, at time periods when single sample analysis would give ambiguous calendrical conversion. Samples of known deposition rate covering a time span of >50 years are subdivided to produce a 'floating curve' and this curve is then `wiggle matched' with the high-precision calibration to give a precise calendrical age.
    • Production of Graphite Targets by Deposition from Co/H2 for Precision Accelerator 14C Measurements

      Jull, A. J. T.; Donahue, D. J.; Hatheway, A. L.; Linick, T. W.; Toolin, L. J. (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      A method has been developed at the Arizona AMS facility for production of graphite directly from CO2 by catalytic reduction of CO/H2 mixtures. The method is a modification of procedures discussed by Vogel et al (1984). Currents of 12C- from these targets vary considerably, but have a median value which is 70% of that achieved from spectroscopic graphite. Precisions of +/- 60 to 100 yr are routinely achieved for 14C ages of 5000-yr-old samples containing one milligram of carbon. The yield of 14C from "blank" targets is 0.6 +/- 0.1% of that from modern material.
    • Progress at the IsoTrace Radiocarbon Facility

      Beukens, Roelf P.; Gurfinkel, Debbie M.; Lee, Henry W. (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      Since August 1984 over 100 samples have been analyzed. 12C, 13C, and 14C isotopes were measured after acceleration and all dates were corrected for natural and preparation-induced fractionation. A precision of better than 1.0% was obtained for samples 10,000 yr BP or less and these results were shown to be reproducible at precision levels as low as 0.3%. An accuracy of better than 1.0% was demonstrated for the same age range by analyzing samples which were previously dated with the conventional technique. The machine background, measured on blank sample holders in a clean ion source, yielded a count rate equivalent of 0.015 +/- 0.007% modern.
    • Radiocarbon Activity Variation in Dated Tree Rings Grown in Mackenzie Delta

      Fan, C. Y.; Tie-Mei, Chen; Si-Xun, Y.; Kai-Mei, Dai (American Journal of Science, 1986-01-01)
      We measured the Delta-14C values in 57 rings (from AD 1824 to 1880) of a white spruce grown in Mackenzie Delta (68 degrees N, 130 degrees W), as part of our continuing study of the Delta-14C variation related to solar activities. The values exhibit a 10 per mil fluctuation with an 11-year periodicity anti-correlated with the solar activity cycle. We also measured the Delta-14C values in 6 rings (from AD 1940 to 1945). The abnormally high value in the 1943 ring may be due to two large solar flares occurring in 1942.