• AN ENGINEER’S GUIDE TO CHAPTER 7 PACKET TELEMETRY TRANSPORT

      Hoffman, Richard W.; GDP Space Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Chapter 7 of IRIG106-17 defines the means of encapsulating packetized data within a PCM telemetry stream, ostensibly for transport from a platform to a processing location, via that platform’s conventional means of PCM transmission. While providing a mechanism for bridging platforms via the telemetry stream, a myriad of use-cases evolve, adding varying degrees of complexity to an implementation. Understanding these use-cases, their challenges, and some of the potential solution methodologies helps to determine the best implementation for a given mission. This paper seeks to present some of these aforementioned points, some obvious, and others uncovered over the course of working with solutions-seekers, in an effort to help cultivate and shape the growing demand for packet telemetry transport bridging.
    • AN INTRODUCTION TO IRIG-106-17 FEATURES AND ASSOCIATED COMMAND STRUCTURES

      Cook, Paul; Curtiss-Wright, Aerospace Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      The RCC Telemetry group publishes various documents and IRIG-106 aims to standardize telemetry solutions. Such efforts help to ensure that ranges - and other flight test users - have access to a range of interoperable equipment. The standard is updated every two years with the latest version being IRIG-106-17. The release of IRIG-106-17 means flight test engineers now have a new list of transmitter performance features to understand and to track during the daily operations. This paper provides an overview of these new features as well as the associated command structure as published in the standard.
    • DECORRELATION DEEP LEARNING FOR FINGERPRINT-BASED INDOOR LOCALIZATION

      Kim, Taejoon; Perrins, Erik; Xiong, Guojun; Univ Kansas, Dept Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Indoor localization is of particular interest due to its immense practical applications. However, the rich multipath and high penetration loss of indoor wireless signal propagation make this task arduous. Though recently studied fingerprint-based techniques can handle the multipath effects, the sensitivity of the localization performance to channel fluctuation is a drawback. To address the latter challenge, we adopt an artificial multi-layer neural network (MNN) to learn the complex channel impulse responses (CIRs) as fingerprint measurements. However, the performance of the location classification using MNN critically depends on the correlation among the training data. Therefore, we design two different decorrelation filters that preprocess the training data for discriminative learning. The first one is a linear whitening filter combined with the principal component analysis (PCA), which forces the covariance matrix of different feature dimensions to be identity. The other filter is a nonlinear quantizer that is optimized to minimize the distortion incurred by the quantization. Numerical results using indoor channel models illustrate the significant improvement of the proposed decorrelation MNN (DMNN) compared to other benchmarks.
    • REMOTE HEART MONITORING VIA MEDICAL TELEMETRY

      Lee, Hua; Radzicki, Vincent R.; Rajagopal, Abhejit; Univ California Santa Barbara, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Today, a wide range of heart conditions can be monitored remotely with relatively inexpensive passive sensing technologies, enabling the potential for long-term monitoring and prognosis of patient state under representative environmental stimuli. A medical telemetry system that can incorporate such passive measurements and provide key diagnostic information to medical professionals would provide tremendous value to patients via quantitative and personalized healthcare. This paper presents an overview of passive sensing methods that could be utilized in a medical telemetry system for remote heart monitoring of patients. While active systems are another attractive option, they impose additional constraints on the system that require careful calibration, expert control, and more complex instrumentation. The methods presented here are based on low-cost, sensor technology with the potential to greatly improve long-term non-invasive, heart-health monitoring.
    • TELEMETRY ON WILDCAT FORMULA RACING VEHICLE

      Marcellin, Michael; Tan, Nicolas; Univ Arizona, Wildcat Formula Racing (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      The Wildcat Formula Racing Team of the University of Arizona participates in an annual engineering design competition where students compete with small formula-style racing cars. One of the challenges we face is to provide justification of our design choices to the judges. To establish means of collecting data used as evidence and analysis, we use a mixture of automotive sensors and electronic sensors to be transmitted onto an external microcontroller, an Arduino. The data will then be stored locally and broadcasted from the vehicle to the pit with a transceiver module for post-race data analysis, as well as feedback for the team.
    • TELEOPERATED ROBOTIC ARMS WITH OPEN AND CLOSED LOOP CONTROL SYSTEMS

      Kosbar, Kurt; Verbrugge, Eli; Dahlman, Brian; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      This paper examines the usage of telemetry for the six degrees of freedom robotic arm designed to compete on a mars rover in the 2019 University Rover Challenge. The arm utilizes three microcontrollers to receive control commands and translates them directly to motor signals for the six brushed DC motors. The usage of the 32-bit microcontrollers facilitates inverse kinematics, an intuitive process that allows commands to be sent as 3D coordinates to the arm, ensuring fine control for arm manipulation. Telemetry is transmitted from the rover to a remote base station over a 900 MHz RF link, using two omnidirectional cloverleaf antennas. Communication between the embedded systems is achieved with the ethernet User Datagram Protocol standard. This ensures seamless transferal of commands from the driver’s joystick to the arm, and a stream of telemetry containing motor currents, positional values, and limit switch states - a necessity for the open and closed loop control systems.
    • SOFTWARE CONVERSION OF LEGACY RECORDING FORMAT TO IRIG 106 CHAPTER 10 FILE

      Graham, Richard A., Jr.; Shepherd, Steven G.; US Navy, NSWC Corona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      This paper examines how to convert files recorded on a legacy recorder to an IRIG 106 Chapter 10 file.
    • HIGH SPIN 105MM ARMAMENT OBR TECHNICAL PAPER

      Rotundo, Alfred; US Army - Army Futures Command; CCDC - Armament Center - Precision Munition Instrumentation Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Developed an on-board-recorder (OBR) to capture both in-bore acceleration and in-flight canister expulsion forces for an artillery projectile. The instrumentation recorded on the OBR was fed into a model to simulate these forces. The OBR’s space claim was limited to the expulsion cavity of the artillery projectile. The OBR was equipped with an analog sensor suite that recorded battery, expulsion pressure, high-g in-bore axial accelerometer data, and radial spin data. Utilizing 8 channels of the ADC on the DSP, the sensors are recorded into both volatile SRAM and NOR Flash memory. The OBR matched both weight and center of gravity of the tactical artillery round. To accomplish this, multiple housing materials and potting materials were utilized. The OBR survived multiple shots. The OBR was instrumented successfully on 4 rounds, allowing an accurate model and simulation to be created to increase design reliability and minimize failures on future designs
    • DFT-BASED FREQUENCY OFFSET ESTIMATORS FOR 16-APSK

      Rice, Michael; Redd, Bryan; Ebert, Jamison; Twitchell, Autumn; Brigham Young University, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      In this paper, we analyze several DFT-based frequency offset estimators for use with the 16-APSK digital modulation scheme. Even a small frequency offset between radio transmitters and receivers can cause phase information to be lost, so a system to align the phases is required to reliably demodulate PSK signals. These estimators have been adapted for 16-APSK from methods originally intended for use with QPSK and CPM. These methods consist of a coarse search and a fine search with an optional dichotomous search to improve accuracy. We analyze the estimator error variance and bit error rate associated with several methods of frequency estimation. These estimators exhibit small estimate error and variance and can provide bit error rates close to the ideal AWGN BER.
    • ON CARRIER FREQUENCY AND PHASE SYNCHRONIZATION FOR CODED 16-APSK IN AERONAUTICAL MOBILE TELEMETRY

      Rice, Michael; Redd, Bryan; Briceno, Ximena; Brigham Young University, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      This paper examines the problem of carrier phase and frequency estimation for coded 16-APSK in aeronautical mobile telemetry. Given the fact that coded systems tend to operate at lower signalto-noise ratios than uncoded systems, the synchronizer must operate at these lower signal-to-noise ratios. For a 30 kHz frequency offset and a 10 Mbit/s 16-APSK signal, the conventional phase lock loop (PLL) system does not achieve consistent lock to be a useful approach. Consequently, a blind feed-forward approach, based on the FFT, and an initialized feedback approach based on the PLL were examined. The feed-forward estimator is capable of achieving BER ideal performance for Eb/N0 ≥ 6 dB using 1024 symbols. The feedback estimator, initialized using a feed-forward estimate based on 1024 symbols is also capable of achieving BER ideal performance for Eb/N0 ≥ 6 dB. Both synchronizers require a sufficiently good blind estimate: the estimate based on 2014 symbols appears to be the minimum value to achieve good performance.
    • POLARIZATION DIVERSITY AND EQUALIZATION OF FREQUENCY SELECTIVE CHANNELS IN TELEMETRY ENVIRONMENT FOR 16APSK

      Rice, Michael; Arabian, Farah; Brigham Young University, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Providing RHCP and LHCP outputs from the antennas vertical (V) and horizontal (H) dipoles in there sonant cavity within the antenna feeds is the current practice of ground-based station receivers in aeronautical telemetry. The equalizers on the market, operate on either LHCP or RHCP alone, or a combined signal created by co-phasing and adding the RHCP and LHCP outputs. In this paper, we show how to optimally combine the V and H dipole outputs and demonstrate that an equalizer operating on this optimally-combined signal outperforms an equalizer operating on the RHCP, LHCP, or the combined signals. Finally, we show how to optimally combine the RHCP and LHCP outputs for equalization, where this optimal combination performs as good as the optimally combined V and H signals.
    • VERIFICATION TECHNIQUES FOR SPECTRUM USAGE IN SPACE, TIME AND FREQUENCY

      Madon, Phiroz; Ziegler, Robert; Samtani, Sunil; Koval, Aleksey; Harasty, Daniel; Triolo, Anthony; Shen, Qiong; Agarwai, Anjali; Galletti, Michele; Gadgil, Shrirang; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      A Spectrum Usage Measurement System (SUMS) characterizes the actual use of telemetry spectrum at DoD flight test ranges. The system tracks daily usage in a measurements repository, which becomes an invaluable resource, allowing querying, reporting and analytics, for defending against future spectrum sell-offs, and for providing insights into improving spectrum efficiency. The question is how do we quantify spectrum usage in space, time and frequency? And how do we certify “actual usage”, as opposed to simple assignment and claims that the spectrum was planned to be used? We discuss techniques for addressing these challenges. The system draws upon spectrum mission planning data, a network of sensors of various types, and a correlation algorithm. A scaling problem wrt characterizing the spatial extent of the spectrum usage is solved. Correlation, using heterogeneous data sources at a test range with numerous RF emissions prompts a heuristics and flexible rules-based approach.
    • BLOCK GENERALIZED SPATIAL MODULATION FOR MASSIVE MIMO SYSTEMS

      Borah, Deva K.; Curry, Elam; New Mexico State University, Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Spatial modulation techniques have the ability to convey information by both the positions of active antennas as well as the symbols they transmit. Such techniques include the generalized spatial modulation (GSM) that can provide high spectral efficiency. In general, however, the total number of available symbols in GSM is not a power of two. Therefore, selection of a symbol alphabet from the available symbols is needed. This is a numerically complex problem. In this paper, we propose to significantly reduce the complexity of the GSM symbol set selection problem by grouping antennas together to form blocks, thus producing block GSM (BGSM) symbols. A previously developed iterative combinatorial method is extended to BGSM symbol selection. The effects of the Rician K-factor, BGSM symbol block size, and antenna configuration on the performance and design complexity are studied. The algorithm is found to significantly reduce the complexity of the BGSM symbol set selection problem.
    • EFFECTS OF SWARM DENSITY ON MULTIHOP DRONE TELEMETRY DATA

      Rohrer, Justin P.; Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, Dept Computer Science (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Bandwidth being a limited resource in airborne telemetry networks, drone swarms are particularly challenging to instrument due to the number of airborne nodes involved. Even a modest amount of data being transmitted by each node may overwhelm the network. Prior work has evaluated these effects in a number of drone swarm mobility scenarios,and shown the difficulty of achieving reliable data delivery. However, those results do not distinguish between data loss due to congestion of the available spectrum, and loss due to changing network topologies or disconnection due to mobility. In this work we attempt to isolate those effects by keeping a simulated drone swarm stationary,and focussing on the telemetry data delivery due to changing the size and density of the swarm. We compare the performance using no multi-hoprouting protocol, as well as using DSDV, AODV, DSR, and OLSR.
    • A NOVLE COMBINING ACQUISITION ALGORITHM WITH DATA AND PILOT SIGNALS OF BDS-3 B1C SIGNAL

      Taotao, Liang; Ming, Wang; Junwei, Wu; Chuan, Wang; Institute of Electronic Engineering, China Academy of Engineering Physics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      The B1C signal adopts a new navigation signal system including pilot and data signal. These two signals are transmitted simultaneously in an orthogonal manner. When the signal is weak, two signals need to be processed jointly to improve the signal detection ability. This paper designs a novel weighted joint acquisition algorithm. Monte Carlo simulation has been done to evaluate the performance. The simulation results show that the detection performance of the proposed algorithm connects with the weighted coefficient. When the optimal weighting coefficient is selected, detection performance can be improved greatly under the condition of weak signal. Keywords: B1C signal, weighted joint acquisition algorithm, weighted coefficient.
    • AUTONOMOUS AND NON-INTRUSIVE SYSTEM FOR ENHANCED SPACE VEHICLE LOCATION

      Percie du Sert, François-Gabriel; Zodiac Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      High-precision location of space launch vehicles is a key component of the flight safety. The need for a very accurate location has gained the whole launch with the flight and re-entry stages being also critical in terms of safety. Thanks to the hybridization of GNSS and INS data, the accurate location can be fully defined inside the launch vehicle at low cost. This opens up to the setting of an autonomous system for location on-board the vehicle. Still, in order to ensure the reliability of such a system, many redundancies have to be set which implies to add equipment: autonomous power, processing, unique telemetry downlink... Adding this equipment challenging in an environment where the use of room and the adding of weight are very tightly monitored. This paper describes the techniques to settle a fully autonomous location system which answers to the needs for an accurate, strongly reliable location while being non-intrusive, cost-effective and easily integrated in any launch vehicle.
    • DEVELOPMENT OF NETWORK DATA AGGREGATOR FOR PAYLOAD FILTERING TO CONTROL TELEMETRY BANDWIDTH

      Ellerbrock, Phil; Reyzer, Charles; Zettwoch, Bob; Kragick, Andy; Troshynski; The Boeing Company; Avionics Interface Technologies (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Emerging aircraft avionics and vehicle management communication systems have switched to higher data rate networks such as Ethernet and Fibre Channel, requiring Flight Test systems that can acquire data information from these networks. The data has moved onto higher speed networks, but the telemetry bandwidth has not increased, therefore producing a need to selectively capture data from within a packet, down to the bit level, for telemetry without capturing the entire message. Ethernet and Fibre Channel are transport protocols without rigid payload structure definitions as seen with MIL-STD-1553 or ARINC-429. Avionics traffic can be defined in any manner including dynamic length components or repeating structures that are difficult to define generically. AIT (Avionics Interface Technologies) developed the Airborne Network Data Aggregator (ANDA) unit for The Boeing Company with six different payload structure filter types to generically capture data out of network structures.
    • DEVELOPING WIRELESS IMUS TO SIMPLIFY INTEGRATION INTO DYNAMIC SYSTEMS

      Kosbar, Kurt; Lipina, Jacob; Christmas, Austin; Marcolina, Rebecca; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      This paper discusses the development of wireless inertial measurement units (IMUs) designed to transmit data from a prototype Mars rover to a remote base station. These nine degree of freedom, multi-chip modules provide measurements for linear acceleration, angular rotation velocity, and magnetic field vectors for the rover’s chassis and robotic arm end-effector. To facilitate integration into these dynamic systems, each unit is independently powered and has a form factor of 108 cc. IMU data is sent from 32-bit microcontrollers with embedded IEEE 802.11 b/g/n Wi-Fi to the rover via UDP transport through a custom publish/subscribe distributed IP protocol. Data is relayed over two circular polarized omnidirectional antennas to the base station’s dual linear MIMO Yagi-Uda antenna. The information gathered provides operators a heading and orientation to improve situational awareness, as camera visuals are often inadequate.
    • VIBRATION ANALYSIS WITH AN OPTICAL TRACKING SYSTEM (SISTRO)

      Kusumoto, Andre Yoshimi; Oliveira Leite, Nelson Paiva; Guarino Vasconcelos, Luiz Eduardo; Netto Lahoz, Carlos Henrique; Instituto de Pesquisas e Ensaios em Voo (IPEV); Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE); Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      SisTro validation, required the execution of several Pit Drop tests. The determination of the store trajectory in real time, required the usage of advanced computer vision techniques for photogrammetric measurements and a novel optical calibration and error minimization process. As results the 2D image tracking of the in-view reference points could be determined with sub-pixel resolution. Then, in addition to providing the desired trajectory, it was able to compute the wing and pylon vibrations and its damping coefficient. Such capability allows us to develop a more accurate CFD simulation models by the incorporation of the aircraft Flexible-Body Mechanics model into such simulation runs. In this paper it will be presented the development of SisTrO sub-pixel tracking process and the pit drop test results, that includes the measurement of the wing and pylon vibrations and its associated damping.
    • Optimizing Pre-Flight Checkout by Leveraging IOT enabled FTI and Augmented Reality

      Quinn, Patrick; Curtiss-Wright (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Pre-flight checkout is one of the most time critical stages in any flight test program. Delays and in-efficiencies during checkout can lead to aircraft being grounded for unnecessarily long periods of time, increasing costs and program schedule slippages. With the dawn of augmented reality wearables, smart sensors, wireless sensors and next generation Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI), today’s technological advances can be leveraged to transform pre-flight checkout into an interactive, self-diagnostic and operationally efficient essential step in your flight test program. These same technologies can also be used to optimize the day to day operations of airlines, MRO’s and aircraft maintenance companies, taking advantage of the current “data rich” generation of aircraft. This paper describes how pre-flight checkout can be optimized by combining best in class Internet of Things (IOT) enabled FTI and augmented reality wearables.