Marcellin, Michael; Tan, Nicolas; Univ Arizona, Wildcat Formula Racing (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      The Wildcat Formula Racing Team of the University of Arizona participates in an annual engineering design competition where students compete with small formula-style racing cars. One of the challenges we face is to provide justification of our design choices to the judges. To establish means of collecting data used as evidence and analysis, we use a mixture of automotive sensors and electronic sensors to be transmitted onto an external microcontroller, an Arduino. The data will then be stored locally and broadcasted from the vehicle to the pit with a transceiver module for post-race data analysis, as well as feedback for the team.

      Marcellin, Michael; Collett, Anthony; Ma, Tiffany; Craddock, Zane; Garcia, Gerardo; George, Charles; Univ Arizona, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      On amusement park rides, vibrations against the rails of the track and the cars’ wheels can strain and damage the track. This is especially true for older coasters, whose tracks have worn significantly over time. While manual inspection of the track is necessary, an automated system that monitors the stress on the track will help detect anomalies, ensuring a safe experience for the passengers. We have designed a system of sensors that can monitor these vibrations. Sensors placed on a segment of track will measure the lateral and vertical vibrations, wirelessly transmitting the level of strain on the track to a base station. If vibrations reach a threshold level, the base station will be alerted of excessive strain. The system will create a graph of points where vibration is worse than other points, to pinpoint what areas need to be fixed the most. This will decrease maintenance costs and ensure increased safety for patrons of these rides.

      Kosbar, Kurt; Verbrugge, Eli; Dahlman, Brian; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      This paper examines the usage of telemetry for the six degrees of freedom robotic arm designed to compete on a mars rover in the 2019 University Rover Challenge. The arm utilizes three microcontrollers to receive control commands and translates them directly to motor signals for the six brushed DC motors. The usage of the 32-bit microcontrollers facilitates inverse kinematics, an intuitive process that allows commands to be sent as 3D coordinates to the arm, ensuring fine control for arm manipulation. Telemetry is transmitted from the rover to a remote base station over a 900 MHz RF link, using two omnidirectional cloverleaf antennas. Communication between the embedded systems is achieved with the ethernet User Datagram Protocol standard. This ensures seamless transferal of commands from the driver’s joystick to the arm, and a stream of telemetry containing motor currents, positional values, and limit switch states - a necessity for the open and closed loop control systems.

      Hill, Terry; Quasonix (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Multipath distortion has been a major source of data corruption in aeronautical telemetry signals for decades. In recent years, however, adaptive equalizers have begun to appear in telemetry receivers. These equalizers offer the promise of mitigating or even eliminating the damage done by the multipath channel, and many ranges are adopting their use. Unfortunately, there have not been any standardized tests by which to quantify the efficacy and limitations of adaptive equalizers. This paper presents a generalized test methodology for making a quantitative performance assessment of any adaptive equalizer, along with representative test results for one particular adaptive equalizer.
    • Testing the Reliability and Flexibility of Digitizers adapting the RF/IF signals over IP applications using a testbed Platform.

      Gonzalez, Virgilio; Sandoval, Jose Carlos; Elahi, Mirza; Corral, Pabel; Yasuda, Susumu; Univ Texas, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering; White Sands Missile Range, U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Many disadvantages from physical limitations in RF Telemetry can now be eliminated using RF over IP Networks. Digitizers mitigate the problem of signal degradation that RF has due to physical restrictions and provide reliability and flexibility to the signal. The digitizers are also able to preserve both frequency and timing characteristics, and then accurately reconstructing the original Telemetry signals to enable processing, recording or retransmission at another location. The digitizers along with the software-defined radios forms a flexible testbed platform which enables us to simulate both communication systems to qualify and quantify their behavior, while studying the interference between systems. In addition, quantization of noise is a critical parameter to determine the bit error rate in the testbed. Digitizers can be configured at a certain bandwidth and additional gain, in order to make this layer almost a transparent transmission.

      Creusere, Charles D.; Phillips, Andrew J.; New Mexico State University, Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      This paper analyzes lossy frequency-domain compression in the context of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) analysis of electroencephalograph (EEG) signals. The approach used here for CFC analysis involves a low-complexity signal analysis block followed by a constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection algorithm. The lossy frequency-domain compression is achieved via the threshold coding method for frequency truncation using the discrete cosine transform (DCT). This method is found to increase CFC detection rates by as much as 30% to 50% depending on the amount of Gaussian noise in the signal and the selected probability of false alarm. Further analysis indicates that these significant improvements in CFC detection rates are due to adaptive frequency-domain noise reduction. These results bode well for lossy frequency-based EEG compression schemes which can greatly improve transmission speeds and decrease storage space requirements while simultaneously enhancing CFC analysis capabilities.
    • The Good, The Bad, and The Non-Circular Signals

      Bose, Tamal; Tsang, Stephanie D.; Samuel, Al; Univ Arizona, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Second-order (SO) non-circularity is a statistical property that is used to classify signals. Signals with SO non-circularity are extensively used in communication and radar systems. The SO non-circularity property is generally useful in the application of array processing techniques for extending antenna apertures. Exploiting this non-circularity property for a multi-faceted set of communication-type and radar-type signals is the objective of this study. For a given type of signal, the circularity quotient and its properties are tested and evaluated in terms of parameters such as the modulus of its phase, complex covariance, pseudo-variance, the angle orientation of the ellipse, its eccentricity, and other relevant properties are calculated. A geometrical interpretation for the circularity quotient and the correlation coeficient is used to derive the bounds for circularity.

      Lee, Hua; Radzicki, Vincent R.; Univ California Santa Barbara, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      For target imaging and tracking systems, a key signal processing task is motion estimation. Specifically, the trajectory of a maneuvering target undergoing rigid body motion can be described through a series of translational and rotational transformations. Estimation of these motion parameters provides the tracking system enough information to calculate the targets trajectory over time. Determining the rotational motion to a high accuracy is also very important, as the imaging system can then form an image of the target over multiple aspect angles and thus increase the resolution performance. This paper focuses on algorithm development and performance limitations for motion estimation and image formation using active sensing arrays.

      Hudgins, Gene; Secondine, Juana; TENA Software Development Activity (SDA) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Often, TM requires operators on location with receive system(s) or at a remote console (with a remote antenna control unit), resulting in TDY for operators and possibly a shortage of operators to support all scheduled operations. A remote-control capability could eliminate existing personnel requirements at both the local system antenna site as well as the control facility, greatly reducing operational costs. TENA provides for real-time system interoperability, as well as interfacing existing range assets, C4ISR systems, and simulations; fostering reuse of range assets and future software systems. JMETC is a distributed, LVC capability using a hybrid network solution for all classifications and cyber. TENA and JMETC allow for the most efficient use of current and future TM range resources via range resource integration, critical to validate system performance in a highly cost-effective manner.

      Moskal, Jakub; Whittington, Austin; Morgan, Jon; Kokar, Mitch; Abbott, Ben; VIStology Inc; Southwest Research Institute; Edwards AFB (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      In multi-vendor T&E systems, a single hardware vendor cannot anticipate the dependencies on the settings from hardware manufactured by other vendors, or the systemic constraints that are specific to a particular customer. The T&E community has recognized the fact that MDL and TMATS XML are not sufficient to addresst his problem alone, and that there is a need for a separate, constraints language. Constraints written in such a language can be validated by a third party validation engine, without relying on any particular vendor’s software. To this end, we developed the concept of TACL, a candidate for the standard constraint language, and demonstrated it with a reference implementation of a TACL engine integrated with the iNET System Manager. In this paper, we argue that this integration should be standardized in the form of a Validation Protocol in order to turn the existing system into a loosely-coupled, standards-based architecture.

      Madon, Phiroz; Ziegler, Robert; Samtani, Sunil; Koval, Aleksey; Harasty, Daniel; Triolo, Anthony; Shen, Qiong; Agarwai, Anjali; Galletti, Michele; Gadgil, Shrirang; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      A Spectrum Usage Measurement System (SUMS) characterizes the actual use of telemetry spectrum at DoD flight test ranges. The system tracks daily usage in a measurements repository, which becomes an invaluable resource, allowing querying, reporting and analytics, for defending against future spectrum sell-offs, and for providing insights into improving spectrum efficiency. The question is how do we quantify spectrum usage in space, time and frequency? And how do we certify “actual usage”, as opposed to simple assignment and claims that the spectrum was planned to be used? We discuss techniques for addressing these challenges. The system draws upon spectrum mission planning data, a network of sensors of various types, and a correlation algorithm. A scaling problem wrt characterizing the spatial extent of the spectrum usage is solved. Correlation, using heterogeneous data sources at a test range with numerous RF emissions prompts a heuristics and flexible rules-based approach.

      Kusumoto, Andre Yoshimi; Oliveira Leite, Nelson Paiva; Guarino Vasconcelos, Luiz Eduardo; Netto Lahoz, Carlos Henrique; Instituto de Pesquisas e Ensaios em Voo (IPEV); Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE); Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      SisTro validation, required the execution of several Pit Drop tests. The determination of the store trajectory in real time, required the usage of advanced computer vision techniques for photogrammetric measurements and a novel optical calibration and error minimization process. As results the 2D image tracking of the in-view reference points could be determined with sub-pixel resolution. Then, in addition to providing the desired trajectory, it was able to compute the wing and pylon vibrations and its damping coefficient. Such capability allows us to develop a more accurate CFD simulation models by the incorporation of the aircraft Flexible-Body Mechanics model into such simulation runs. In this paper it will be presented the development of SisTrO sub-pixel tracking process and the pit drop test results, that includes the measurement of the wing and pylon vibrations and its associated damping.

      Temple, Kip; Air Force Test Center, Edwards AFB (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Why hasn’t the Aeronautical Mobile Telemetry community adopted IRIG 106 compliant ARTM CPM as their preferred waveform for the transmission of telemetry data? Telemetry receivers in the market place today exhibit gains in detection efficiency and resynchronization speed that far exceed products of just a few years ago. Past papers have shown the link performance comparison between the new waveform standard SOQPSK-TG and ARTM CPM has narrowed since ARTM CPM was first standardized. This paper will present the latest performance comparison between these two waveforms during a controlled test throughout various flight conditions. The testing is presented and performance comparisons are made between the waveforms. This comparison will use traditional methods combined with several new performance metrics presented in this paper. To conclude, Link Availability, the measure of overall link performance is presented illustrating how closely these waveforms perform.