• Participants

      American Journal of Science, 1983-01-01
    • Possibilities in the Dating of Writing Materials and Textiles

      Burleigh, Richard; Baynes-Cope, A. D. (American Journal of Science, 1983-01-01)
    • Possible Depletion in 14C in Trees Growing in Calcareous Soils

      Tauber, Henrik (American Journal of Science, 1983-01-01)
      14C activities of decadal samples from beech trees growing under extreme calcareous conditions were compared to 14C activities of decadal samples of the same age from a beech tree growing in a normal mold soil in order to see whether part of the carbon assimilated during photosynthesis might originate from 14C-deficient carbonates in the soil. The calcareous soils contained from 18 to 52% calcium carbonate, and this carbonate had a mean 14C age of 10,200 to 17,600 years BP. A comparison was also made with the 14C activity of contemporaneous samples from Douglas Fir from the US North Pacific (Stuiver, 1982). No significant depletion in 14C activity in beech trees growing in the highly calcareous soils was detected. The measured mean difference in 14C activity in beech trees from calcareous and non-calcareous sites corresponds to an uptake of 0.12 +/- 0.3% carbon from soil carbonates in the calcareous sites.
    • Production of C- Directly from CO2 Using the ANIS Sputter Source

      Heinemeier, Jan; Andersen, Hans Henrik (American Journal of Science, 1983-01-01)
      Micro-ampere beams of C- have been produced with the Aarhus negative-ion source, operated on CO2 gas. The efficiency of the source and memory effects have been measured, using 13C-enriched CO2, in order to evaluate the applicability of the source to 14C dating by accelerator mass spectroscopy.
    • Radiocarbon Activity Variation in Dated Tree Rings Grown in Mackenzie Delta

      Fan, C. Y.; Tie-Mei, Chen; Si-Xun, Yun; Kai-Mei, Dai (American Journal of Science, 1983-01-01)
      Forty-five tree rings (1881-1925) were taken from a white spruce grown near Campbell River in Mackenzie Delta, Canada, for the measurement of 14C activity variation. Because of the narrowness of the rings, 2 and sometimes 3 rings were combined to yield a total of 21 specimens. The 14C content in these specimens was measured with a liquid scintillation-PM tube counter system of the History Department of Peking University. The data points exhibit a 10 per mil variation, anti-correlated with sunspot numbers. The physical implication is discussed.
    • Radiocarbon Database: A Pilot Project

      Gulliksen, Steinar (American Journal of Science, 1983-01-01)
      Computer storage and surveys of large sets of data should be an attractive technique for users of 14C dates. Our pilot project demonstrates the effectiveness of a text retrieval system, NOVA STATUS. A small database comprising ca 100 dates, selected from results of the Trondheim 14C laboratory, is generated. Data entry to the computer is made by feeding typewritten forms through a document reader capable of optical character recognition. A text retrieval system allows data input to be in a flexible format. Program systems for text retrieval are in common use and easily implemented for a 14C database.
    • Radiocarbon Dating Archaeologic and Environmental Samples Containing 10 to 120 Milligrams of Carbon

      Sheppard, John C.; Hopper, J. Fred; Welter, Yvonne (American Journal of Science, 1983-01-01)
    • Radiocarbon Dating in the Arctic Region

      Olsson, Ingrid U. (American Journal of Science, 1983-01-01)
    • Radiocarbon Dating of Fossil Eggshell

      Long, Austin; Hendershott, Richard; Martin, P. S. (American Journal of Science, 1983-01-01)
      Controlled feeding experiments demonstrate that the 14C content of the carbonate fraction of fossil avian eggshell should reliably reflect the 14C activity of feed and contemporary atmospheric CO2 regardless of amounts of 14C depleted scratch injested. Consideration of biochemical pathways and exchange rates across lung membranes leads to the possibility that the carbonate fraction may, in some instances, be slightly 14C depleted. 14C dates on eggshell carbonate should require little or no correction. As with marine shell carbonate, normal soil-forming processes may alter the surficial carbon isotopes in eggshell carbonate. 14C dates on the protein fraction should be even more reliable than those on the carbonate fraction, but only if special precautions or separation techniques exclude non-indigenous carbon from the sample. Original protein contents are likely to be too low for conventional 14C dating techniques.
    • Radiocarbon Dating of Millimole-Sized Gaseous Samples

      Srdoč, Dušan; Obelić, Bogomil; Horvatinčić, Nada (American Journal of Science, 1983-01-01)
      As an alternative to the accelerator technique, a simple, compact, small counter system has been developed and tested for routine 14C dating. Our small counter is an all-metal design made of the OFHC copper with quartz supports for the anode (25 micrometers stainless steel). Careful selection of materials for the counter construction was made based on the measurements of the alpha contamination. Methane as the counter filling gave better resolution and gas gain stability, whereas CO2 gave lower background counting rate and it was easier to prepare and to handle. The long term run using CH4 showed that the gas gain remained stable within 1-2% for months after the initial drop which followed the counter filling. A 7-day counting period was sufficient to achieve a 3% relative standard deviation which was considered acceptable for routine dating of younger samples.
    • Radiocarbon Dating of Tufa in Paleoclimatic Studies

      Srdoč, Dušan; Horvatinčić, Nada; Obelić, Bogomil; Sliepčević, Adela (American Journal of Science, 1983-01-01)
      Calcareous deposits known as tufa or travertine contain biogenic carbon and are a potential source of geochronologic information. Many dated samples from Karstic regions in Yugoslavia proved that 14C analyses of tufa can provide reliable data reflecting climatic conditions in the past. Systematic dating of tufa samples revealed two distinct groups of deposits: recent tufa deposits, with a sharp age limit of ∼6000 +/- 500 years BP, and old tufa deposits with 14C age ranges from 25,000 +/- 2300 years BP to the lowest limit of our 14C dating system (∼37,000 years). A histogram based on the initial activity AO = 0.85 shows the age distribution of randomly sampled tufas vs sample frequency. A time gap between ∼6000 BP and ∼23,000 BP is evident, reflecting cooler climatic conditions. The start of peat deposition is coincident with that of tufa growth in the Holocene. Paleoclimatic implications of tufa growth periods obtained by 14C dating are as follows: climatic conditions that favor tufa formation at least in karstic regions, are very stringent. Therefore, climatic conditions, such as mean annual temperature and humidity, as well as hydrologic and vegetational conditions, must have been very similar in periods of tufa growth. While recent tufa deposits are coincident with the warm Holocene period, old tufa can be associated with warm interstadials in the Würm.
    • Radiocarbon Dating with the Utrecht Tandem Accelerator

      van der Borg, K.; Hoogenboom, J. A.; Jelmersma, R. A.; Vermeer, Abraham; Hut, Gert (American Journal of Science, 1983-01-01)
    • Radiocarbon Measurements of Particulates in Smog

      Berger, Rainer; Johnson, R. M.; Holmes, J. R. (American Journal of Science, 1983-01-01)
      In recent years in California, smog aerosols have been observed in metropolitan and rural areas. We wondered what the relative contribution is from sources such as fossil fuel combustion (eg, cars, factories) and emissions from trees and other plants. Pollution produced by fossil fuel combustion can be distinguished from biological sources using radioactive carbon. Carbon in fossil organic materials is radioactively dead whereas carbon in living plants contains 14C. Smog particles were collected on clean glass or quartz fiber paper and analyzed in a small volume CO2 proportional counter for 14C content. Results are given for sampling locations at UCLA, El Monte, Riverside, and Lake Tahoe showing the relative contributions of fossil and modern carbon sources ranging from 0 to 74% and 26 to 100% respectively.
    • Radioisotope Dating with the ETHZ-EN-Tandem Accelerator

      Wölfli, Willy; Bonani, Georges; Suter, Martin; Balzer, Richard; Nessi, Marzio; Stoller, Christian; Beer, Jürg; Oeschger, Hans; Andrée, Michael (American Journal of Science, 1983-01-01)
    • Recent 14C Measurements with the Chalk River Tandem Accelerator

      Brown, R. M.; Andrews, H. R.; Ball, G. C.; Burn, Neil; Davies, W. G.; Imahori, Yoshio; Milton, J. C. D.; Workman, Wayne (American Journal of Science, 1983-01-01)
      The Chalk River Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry System has reached a state of reliable measurement of 14C using 2 to 5mg elemental carbon prepared by Mg reduction of CO2. For two comparisons of a near-modern unknown with the NBS oxalic acid standard we obtain a total error of ∼ +/- 4.5%, consisting of a random system error of about +/- 3.5% combined with the statistical counting error. Measurements have been made on 70 samples in 30 days of running time during the past year. Samples included deep rock carbonates, cosmogenic 14C in meteorites, charcoal from earthquake fault zones, collagen of bone artifacts and fossil beetle-fragments.
    • Results of Tests and Measurements from the NSF Regional Accelerator Facility for Radioisotope Dating

      Donahue, D. J.; Zabel, T. H.; Jull, A. J. T.; Damon, P. E.; Purser, K. H. (American Journal of Science, 1983-01-01)
      Tests of performance of the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer at the NSF Regional Facility at the University of Arizona are discussed. Results of measurements on some tree rings and on some archaeologic samples are presented.
    • Sample Chemistry for the Oxford High Energy Mass Spectrometer

      Gillespie, Richard; Hedges, Robert E. M. (American Journal of Science, 1983-01-01)
      Chemical pretreatment procedures for the decontamination, extraction, and isolation of organic materials for 14C dating using the Oxford accelerator system are described. Specific details are given for the isolation and chromatographic purification of amino acids from bone and tooth collagen, of lipids from sediments, and of cellulose and glucose from wood, paper, and textiles. A description is also given of the apparatus used for the routine preparation of 1 to 5mg graphite samples on tantalum wire, for use in the accelerator ion source. The high energy mass spectrometer (HEMS) approach to 14C dating allows the use of very small samples in the low milligram range. Sample pretreatment and decontamination procedures can be both more vigorous and more selective than those used by conventional dating laboratories. Specific chemical compounds can be isolated from archaeologic or geologic samples; such compounds may be characteristic of particular source materials and, hence, provide more detailed information than is generally possible using bulk organic samples. The Oxford Radiocarbon Unit has concentrated on three sample types that represent the kind of material we expect to work on initially: bone, lake sediment, and wood.
    • Short-Term Variations in Radiocarbon Concentration with the 11-Year Solar Cycle

      Povinec, Pavel; Burchuladze, A. A.; Pagava, S. V. (American Journal of Science, 1983-01-01)
      Previous investigations on short-term 14C variations in tree rings are compared with 14C measurements in wine samples. The comparison is made for 4 solar cycles (1903-1944) with the same method of statistical evaluation of measured results. The average amplitude of Delta-14 variations as observed by various authors in tree-ring samples is ca 2 +/1 per mil; however, wine samples show an average amplitude of 4.3 +/1.6 per mil. The anticorrelation dependence of Delta-14C on Wolf sunspot numbers was observed with a time shift between W maxima and Delta-14C minima of 3-5 yr for different solar cycles.