O’Connell, Ray; RoboComAI (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      The T&E ranges require two-way networked communications to provide gains in critical areas including: test efficiency, safety, cost savings and spectrum efficiency. The development of a network compatibility module which can accommodate networked telemetry standards while using existing COTS transmitter and receiver components has multiple benefits to the T&E test community. This component based approach to networked telemetry has the additional benefit of allowing new technology to be readily adopted for networking applications. This paper reviews the progress made in the development of a standardized component based networking telemetry capability as well as other networked telemetry radio systems.

      Sandberg, Alvia; Morse, Caleb; Chandler, Ryan; Redstone Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      The Joint Advanced Missile Instrumentation (JAMI) project has created a very effective high dynamic Time Space Position Information (TSPI) solution and the Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) is a very effective way to share data over a network. Can JAMI and TENA work together? This paper answers that question.
    • Hybridization of wireless technologies for the aerospace instrumentation

      Percie du Sert, François-Gabriel; Zodiac Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Whatever the flight test or space launch vehicle, instrumentation presents strong intrusiveness due to cabling. The industry is resolutely looking for a transition toward wireless architectures for elimination of cabling while not compromising data integrity and network performances. The ideal wireless solution is a single technology that could encompass all the needs. But there is a wide variety of use cases and associated requirements: data throughput, synchronization accuracy, power consumption, robustness of the link, frequency regulation constraints. Today, no technology is able to cover all these needs. However, multiple technologies show specific characteristics that are optimized for some particular use cases. Hybridization of multiple wireless technologies in a complex system is the right solution to address specific applications with the optimal wireless instrumentation solution and no concession on performance.
    • Testing the Reliability and Flexibility of Digitizers adapting the RF/IF signals over IP applications using a testbed Platform.

      Gonzalez, Virgilio; Sandoval, Jose Carlos; Elahi, Mirza; Corral, Pabel; Yasuda, Susumu; Univ Texas, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering; White Sands Missile Range, U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Many disadvantages from physical limitations in RF Telemetry can now be eliminated using RF over IP Networks. Digitizers mitigate the problem of signal degradation that RF has due to physical restrictions and provide reliability and flexibility to the signal. The digitizers are also able to preserve both frequency and timing characteristics, and then accurately reconstructing the original Telemetry signals to enable processing, recording or retransmission at another location. The digitizers along with the software-defined radios forms a flexible testbed platform which enables us to simulate both communication systems to qualify and quantify their behavior, while studying the interference between systems. In addition, quantization of noise is a critical parameter to determine the bit error rate in the testbed. Digitizers can be configured at a certain bandwidth and additional gain, in order to make this layer almost a transparent transmission.

      Moore, Russell; Moroni, Jacob; Curtiss-Wright Defense Solutions (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      With flight test data acquisition and avionic bus data demands increasing every year, a new breed of network switches and recorders are needed to handle the new extreme data load to aggregate and record on solid-state media. Flight test instrumentation switches and recorders must perform in harsh environments with ultra-high levels of reliability. They must also facilitate fast and efficient movement and storage of data. Switches also require many features such as data aggregation, port-mirroring, and QoS (Quality-of-Service) support while recorder features such as port truncation, and support for PCAP, DARv3 & CH10 recording formats are important. This paper will discuss these needs and outline some use cases for new 10 GbE network switches and recorders.
    • CSI Estimation Using Artificial Neural Network

      Gajjar, Viraj; Kosbar, Kurt; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      We propose using machine learning to estimate channel state information (CSI) for MIMO communication links. The goal is to use information such as atmospheric conditions, amount of path loss, and Doppler shift to improve the accuracy of CSI estimates. We start by designing an algorithm which estimates the CSI based on previously mentioned factors. Using this algorithm, we simulate a dataset of CSI over varying atmospheric conditions, receiver position, and receiver velocity. We then use this dataset to train an artificial neural network, which is able to estimate the CSI by using the current atmospheric condition, receiver position, and velocity.

      Marcellin, Michael; Fuehrer, Daniel; Nguyen, James; Schreiber, Andre; Univ Arizona, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      The University of Arizona Baja Racing team competes in an international competition each year. We build a custom telemetry system for the car to collect data during races in order to inform design decisions and warn of upcoming problems. This paper will focus on the contrast between designing a system for production versus designing for the educational experience, as is the ultimate goal of our team. We will specifically discuss this contrast in the areas of size, power consumption, manufacturability, maintainability, repairability, and testability.

      Deshmukh, Mrugen A.; Wilson, Stephen G.; Univ Virginia, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      We consider the application of LDPC codes for improving performance in multi-channel (spectrum aggregation) for air-to-ground telemetry, by virtue of frequency diversity available on a wideband frequency-selective multipath channel. Our particular interest is in use of multi-channel OFDM transmission on “white spots” in the microwave spectrum. Each such channel is subject to frequency-selective fading over its bandwidth (typically a few MHz) due to multipath, for which typical OFDM equalization is standard. However, some subcarriers within this OFDM channel may experience deep fading at the output of the equalizer, rendering the symbol error probability poor relative to that on an AWGN channel at the same average SNR. We study simulated performance on a multipath channel described by the ETU fading model. Specific performance reported includes error rate of LDPC coding constrained to a single channel (effective diversity order roughly 2) and error rate of coding across eight channels (diversity order roughly 5). Further, performance on this dispersive fading channel is only about 3 dB worse than that on a no-multipath channel, at block error probability 0:01.
    • Augmenting Cybersecurity in Telemetry Post Processing Environments with Insider Threat Analysis

      Kalibjian, Jeff; Perspecta (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Mature companies implement robust cybersecurity practice in their organizations by deploying a layered defense comprising many differing security tools whose functionality complements one another. Tools such as firewalls, Anti-Virus (AV), Intrusion Detection/Prevention (IDS/IPS), Data Leak Protection (DLP), and Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) can be rolled out in many combinations to create very effective cyber defenses. A general premise is that organizations are trying to keep “bad guys” out. In recent years, focus has been shifting to address the potential for malicious (insider) employees who may wish to take actions to compromise the firms they work for as an increasing number of incidents are attributed to insiders. After reviewing the insider threat landscape as well as accepted methodologies for detection; application to telemetry post processing environments will be discussed with example deployment scenarios explored.

      Taotao, Liang; Ming, Wang; Junwei, Wu; Chuan, Wang; Institute of Electronic Engineering, China Academy of Engineering Physics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      The B1C signal adopts a new navigation signal system including pilot and data signal. These two signals are transmitted simultaneously in an orthogonal manner. When the signal is weak, two signals need to be processed jointly to improve the signal detection ability. This paper designs a novel weighted joint acquisition algorithm. Monte Carlo simulation has been done to evaluate the performance. The simulation results show that the detection performance of the proposed algorithm connects with the weighted coefficient. When the optimal weighting coefficient is selected, detection performance can be improved greatly under the condition of weak signal. Keywords: B1C signal, weighted joint acquisition algorithm, weighted coefficient.

      Marcellin, Michael; Collett, Anthony; Ma, Tiffany; Craddock, Zane; Garcia, Gerardo; George, Charles; Univ Arizona, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      On amusement park rides, vibrations against the rails of the track and the cars’ wheels can strain and damage the track. This is especially true for older coasters, whose tracks have worn significantly over time. While manual inspection of the track is necessary, an automated system that monitors the stress on the track will help detect anomalies, ensuring a safe experience for the passengers. We have designed a system of sensors that can monitor these vibrations. Sensors placed on a segment of track will measure the lateral and vertical vibrations, wirelessly transmitting the level of strain on the track to a base station. If vibrations reach a threshold level, the base station will be alerted of excessive strain. The system will create a graph of points where vibration is worse than other points, to pinpoint what areas need to be fixed the most. This will decrease maintenance costs and ensure increased safety for patrons of these rides.

      Kusumoto, Andre Yoshimi; Oliveira Leite, Nelson Paiva; Guarino Vasconcelos, Luiz Eduardo; Netto Lahoz, Carlos Henrique; Instituto de Pesquisas e Ensaios em Voo (IPEV); Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE); Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      SisTro validation, required the execution of several Pit Drop tests. The determination of the store trajectory in real time, required the usage of advanced computer vision techniques for photogrammetric measurements and a novel optical calibration and error minimization process. As results the 2D image tracking of the in-view reference points could be determined with sub-pixel resolution. Then, in addition to providing the desired trajectory, it was able to compute the wing and pylon vibrations and its damping coefficient. Such capability allows us to develop a more accurate CFD simulation models by the incorporation of the aircraft Flexible-Body Mechanics model into such simulation runs. In this paper it will be presented the development of SisTrO sub-pixel tracking process and the pit drop test results, that includes the measurement of the wing and pylon vibrations and its associated damping.
    • Optimizing Pre-Flight Checkout by Leveraging IOT enabled FTI and Augmented Reality

      Quinn, Patrick; Curtiss-Wright (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Pre-flight checkout is one of the most time critical stages in any flight test program. Delays and in-efficiencies during checkout can lead to aircraft being grounded for unnecessarily long periods of time, increasing costs and program schedule slippages. With the dawn of augmented reality wearables, smart sensors, wireless sensors and next generation Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI), today’s technological advances can be leveraged to transform pre-flight checkout into an interactive, self-diagnostic and operationally efficient essential step in your flight test program. These same technologies can also be used to optimize the day to day operations of airlines, MRO’s and aircraft maintenance companies, taking advantage of the current “data rich” generation of aircraft. This paper describes how pre-flight checkout can be optimized by combining best in class Internet of Things (IOT) enabled FTI and augmented reality wearables.

      Geoghegan, Mark; Nusair, Marwan; Quasonix (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      The majority of aircraft telemetry antennas transmit a linearly polarized wave. These linearly polarized signals are often received by two orthogonal (left and right hand) circularly polarized receive antennas, each of which has 3 dB polarization loss. Under nominal conditions, a diversity combiner can be used to coherently add the two received signals, thereby restoring the 3 dB loss. Recent flight tests have revealed that the signals radiating from the aircraft are actually elliptically polarized or even circularly polarized, leading to degraded combiner performance. This paper describes how the transmit polarization can be transformed from linear to circular, why this degrades combiner performance, and how to mitigate this effect.

      Madon, Phiroz; Ziegler, Robert; Samtani, Sunil; Koval, Aleksey; Harasty, Daniel; Triolo, Anthony; Shen, Qiong; Agarwai, Anjali; Galletti, Michele; Gadgil, Shrirang; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      A Spectrum Usage Measurement System (SUMS) characterizes the actual use of telemetry spectrum at DoD flight test ranges. The system tracks daily usage in a measurements repository, which becomes an invaluable resource, allowing querying, reporting and analytics, for defending against future spectrum sell-offs, and for providing insights into improving spectrum efficiency. The question is how do we quantify spectrum usage in space, time and frequency? And how do we certify “actual usage”, as opposed to simple assignment and claims that the spectrum was planned to be used? We discuss techniques for addressing these challenges. The system draws upon spectrum mission planning data, a network of sensors of various types, and a correlation algorithm. A scaling problem wrt characterizing the spatial extent of the spectrum usage is solved. Correlation, using heterogeneous data sources at a test range with numerous RF emissions prompts a heuristics and flexible rules-based approach.

      Rice, Michael; Arabian, Farah; Brigham Young University, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Providing RHCP and LHCP outputs from the antennas vertical (V) and horizontal (H) dipoles in there sonant cavity within the antenna feeds is the current practice of ground-based station receivers in aeronautical telemetry. The equalizers on the market, operate on either LHCP or RHCP alone, or a combined signal created by co-phasing and adding the RHCP and LHCP outputs. In this paper, we show how to optimally combine the V and H dipole outputs and demonstrate that an equalizer operating on this optimally-combined signal outperforms an equalizer operating on the RHCP, LHCP, or the combined signals. Finally, we show how to optimally combine the RHCP and LHCP outputs for equalization, where this optimal combination performs as good as the optimally combined V and H signals.

      Rice, Michael; Redd, Bryan; Ebert, Jamison; Twitchell, Autumn; Brigham Young University, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      In this paper, we analyze several DFT-based frequency offset estimators for use with the 16-APSK digital modulation scheme. Even a small frequency offset between radio transmitters and receivers can cause phase information to be lost, so a system to align the phases is required to reliably demodulate PSK signals. These estimators have been adapted for 16-APSK from methods originally intended for use with QPSK and CPM. These methods consist of a coarse search and a fine search with an optional dichotomous search to improve accuracy. We analyze the estimator error variance and bit error rate associated with several methods of frequency estimation. These estimators exhibit small estimate error and variance and can provide bit error rates close to the ideal AWGN BER.
    • Multi-Stage Attack Detection Using Layered Hidden Markov Model Intrusion Detection System

      Moazzami, Farzad; Dean, Richard; Zegeye, Wondimu K.; Morgan State University, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) based on Artificial Intelligence can be deployed to protect telemetry networks against intruders. As security solutions which encrypt radio links do not accommodate the ever evolving network attacks and vulnerabilities, new defense mechanisms using machine learning and artificial intelligence can play a significant role for telemetry networks. This paper proposes a multi-layered Hidden Markov Model (HMM) IDS that addresses multi-stage attacks. This is due to the fact that intrusions are increasingly being launched through multiple phases instead of single stage intrusion. This layered model divides the problem space into smaller manageable pieces reducing the curse of dimensionality associated with HMMs. To verify the application of this model for real network, the NSL-KDD dataset is used to train and test the model.

      Rice, Michael; Redd, Bryan; Briceno, Ximena; Brigham Young University, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      This paper examines the problem of carrier phase and frequency estimation for coded 16-APSK in aeronautical mobile telemetry. Given the fact that coded systems tend to operate at lower signalto-noise ratios than uncoded systems, the synchronizer must operate at these lower signal-to-noise ratios. For a 30 kHz frequency offset and a 10 Mbit/s 16-APSK signal, the conventional phase lock loop (PLL) system does not achieve consistent lock to be a useful approach. Consequently, a blind feed-forward approach, based on the FFT, and an initialized feedback approach based on the PLL were examined. The feed-forward estimator is capable of achieving BER ideal performance for Eb/N0 ≥ 6 dB using 1024 symbols. The feedback estimator, initialized using a feed-forward estimate based on 1024 symbols is also capable of achieving BER ideal performance for Eb/N0 ≥ 6 dB. Both synchronizers require a sufficiently good blind estimate: the estimate based on 2014 symbols appears to be the minimum value to achieve good performance.

      Borah, Deva K.; Curry, Elam; New Mexico State University, Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Spatial modulation techniques have the ability to convey information by both the positions of active antennas as well as the symbols they transmit. Such techniques include the generalized spatial modulation (GSM) that can provide high spectral efficiency. In general, however, the total number of available symbols in GSM is not a power of two. Therefore, selection of a symbol alphabet from the available symbols is needed. This is a numerically complex problem. In this paper, we propose to significantly reduce the complexity of the GSM symbol set selection problem by grouping antennas together to form blocks, thus producing block GSM (BGSM) symbols. A previously developed iterative combinatorial method is extended to BGSM symbol selection. The effects of the Rician K-factor, BGSM symbol block size, and antenna configuration on the performance and design complexity are studied. The algorithm is found to significantly reduce the complexity of the BGSM symbol set selection problem.