• Multi-Stage Attack Detection Using Layered Hidden Markov Model Intrusion Detection System

      Moazzami, Farzad; Dean, Richard; Zegeye, Wondimu K.; Morgan State University, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) based on Artificial Intelligence can be deployed to protect telemetry networks against intruders. As security solutions which encrypt radio links do not accommodate the ever evolving network attacks and vulnerabilities, new defense mechanisms using machine learning and artificial intelligence can play a significant role for telemetry networks. This paper proposes a multi-layered Hidden Markov Model (HMM) IDS that addresses multi-stage attacks. This is due to the fact that intrusions are increasingly being launched through multiple phases instead of single stage intrusion. This layered model divides the problem space into smaller manageable pieces reducing the curse of dimensionality associated with HMMs. To verify the application of this model for real network, the NSL-KDD dataset is used to train and test the model.
    • Neuro-OSVETA: A Robust Watermarking of 3D Meshes

      Vasic, Bata; Raveendran, Nithin; Vasic, Bane; Univ Arizona, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering; Univ Nis, Electronic Dept (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Best and practical watermarking schemes for copyright protection of 3D meshes are required to be blind and robust to attacks and errors. In this paper, we present the latest developments in 3D blind watermarking with a special emphasis on our Ordered Statistics Vertex Extraction and Tracing Algorithm (OSVETA) algorithm and its improvements. OSVETA is based on a combination of quantization index modulation (QIM) and error correction coding using novel ways for judicial selection of mesh vertices which are stable under mesh simplification, and the technique we propose in this paper offers a systematic method for vertex selection based on neural networks replacing a heuristic approach in the OSVETA. The Neuro-OSVETA enables a more precise mesh geometry estimation and better curvature and topological feature estimation. These enhancements result in a more accurate identification of stable vertices resulting in significant reduction of deletion probability.

      Rice, Michael; Redd, Bryan; Briceno, Ximena; Brigham Young University, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      This paper examines the problem of carrier phase and frequency estimation for coded 16-APSK in aeronautical mobile telemetry. Given the fact that coded systems tend to operate at lower signalto-noise ratios than uncoded systems, the synchronizer must operate at these lower signal-to-noise ratios. For a 30 kHz frequency offset and a 10 Mbit/s 16-APSK signal, the conventional phase lock loop (PLL) system does not achieve consistent lock to be a useful approach. Consequently, a blind feed-forward approach, based on the FFT, and an initialized feedback approach based on the PLL were examined. The feed-forward estimator is capable of achieving BER ideal performance for Eb/N0 ≥ 6 dB using 1024 symbols. The feedback estimator, initialized using a feed-forward estimate based on 1024 symbols is also capable of achieving BER ideal performance for Eb/N0 ≥ 6 dB. Both synchronizers require a sufficiently good blind estimate: the estimate based on 2014 symbols appears to be the minimum value to achieve good performance.
    • Optimizing Pre-Flight Checkout by Leveraging IOT enabled FTI and Augmented Reality

      Quinn, Patrick; Curtiss-Wright (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Pre-flight checkout is one of the most time critical stages in any flight test program. Delays and in-efficiencies during checkout can lead to aircraft being grounded for unnecessarily long periods of time, increasing costs and program schedule slippages. With the dawn of augmented reality wearables, smart sensors, wireless sensors and next generation Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI), today’s technological advances can be leveraged to transform pre-flight checkout into an interactive, self-diagnostic and operationally efficient essential step in your flight test program. These same technologies can also be used to optimize the day to day operations of airlines, MRO’s and aircraft maintenance companies, taking advantage of the current “data rich” generation of aircraft. This paper describes how pre-flight checkout can be optimized by combining best in class Internet of Things (IOT) enabled FTI and augmented reality wearables.
    • Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) Reduction for OFDM

      Moazzami, Farzad; Dean, Richard; Zegeye, Wondimu K.; Morgan State University, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      The telemetry community has been challenged in its search for additional spectrum for its aeronautical mission. With a fixed amount of spectrum the challenge becomes focused on increased spectrum efficiency. Today’s best solution for spectrum efficiency is Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation (OFDM). This approach has proven effective with both cellular LTE as well as IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN systems. OFDM has seen limited use in telemetry systems in part due to issues related to high peak to average ratio of OFDM signals. This paper reviews approaches to resolving these issues and proposes a scheme for peak conditioning of OFDM signals to reduce the peak to average ratio. Results of preliminary experimental work are promising.

      Rice, Michael; Arabian, Farah; Brigham Young University, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Providing RHCP and LHCP outputs from the antennas vertical (V) and horizontal (H) dipoles in there sonant cavity within the antenna feeds is the current practice of ground-based station receivers in aeronautical telemetry. The equalizers on the market, operate on either LHCP or RHCP alone, or a combined signal created by co-phasing and adding the RHCP and LHCP outputs. In this paper, we show how to optimally combine the V and H dipole outputs and demonstrate that an equalizer operating on this optimally-combined signal outperforms an equalizer operating on the RHCP, LHCP, or the combined signals. Finally, we show how to optimally combine the RHCP and LHCP outputs for equalization, where this optimal combination performs as good as the optimally combined V and H signals.

      Peken, Ture; Tandon, Ravi; Bose, Tamal; Univ Arizona, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      The use of millimeter waves (mmWave) for next-generation cellular systems is promising due to the large bandwidth available in this band. Beamforming will likely be divided into RF and baseband domains, which is called hybrid beamforming. Precoders can be designed by using a predefined codebook or by choosing beamforming vectors arbitrarily in hybrid beamforming. The computational complexity of finding optimal precoders grows exponentially with the number of RF chains. In this paper, we develop a Q-learning (a form of reinforcement learning) based algorithm to find the precoders jointly. We analyze the complexity of the algorithm as a function of the number of iterations used in the training phase. We compare the spectral efficiency achieved with unconstrained precoding, exhaustive search, and another state-of-art algorithm. Results show that our algorithm provides better spectral efficiency than the state-of-art algorithm and has performance close to that of exhaustive search.

      Lee, Hua; Radzicki, Vincent R.; Rajagopal, Abhejit; Univ California Santa Barbara, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Today, a wide range of heart conditions can be monitored remotely with relatively inexpensive passive sensing technologies, enabling the potential for long-term monitoring and prognosis of patient state under representative environmental stimuli. A medical telemetry system that can incorporate such passive measurements and provide key diagnostic information to medical professionals would provide tremendous value to patients via quantitative and personalized healthcare. This paper presents an overview of passive sensing methods that could be utilized in a medical telemetry system for remote heart monitoring of patients. While active systems are another attractive option, they impose additional constraints on the system that require careful calibration, expert control, and more complex instrumentation. The methods presented here are based on low-cost, sensor technology with the potential to greatly improve long-term non-invasive, heart-health monitoring.

      Fischer, John; Perdue, Lisa; Orolia (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      GNSS is key to effective situational awareness, providing critical Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) telemetry data for mobile military operations. Yet GPS/GNSS jamming and spoofing attacks are on the rise. The combination of low-cost hardware, open source software, and tutorials on YouTube have fostered the proliferation of these malicious acts. Beyond intentional disruption, other factors such as environmental conditions and conflicts with other electronic systems can result in unreliable or even unavailable GNSS data. The disruption of GNSS for increasing periods of time through jamming/spoofing must now be an essential test component in most test scenarios today. How can one still provide reliable Time-Space Position Information (TSPI) during periods of GNSS denial? Key mobile military operations that rely on continuous and trusted PNT telemetry data from GNSS include: SatCom on the Move (SOTM), Command, Control, Communications, Computer, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR), Airborne Communications Relay, Synthetic Aperture Radar, and Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR). Techniques and technologies used in battlefield systems to provide alternative sources of PNT data during a GNSS outage, can also be used on the test range. This paper will identify technologies, best practices and strategies for GNSS jamming/spoofing detection and protection systems and testing protocols to maintain a state of PNT readiness.

      Oh, Han; Chang, Jae Young; Kim, Jin-Hyung; Choi, Hae-Jin; Satellite Operation and Application Center, Korean Aerospace Research Center; Future and Converging Technology Research Division, Korean Aerospace Research Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      The Consultative Committee for Space Data System (CCSDS) defines a standard for the data compression algorithm applied to the image data from payload instruments. In the CCSDS image data compression (CCSDS-IDC) standard, an image is encoded using a three-level two-dimensional DiscreteWavelet Transform (DWT) and the Bit-Plane Encoder (BPE). Compared to the JPEG2000 standard, the compression performance is reported to be similar at high bit rates with much lower complexity. However, its lack of highly scalable features supported by JPEG2000 hinders smooth browsing of the high-resolution satellite images. In this work, a method of quickly accessing a region of interest in a high-resolution satellite image is introduced. It utilizes parallel processing and the structure of the space packets which contain the strip-based codestream. This method is particularly effective for remote satellite image browsing and the study demonstrates its performance using KOMPSAT (Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite)-3A images.

      Graham, Richard A., Jr.; Shepherd, Steven G.; US Navy, NSWC Corona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      This paper examines how to convert files recorded on a legacy recorder to an IRIG 106 Chapter 10 file.

      O’Connell, Ray; RoboComAI (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      The T&E ranges require two-way networked communications to provide gains in critical areas including: test efficiency, safety, cost savings and spectrum efficiency. The development of a network compatibility module which can accommodate networked telemetry standards while using existing COTS transmitter and receiver components has multiple benefits to the T&E test community. This component based approach to networked telemetry has the additional benefit of allowing new technology to be readily adopted for networking applications. This paper reviews the progress made in the development of a standardized component based networking telemetry capability as well as other networked telemetry radio systems.

      Marcellin, Michael; Tan, Nicolas; Univ Arizona, Wildcat Formula Racing (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      The Wildcat Formula Racing Team of the University of Arizona participates in an annual engineering design competition where students compete with small formula-style racing cars. One of the challenges we face is to provide justification of our design choices to the judges. To establish means of collecting data used as evidence and analysis, we use a mixture of automotive sensors and electronic sensors to be transmitted onto an external microcontroller, an Arduino. The data will then be stored locally and broadcasted from the vehicle to the pit with a transceiver module for post-race data analysis, as well as feedback for the team.

      Marcellin, Michael; Collett, Anthony; Ma, Tiffany; Craddock, Zane; Garcia, Gerardo; George, Charles; Univ Arizona, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      On amusement park rides, vibrations against the rails of the track and the cars’ wheels can strain and damage the track. This is especially true for older coasters, whose tracks have worn significantly over time. While manual inspection of the track is necessary, an automated system that monitors the stress on the track will help detect anomalies, ensuring a safe experience for the passengers. We have designed a system of sensors that can monitor these vibrations. Sensors placed on a segment of track will measure the lateral and vertical vibrations, wirelessly transmitting the level of strain on the track to a base station. If vibrations reach a threshold level, the base station will be alerted of excessive strain. The system will create a graph of points where vibration is worse than other points, to pinpoint what areas need to be fixed the most. This will decrease maintenance costs and ensure increased safety for patrons of these rides.

      Kosbar, Kurt; Verbrugge, Eli; Dahlman, Brian; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      This paper examines the usage of telemetry for the six degrees of freedom robotic arm designed to compete on a mars rover in the 2019 University Rover Challenge. The arm utilizes three microcontrollers to receive control commands and translates them directly to motor signals for the six brushed DC motors. The usage of the 32-bit microcontrollers facilitates inverse kinematics, an intuitive process that allows commands to be sent as 3D coordinates to the arm, ensuring fine control for arm manipulation. Telemetry is transmitted from the rover to a remote base station over a 900 MHz RF link, using two omnidirectional cloverleaf antennas. Communication between the embedded systems is achieved with the ethernet User Datagram Protocol standard. This ensures seamless transferal of commands from the driver’s joystick to the arm, and a stream of telemetry containing motor currents, positional values, and limit switch states - a necessity for the open and closed loop control systems.

      Hill, Terry; Quasonix (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Multipath distortion has been a major source of data corruption in aeronautical telemetry signals for decades. In recent years, however, adaptive equalizers have begun to appear in telemetry receivers. These equalizers offer the promise of mitigating or even eliminating the damage done by the multipath channel, and many ranges are adopting their use. Unfortunately, there have not been any standardized tests by which to quantify the efficacy and limitations of adaptive equalizers. This paper presents a generalized test methodology for making a quantitative performance assessment of any adaptive equalizer, along with representative test results for one particular adaptive equalizer.
    • Testing the Reliability and Flexibility of Digitizers adapting the RF/IF signals over IP applications using a testbed Platform.

      Gonzalez, Virgilio; Sandoval, Jose Carlos; Elahi, Mirza; Corral, Pabel; Yasuda, Susumu; Univ Texas, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering; White Sands Missile Range, U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Many disadvantages from physical limitations in RF Telemetry can now be eliminated using RF over IP Networks. Digitizers mitigate the problem of signal degradation that RF has due to physical restrictions and provide reliability and flexibility to the signal. The digitizers are also able to preserve both frequency and timing characteristics, and then accurately reconstructing the original Telemetry signals to enable processing, recording or retransmission at another location. The digitizers along with the software-defined radios forms a flexible testbed platform which enables us to simulate both communication systems to qualify and quantify their behavior, while studying the interference between systems. In addition, quantization of noise is a critical parameter to determine the bit error rate in the testbed. Digitizers can be configured at a certain bandwidth and additional gain, in order to make this layer almost a transparent transmission.

      Creusere, Charles D.; Phillips, Andrew J.; New Mexico State University, Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      This paper analyzes lossy frequency-domain compression in the context of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) analysis of electroencephalograph (EEG) signals. The approach used here for CFC analysis involves a low-complexity signal analysis block followed by a constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection algorithm. The lossy frequency-domain compression is achieved via the threshold coding method for frequency truncation using the discrete cosine transform (DCT). This method is found to increase CFC detection rates by as much as 30% to 50% depending on the amount of Gaussian noise in the signal and the selected probability of false alarm. Further analysis indicates that these significant improvements in CFC detection rates are due to adaptive frequency-domain noise reduction. These results bode well for lossy frequency-based EEG compression schemes which can greatly improve transmission speeds and decrease storage space requirements while simultaneously enhancing CFC analysis capabilities.
    • The Good, The Bad, and The Non-Circular Signals

      Bose, Tamal; Tsang, Stephanie D.; Samuel, Al; Univ Arizona, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      Second-order (SO) non-circularity is a statistical property that is used to classify signals. Signals with SO non-circularity are extensively used in communication and radar systems. The SO non-circularity property is generally useful in the application of array processing techniques for extending antenna apertures. Exploiting this non-circularity property for a multi-faceted set of communication-type and radar-type signals is the objective of this study. For a given type of signal, the circularity quotient and its properties are tested and evaluated in terms of parameters such as the modulus of its phase, complex covariance, pseudo-variance, the angle orientation of the ellipse, its eccentricity, and other relevant properties are calculated. A geometrical interpretation for the circularity quotient and the correlation coeficient is used to derive the bounds for circularity.

      Lee, Hua; Radzicki, Vincent R.; Univ California Santa Barbara, Dept Electrical and Computer Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2019-10)
      For target imaging and tracking systems, a key signal processing task is motion estimation. Specifically, the trajectory of a maneuvering target undergoing rigid body motion can be described through a series of translational and rotational transformations. Estimation of these motion parameters provides the tracking system enough information to calculate the targets trajectory over time. Determining the rotational motion to a high accuracy is also very important, as the imaging system can then form an image of the target over multiple aspect angles and thus increase the resolution performance. This paper focuses on algorithm development and performance limitations for motion estimation and image formation using active sensing arrays.