• Method of Supplementation May Affect Cattle Grazing Patterns

      Bailey, Derek W.; Jensen, Delyn (Society for Range Management, 2008-01-01)
      Supplement placement can be used to manipulate livestock grazing patterns. The objective of this case study was to compare the effect of low-moisture blocks (LMB) and range cake (barley-based cylindrical cubes, 2 cm in diameter, and 2 to 8 cm long) supplementation on cattle grazing patterns in Montana foothill rangeland. One group of nonlactating cows (n = 79) was fed cake 3 times per week (1.8 kg cow-1 feeding-1), and the other group (n = 81) had continuous access to LMB in separate pastures using a crossover design. Movement patterns of cows were recorded with global positioning system collars during four periods (2 wk period-1) during autumn. Range cake was fed on accessible areas, and LMB were placed in higher and steeper terrain. Intake of LMB averaged (mean +/- SE) 318 +/- 50 g d-1. Cows fed LMB (8.07 degrees +/- 0.20 degrees) were observed on steeper slopes (P = 0.08) than cows fed range cake (6.96 degrees +/- 0.19 degrees). Forage utilization decreased as slope increased to a greater degree when range cake was fed than when LMB was fed (P=0.001). Cows spent more time (P=0.05) within 100m of LMB (274 +/- 23 min d-1) than at range cake feeding sites (67 +/- 24 min d-1). Strategic placement of LMB on high, steep terrain appears to be a more practical and effective approach than traditional hand-feeding range cake on intermediate terrain to improve uniformity of cattle grazing on rugged rangeland. 
    • Enhancing Native Grass Productivity by Cocultivating With Endophyte-Laden Calli

      Lucero, M. E.; Barrow, J. R.; Osuna, P.; Reyes, I.; Duke, S. E. (Society for Range Management, 2008-01-01)
      The influence native endophytes have on grass establishment and productivity was evaluated by cocultivating Bouteloua eriopoda (Torr.) Torr. (black grama) or Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) Gray (sand dropseed) seedlings with endophyte-laden calli from three of four native grass and shrub species: Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt. (fourwing saltbush), S. cryptandrus, Sporobolus airoides (Torr.) Torr. (alkali sacaton), and B. eriopoda in vitro. Following cocultivation, grass seedlings were hardened and transferred to three replicate field plots, each containing 16 grass plants of a single species that had been cocultivated with a single callus species. Plant establishment rates, heights, crown diameters, aboveground biomass, seed yields, and seed quality were compared. In B. eriopoda (black grama), significant increases in plant biomass were not observed. However, early plant heights and crown diameters, establishment rates, and stolon production were higher in some callus treatments. In S. cryptandrus (sand dropseed), all variables were positively influenced by one or more of the endophyte treatments. Biomass increases ranged from 2.5- to threefold over untreated plants, and harvested seed increased 5.9-fold in plants treated with endophytes from A. canescens (fourwing saltbush). Seed quality, determined by purity, germination rates, and tetrazolium assays, did not differ across endophyte treatments for either grass. There is evidence that endophyte transfer is responsible for the altered vigor of treated plants. 
    • Defoliation Effects on Bromus tectorum Seed Production: Implications for Grazing

      Hempy-Mayer, Kara; Pyke, David A. (Society for Range Management, 2008-01-01)
      Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is an invasive annual grass that creates near-homogenous stands in areas throughout the Intermountain sagebrush steppe and challenges successful native plant restoration in these areas. A clipping experiment carried out at two cheatgrass-dominated sites in eastern Oregon (Lincoln Bench and Succor Creek) evaluated defoliation as a potential control method for cheatgrass and a seeding preparation method for native plant reseeding projects. Treatments involved clipping plants at two heights (tall=7.6cm, and short=2.5cm), two phenological stages (boot and purple), and two frequencies (once and twice), although purple-stage treatments were clipped only once. Treatments at each site were replicated in a randomized complete block design that included a control with no defoliation. End-of-season seed density (seeds m-2) was estimated by sampling viable seeds from plants, litter, and soil of each treatment. Unclipped control plants produced an average of approximately 13 000 and 20 000 seeds m-2 at Lincoln Bench and Succor Creek, respectively. Plants clipped short at the boot stage and again 2 wk later had among the lowest mean seed densities at both sites, and were considered the most successful treatments (Lincoln Bench: F6, 45 = 47.07, P < 0.0001; Succor Creek: F6, 40 = 19.60, P < 0.0001). The 95% confidence intervals for seed densities were 123–324 seeds m-2 from the Lincoln Bench treatment, and 769–2 256 seeds m-2 from the Succor Creek treatment. Literature suggests a maximum acceptable cheatgrass seed density of approximately 330 seeds m-2 for successful native plant restoration through reseeding. Thus, although this study helped pinpoint optimal defoliation parameters for cheatgrass control, it also called into question the potential for livestock grazing to be an effective seed-bed preparation technique in native plant reseeding projects in cheatgrass-dominated areas. 
    • Medusahead Dispersal and Establishment in Sagebrush Steppe Plant Communities

      Davies, Kirk W. (Society for Range Management, 2008-01-01)
      Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski) is an invasive annual grass that reduces biodiversity and production of rangelands. To prevent medusahead invasion land managers need to know more about its invasion process. Specifically, they must know about 1) the timing and spatial extent of medusahead seed dispersal and 2) the establishment rates and interactions with plant communities being invaded. The timing and distance medusahead seeds dispersed from invasion fronts were measured using seed traps along 23 35-m transects. Medusahead establishment was evaluated by introducing medusahead at 1, 10, 100, 1 000, and 10 000 seeds m-2 at 12 sites. Most medusahead seeds dispersed less than 0.5 m from the invasion front (P < 0.01) and none were captured beyond 2 m. Medusahead seeds dispersed from the parent plants from early July to the end of October. More seeds were trapped in August than in the other months (P < 0.01). Medusahead establishment increased with higher seed introduction rates (P < 0.01). Medusahead density was negatively correlated to tall tussock perennial grass density and positively correlated to annual grass density of the preexisting plant communities (P = 0.02). Medusahead cover was also negatively correlated with tall tussock perennial grass density (P = 0.03). The results suggest that containment barriers around medusahead infestations would only have to be a few meters wide to be effective. This study also suggests that promoting or maintaining tall tussock perennial grass in areas at risk of invasion can reduce the establishment success of medusahead. Tall tussock perennial grass and annual grass density, in combination with soil data, may be useful in predicting susceptibility to medusahead invasion. 
    • Responses of Chaparral and Oak Woodland Plant Communities to Fuel-Reduction Thinning in Southwestern Oregon

      Perchemlides, Keith A.; Muir, Patricia S.; Hosten, Paul E. (Society for Range Management, 2008-01-01)
      Fire suppression has led to large fuel accumulations in many regions of the United States. In response to concerns about associated wildfire hazards, land managers in the western United States are carrying out extensive fuel-reduction thinning programs. Although reductions in cover by woody vegetation seem likely to cause changes in herbaceous communities, few published studies have reported on consequences of such treatments for native or exotic plant species. We compared vegetation and abiotic characteristics between paired thinned and unthinned chaparral and oak woodland communities of southwestern Oregon 4-7 yr posttreatment and contrasted impacts of manual vs. mechanical treatments. Herbaceous cover increased on thinned sites, but species richness did not change. Herbaceous communities at thinned sites had an early postdisturbance type of composition dominated by native annual forbs and exotic annual grasses; cover by annuals was nearly twice as high on treated as on untreated sites. Absolute and proportional cover of native annual forbs increased more than any other trait group, whereas exotic annual forbs and native perennial forbs declined. Exotic annual grass cover (absolute and proportional) increased, whereas cover by native perennial grasses did not. Shrub reestablishment was sparse after thinning, probably because of a lack of fire-stimulated germination. Manual and mechanical treatment impacts on abiotic site conditions differed, but differences in vegetation impacts were not statistically significant. Fuel-reduction thinning may have some unintended negative impacts, including expansion of exotic grasses, reductions in native perennial species cover, persistent domination by annuals, and increased surface fuels. Coupled with sparse tree or shrub regeneration, these alterations suggest that ecological-state changes may occur in treated communities. Such changes might be mitigated by retaining more woody cover than is currently retained, seeding with native perennials after treatment, or other practices; further research is needed to inform management in these ecosystems. 
    • Effect of Conifer Encroachment Into Aspen Stands on Understory Biomass

      Stam, B. R.; Malechek, J. C.; Bartos, D. L.; Bowns, J. E.; Godfrey, E. B. (Society for Range Management, 2008-01-01)
      Conifers (Picea and Abies spp.) have replaced aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) over much of aspen’s historic range in the western United States. We measured the impact of this change upon the production of understory vegetation potentially useful as forage for livestock and wildlife on two southern Utah national forests. A negative exponential relationship between conifer cover and understory biomass was demonstrated as log(biomass) = 6.25 – 0.03787(% conifer), adjusted R2 = 0.57. Understory production in aspen stands begins to decline under very low levels (10% to 20%) of conifer encroachment. Management implications include loss of forage production capability and wildlife habitat and potential overstocking of livestock grazing allotments if the associated loss of forage is not considered. 
    • Intermountain Presettlement Juniper: Distribution, Abundance, and Influence on Postsettlement Expansion

      Johnson, Dustin D.; Miller, Richard F. (Society for Range Management, 2008-01-01)
      Successful implementation of watershed restoration projects involving control of piñon and juniper requires understanding the spatial extent and role presettlement trees (> 140 yr) play in the ecology of Intermountain West landscapes. This study evaluated the extent, abundance, and spatial pattern of presettlement western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) in four woodlands located in southeast Oregon and southwest Idaho. The potential for modeling presence/absence of presettlement juniper using site characteristics was tested with logistic regression and the influence presettlement trees had on postsettlement woodland (trees < 140 yr) expansion was evaluated with a Welch’s t-test. Pre- and postsettlement tree densities, tree ages, site characteristics, and understory vegetation were measured along four 14-27 km transects. Presettlement juniper occurred in 16%-67% of stands in the four woodlands and accounted for 1%-10% of the population of trees > 1 m tall. Presettlement trees were generally widely scattered and more common in lower elevation stands with greater surface rock cover and higher insolate exposure. Presettlement trees sparsely occupied productive sites on deeper soils in southwest Idaho, suggesting the area had sustained a different disturbance regime than southeast Oregon. Southwest Idaho might have experienced a high frequency of lower severity fire that afforded survival to widely distributed legacy trees. This supposition is in contrast to most reports of a disturbance regime including either stand replacement or frequent fire of sufficient intensity to preclude survival of trees to maturity. Stands sustaining presettlement trees initiated woodland expansion 24 yr earlier than stands lacking presettlement trees. Presettlement trees may serve as a seed source potentially reducing the longevity of juniper control treatments. For areas with greater abundances and spatial distribution of presettlement trees such as southwest Idaho, management maintaining low intensity fire or cutting treatments at frequencies of less than 50 yr should sustain relatively open stands. 
    • Infiltration, Runoff, and Sediment Yield in Response to Western Juniper Encroachment in Southeast Oregon

      Petersen, Steven L.; Stringham, Tamzen K. (Society for Range Management, 2008-01-01)
      Infiltration was measured in a western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) watershed to characterize the hydrologic processes associated with landscape position. Infiltration rate, runoff, and sediment content were measured with the use of a small-plot rainfall simulator. Study sites were located in each of the four primary aspects (north, south, east, and west). Research sites were located in two ecological sites—South Slopes 12-16 PZ and North Slopes 12-16 PZ. Within aspect, plots were located in three juniper cover levels: high (> 22%), moderate (13%-16%), and low (<3%) juniper canopy cover. During rainfall simulation, water was applied at a 10.2-cm h-1 rate, levels comparable to an infrequent, short-duration, high-intensity precipitation event. Runoff was measured at 5-min intervals for 60 min. Comparing canopy cover levels, steady-state infiltration rates on control plots (9.0 cm h-1) was 68% greater than high juniper cover sites (2.87 cm h-1) and 34% greater than moderate juniper cover sites (5.97 cm h-1) on south-facing slopes. On north-facing slopes, no differences in infiltration rates were observed between juniper cover levels, demonstrating differential hydrologic responses associated with ecological site. Generally, all water applied to control plots infiltrated. Highest infiltration rates were positively associated with increased surface litter and shrub cover. In addition, depth of water within the soil profile was lowest in high juniper cover plots. This suggests that less water is available to sustain understory and intercanopy plant growth in areas with high juniper cover. Accelerated runoff and erosion in juniper dominated sites (high level) across east-, west-, and south- facing slopes can lead to extensive degradation to the hydrology of those sites. These data suggest that sustained hydrologic processes are achieved with reduced western juniper canopy cover. 
    • Effect of Pinyon-Juniper Tree Cover on the Soil Seed Bank

      Allen, Elizabeth A.; Nowak, Robert S. (Society for Range Management, 2008-01-01)
      As pinyon-juniper (specifically, Pinus monophylla and Juniperus osteosperma) woodlands in the western United States increase in distribution and density, understory growth declines and the occurrence of crown fires increases, leaving mountainsides open to both soil erosion and invasion by exotic species. We examined if the loss in understory cover that occurred with increasing tree cover was reflected in the density and diversity of the seed bank. Seed banks in stands with low, medium, and high tree cover were measured in late October for 2 yr. Multivariate analyses indicated that cover and diversity of standing vegetation changed as tree cover increased. However, the seed bank did not differ in overall seed density or species diversity because seeds of the 13 species that comprised 86% of the seed bank occurred in similar density across the tree-cover groups. Sixty-three percent of the species that were in the seed bank were absent from the vegetation (mostly annual forbs). In addition, 49% of the species that occurred in the standing vegetation were not in the seed bank (mostly perennial forbs and shrubs). Only Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, and Collinsia parviflora displayed positive Spearman rank correlations between percent cover in the vegetation and density in the seed bank. Thus, much of the standing vegetation was not represented in the seed bank, and the few species that dominated the seed bank occurred across varying covers of pinyon-juniper. 
    • Invertebrate Community Response to a Shifting Mosaic of Habitat

      Engle, David M.; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Roper Aaron; Leslie, David M. (Society for Range Management, 2008-01-01)
      Grazing management has focused largely on promoting vegetation homogeneity through uniform distribution of grazing to minimize area in a pasture that is either heavily disturbed or undisturbed. An alternative management model that couples grazing and fire (i.e., patch burning) to promote heterogeneity argues that grazing and fire interact through a series of positive and negative feedbacks to cause a shifting mosaic of vegetation composition and structure across the landscape. We compared patch burning with traditional homogeneity-based management in tallgrass prairie to determine the influence of the two treatments on the aboveground invertebrate community. Patch burning resulted in a temporal flush of invertebrate biomass in patches transitional between unburned and patches burned in the current year. Total invertebrate mass was about 50% greater in these transitional patches within patch-burned pastures as compared to pastures under traditional, homogeneity-based management. Moreover, the mosaic of patches in patch-burned pastures contained a wider range of invertebrate biomass and greater abundance of some invertebrate orders than did the traditionally managed pastures. Patch burning provides habitat that meets requirements for a broad range of invertebrate species, suggesting the potential for patch burning to benefit other native animal assemblages in the food chain. 
    • Age and Body Condition of Goats Influence Consumption of Juniper and Monoterpene-Treated Feed

      Frost, Rachel A.; Launchbaugh, Karen L.; Taylor, Charles A. (Society for Range Management, 2008-01-01)
      Redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchotii Sudworth) is an invasive, evergreen tree that is rapidly expanding throughout western and central Texas. Goats will consume some juniper on rangelands; however, intake is limited. The objective of our research was to determine how the age and body condition of goats influence their consumption of juniper and an artificial feed containing 4 monoterpenes. Two separate experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 examined the intake of redberry juniper foliage and used 39 goats either young (2 yr) or mature (> 6 yr). One-half of each age group was fed appropriate basal rations to reach either a high (HBC) or low body condition (LBC). Goats in LBC ate more (P<0.01, 8.6g kg-1 body weight [BW] +/- 0.7 SE) juniper than those in HBC (2.3 g kg-1 BW +/- 0.3 SE), and young animals consumed more (P < 0.05, 7.2 g kg-1 BW +/- 0.7 SE) juniper than mature goats (3.9 g kg-1 BW +/- 0.5 SE) across body condition treatments. In experiment 2, 36 goats, either young (2 yr) or mature (> 6 yr) and in either HBC or LBC, were offered a synthetic ration treated with 20.8 g kg-1 of 4 monoterpenes found in redberry juniper. Goats in LBC ate more (P < 0.01, 25.3 g kg-1 BW +/- 1.0 SE) of the terpene-treated feed than those in HBC (17.5 g kg-1 BW +/- 0.7 SE), and young animals ate more (P < 0.05, 22.5 g kg-1 BW +/- 0.8 SE) than mature goats (20.3 g kg-1 BW +/- 0.8 SE) across body condition treatments. Total intake as a proportion of body weight was also affected by body condition. Age and body condition are important factors that influence intake of chemically defended plants. A better understanding of how these attributes affect diet selection will aid livestock producers in improving grazing management. 
    • Sheep Spatial Grazing Strategies at the Arid Patagonian Monte, Argentina

      Bertiller, Mónica B.; Ares, Jorge O. (Society for Range Management, 2008-01-01)
      We asked what vegetation traits influence sheep in selecting foraging paths on the range. We obtained 40 000 records of positions of six ewes (Ovis aries) collared with Global Positioning System receivers during several seasons in a paddock of 1 250 ha at the Patagonian Monte shrublands, Argentina. We classified the vegetation through ground-truth floristic analyses and remotely sensed imagery, and overlaid the ewes’ positions onto a digital map of vegetation units. For each vegetation unit, we assessed the cover of main life forms and preferred plants, the visibility range at ewe’s head height, and several structural/chemical traits of dominant shrubs (leaf mass/area, lignin-phenolics-nitrogen concentration in leaves, presence of thorny stems and spiny leaves). Ewes followed diverse paths across the paddock but always selected among a limited number of vegetation units. Selected vegetation units were those with structural traits allowing wide ewes’ visibility ranges and low structural antiherbivore defenses, irrespective of their local abundance, relative cover of preferred plants, or distance to the watering point. Within preferred vegetation units, ewes further selected those with high cover of preferred plants and/or reduced structural/chemical antiherbivore defenses. We concluded that sheep selectivity at our study paddock resulted from compromises among different structural/visual cues related to visual impairment, antiherbivore physical/chemical defenses, and the offer of preferred plants. In a hierarchy of decisions, the abundance of preferred plants was not a sufficient condition for a high selection of vegetation units. Monitoring animal movements within shrubby paddocks of the Patagonian Monte with high visual impairment can supply criteria to assess the relevance of nonnutritional environmental traits on grazers’ decisions. This information is valuable in identifying and predicting spots of potential land degradation, and planning the distribution of flocks within paddocks in the context of sustainable management practices for shrubby rangelands. 
    • Evaluation of Low-Stress Herding and Supplement Placement for Managing Cattle Grazing in Riparian and Upland Areas

      Bailey, Derek W.; VanWagoner, Harv C.; Weinmeister, Robin; Jensen, Delyn (Society for Range Management, 2008-01-01)
      Management practices are often needed to ensure that riparian areas are not heavily grazed by livestock. A study was conducted in Montana during midsummer to evaluate the efficacy of low-stress herding and supplement placement to manage cattle grazing in riparian areas. Three treatments were evaluated in three pastures over a 3-yr period in a Latin-square design (n = 9). Each year, naïve 2-yr-old cows with calves were randomly assigned to the three treatments: 1) free-roaming control, 2) herding from perennial streams to upland target areas, and 3) herding to upland sites with low-moisture block supplements. Stubble heights along the focal stream were higher (P = 0.07) in pastures when cattle were herded (mean +/- SE, 23 +/- 2 cm) than in controls (15 +/- 3cm). Global positioning system telemetry data showed that herding reduced the time cows spent near (< 100 m) perennial streams (P = 0.01) and increased the use of higher elevations (P = 0.07) compared with controls. Evening visual observations provided some evidence that free-roaming cows (44% +/- 19%) were in riparian areas more frequently (P=0.11) than herded cows (23% +/- 6%). Fecal abundance along the focal stream was less (P=0.07) with herding (61.9 +/- 11.4 kg ha-1) than in controls (113.2 +/- 11.4 kg ha-1). Forage utilization within 600 m of supplement sites was greater (P=0.06) when cows were herded to low-moisture blocks (18% +/- 6%) compared with controls and herding alone (8% +/- 2%). Moving cattle to uplands at midday using low-stress herding is an effective tool to reduce use of riparian areas. Herding cattle to low-moisture blocks can increase grazing of nearby upland forage but may not provide additional reduction in cattle use of riparian areas compared with herding alone. 
    • Prescribed Sheep Grazing to Suppress Spotted Knapweed on Foothill Rangeland

      Thrift, Brian D.; Mosley, Jeffrey C.; Brewer, Tracy K.; Roeder, Brent L.; Olson, Bret E.; Kott, Rodney W. (Society for Range Management, 2008-01-01)
      Spotted knapweed (Centaurea biebersteinii DC.) is a perennial, invasive forb that infests millions of hectares of private and public rangelands in western North America. Previous research indicates that domestic sheep (Ovis aries) readily graze spotted knapweed, but landscape-scale prescriptive grazing of spotted knapweed has not been studied. We quantified the diets and forage utilization of a ewe-lamb band (about 800 ewes and 1 120 lambs) that prescriptively grazed spotted knapweed-infested foothill rangeland in western Montana in the summers of 2003 and 2004. In mid-June or mid-July, sheep grazed light and moderate infestations of spotted knapweed (13% and 36% of vegetative composition, respectively). Nutritive quality of sheep diets was similar to sheep grazing uninfested rangeland, and sheep exhibited few forage preferences or avoidances. Sheep diets averaged 64% spotted knapweed in the moderate infestation and 26% in the light infestation. Sheep in the light infestation ate fewer graminoids in June than July (17% vs. 55% of their diet, respectively; P=0.04), whereas sheep in the moderate infestation ate fewer graminoids in July (45% in June vs. 20% in July; P = 0.09). In the moderate infestation, relative utilization of spotted knapweed was greater in July than June (50% vs. 35%, respectively; P50.04), but averaged 46% in the light infestation. Previous research suggests that these levels of relative utilization may make herbicide application uneconomical. Relative utilization of graminoids was light in both infestations (15% in June or 31% in July). Our results indicate that sheep can prescriptively graze light or moderate spotted knapweed infestations in either June or July. Sheep consumption and relative utilization of graminoids will be less if light infestations are grazed in June rather than July. In moderate infestations, sheep will eat fewer graminoids and utilize spotted knapweed more heavily when grazed in July rather than June. 
    • Rotational Grazing on Rangelands: Reconciliation of Perception and Experimental Evidence

      Briske, D. D.; Derner, J. D.; Brown, J. R.; Fuhlendorf, S. D.; Teague, W. R.; Havstad, K. M.; Gillen, R. L.; Ash, A. J.; Willms, W. D. (Society for Range Management, 2008-01-01)
      In spite of overwhelming experimental evidence to the contrary, rotational grazing continues to be promoted and implemented as the only viable grazing strategy. The goals of this synthesis are to 1) reevaluate the complexity, underlying assumptions, and ecological processes of grazed ecosystems, 2) summarize plant and animal production responses to rotational and continuous grazing, 3) characterize the prevailing perceptions influencing the assessment of rotational and continuous grazing, and 4) attempt to direct the profession toward a reconciliation of perceptions advocating support for rotational grazing systems with that of the experimental evidence. The ecological relationships of grazing systems have been reasonably well resolved, at the scales investigated, and a continuation of costly grazing experiments adhering to conventional research protocols will yield little additional information. Plant production was equal or greater in continuous compared to rotational grazing in 87% (20 of 23) of the experiments. Similarly, animal production per head and per area were equal or greater in continuous compared to rotational grazing in 92% (35 of 38) and 84% (27 of 32) of the experiments, respectively. These experimental data demonstrate that a set of potentially effective grazing strategies exist, none of which have unique properties that set one apart from the other in terms of ecological effectiveness. The performance of rangeland grazing strategies are similarly constrained by several ecological variables establishing that differences among them are dependent on the effectiveness of management models, rather than the occurrence of unique ecological phenomena. Continued advocacy for rotational grazing as a superior strategy of grazing on rangelands is founded on perception and anecdotal interpretations, rather than an objective assessment of the vast experimental evidence. We recommend that these evidence-based conclusions be explicitly incorporated into management and policy decisions addressing this predominant land use on rangelands. 
    • The Future of REM: Perspectives of the Incoming Editor-in-Chief

      Briske, David D. (Society for Range Management, 2008-01-01)
      It is a distinct privilege to serve as Editor-in-Chief of Rangeland Ecology and Management (REM). I greatly appreciate the confidence that has been bestowed upon me with my appointment to this important position. The Journal represents the scientific foundation of our professional Society, and recently implemented changes to the Journal have placed it on a positive trajectory. My intent is to build upon the momentum created by the former Editor-in-Chief Keith Owens, the Editorial Board, and numerous others that have contributed to the Journal’s success during the past several years. The Society owes Keith Owens a huge debt of gratitude for his exceptional service in skillfully guiding the Journal through its transition to electronic manuscript submission and review and publication by Allen Press. 
    • The State of REM: Perspectives of the Outgoing Editor-in-Chief

      Owens, M. Keith (Society for Range Management, 2008-01-01)
      The last four years have seen significant changes in our scientific journal. Originally named the Journal of Range Management, the journal has evolved into Rangeland Ecology and Management to reflect the diversity and breadth of manuscripts published. I recently switched positions and decided that the journal would benefit by having someone else take the responsibilities of Editor-in-Chief. As I end my four-year appointment, I would like to take this opportunity to describe several of the changes that have occurred, including the transition to electronic submission and publication, and the increased breadth of the Associate Editor Board.