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dc.contributor.authorShahar, Doron J.
dc.contributor.authorShahar, Eyal
dc.date.accessioned2019-11-08T23:44:18Z
dc.date.available2019-11-08T23:44:18Z
dc.date.issued2017-05
dc.identifier.citationThe International Journal of Biostatistics, Volume 13, Issue 1, 20160055, ISSN (Online) 1557-4679, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijb-2016-0055.en_US
dc.identifier.issn2194-573X
dc.identifier.doi10.1515/ijb-2016-0055
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/635218
dc.description.abstractConditioning on a shared outcome of two variables can alter the association between these variables, possibly adding a bias component when estimating effects. In particular, if two causes are marginally independent, they might be dependent in strata of their common effect. Explanations of the phenomenon, however, do not explicitly state when dependence will be created and have been largely informal. We prove that two, marginally independent, causes will be dependent in a particular stratum of their shared outcome if and only if they modify each other's effects, on a probability ratio scale, on that value of the outcome variable. Using our result, we also qualify the claim that such causes will "almost certainly" be dependent in at least one stratum of the outcome: dependence must be created in one stratum of a binary outcome, and independence can be maintained in every stratum of a trinary outcome.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherWALTER DE GRUYTER GMBHen_US
dc.rights© 2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.en_US
dc.subjectcolliding biasen_US
dc.subjectindependenceen_US
dc.subjecteffect modificationen_US
dc.subjectcausal diagramen_US
dc.titleA Theorem at the Core of Colliding Biasen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.eissn1557-4679
dc.contributor.departmentUniv Arizona, Dept Mathen_US
dc.contributor.departmentUniv Arizona, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlthen_US
dc.identifier.journalINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOSTATISTICSen_US
dc.description.note12 month embargo; published online: 2017-03-31en_US
dc.description.collectioninformationThis item from the UA Faculty Publications collection is made available by the University of Arizona with support from the University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions, please contact us at repository@u.library.arizona.edu.en_US
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen_US
dc.source.volume13
dc.source.issue1
refterms.dateFOA2018-03-31T00:00:00Z


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