• Evaluating Livestock Grazing Use With Streambank Alteration Protocols: Challenges and Solutions

      Heitke, Jeremiah D.; Henderson, Richard C.; Roper, Brett B.; Archer, Eric K. (Society for Range Management, 2008-11-01)
      Appropriate management of livestock in riparian areas can help ensure that these ecosystems are maintained. We evaluated how one indicator of livestock grazing in riparian areas, streambank alteration, was affected by choices related to protocols and personnel used for these assessments. We found that although streambank alteration protocols were generally repeatable among observers, results were affected by factors not directly related to grazing intensity, including 1) training, 2) professional background, 3) location and intensity of measurements, and 4) the protocol used. Training reduced estimates of alteration and observer variability. Rangeland professionals had higher estimates of streambank alteration than seasonal technicians. Rapid assessments of alteration were correlated with more intensive estimates; however, the relationship was not 1:1. Different protocols resulted in different alterations estimates when alterations at the same locations were estimated. Given the large number of monitoring programs, personnel, and methods used to assess streambank alteration, we suggest more thought be given on how to standardize monitoring efforts so results consistently reflect the true amount of alteration at a site. We also remind managers that no protocol can be implemented without some error. Managers should therefore be careful when taking action based on a single evaluation—especially when the result is near a management standard or threshold. When these concerns are addressed, indicators such as streambank alteration can help ensure management decisions maintain both sustainable allotments and landscapes. 
    • Fire History in a Chaparral Ecosystem: Implications for Conservation of a Native Ungulate

      Bleich, Vernon C.; Johnson, Heather E.; Holl, Stephen A.; Konde, Lora; Torres, Steven G.; Krausman, Paul R. (Society for Range Management, 2008-11-01)
      Mature chaparral vegetation in the San Gabriel Mountains, California, resulting from long fire-return intervals (50-70 yr), has resulted in reduced visibility and availability and quality of forage, all of which are important attributes of mountain sheep (Ovis canadensis) habitat. Concomitantly, vegetation changes have decreased availability and quality of forage. We developed a resource-selection model to determine the effect of fire history on habitat use by mountain sheep, examined the hypotheses that habitat selection was associated with fire occurrence, and determined whether fire occurrence influenced the amount of potential habitat available to mountain sheep. The best model indicated that mountain sheep selected vegetation that had burned within 15 yr and avoided areas that had not burned within that time frame. We then used our model to quantify potential changes in mountain sheep habitat that have occurred over time based on fire conditions. We identified 390 km2 of mountain sheep habitat that existed in 2002 (when only 63 mountain sheep were tallied), 486 km2 in 1980 (when the mountain sheep population was at its highest), and 422 km2 in 2004 (just after a series of large wildfires). We also estimated that 615 km2 of suitable habitat would be available in a hypothetical situation in which the entire study area burned. Our results suggest that restoration of mountain sheep to their historical distribution in chaparral ecosystems will depend upon more frequent fires in areas formerly occupied by those specialized herbivores. 
    • Growth of Chickasaw Plum in Oklahoma

      Dunkin, Stacy W.; Githery, Fred S.; Will, Rodney E. (Society for Range Management, 2008-11-01)
      Management of rangelands for wildlife and livestock entails understanding growth of clonal shrubs such as Chickasaw plum (Prunus angustifolia Marsh.). We studied growth of this species in one county in north-central (Payne) and two counties in northwestern Oklahoma (Ellis, Harper) during 2006 and 2007. We estimated age of stems and roots by growth rings and area of stands with the use of a handheld GPS unit. Based on zero-intercept regression models, stands grew at similar rates (overlapping 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) among counties with a pooled estimate of 31.0 m2 yr-1 (95% CI = 26.5–35.6 m2 yr-1; n = 95). This rate showed considerable variability within and among study sites (r = 0.52). Stem diameter increased (zero-intercept models) more rapidly in north-central Oklahoma (5.27 mm yr-1; 95% CI = 5.01– 5.53 mm yr-1; r = 0.90; n = 53) than in northwestern Oklahoma (3.68 mm yr-1; 95% CI = 3.55–3.81 mm yr-1; r = 0.91; n = 102); data were pooled because of similar rates in Ellis and Harper counties. Stem height was a power function of stem age (y = 0.97x0.28; r = 0.56), indicating rate of growth in height (m y-1) declined with age according to dy/dx = 0.27x-0.72. Knowledge of the area expansion rate of Chickasaw plum clones aids in management planning to increase or decrease canopy coverage by this shrub. 
    • Mesquite, Tobosagrass, and Common Broomweed Responses to Fire Season and Intensity

      Ansley, R. J.; Pinchak, W. E.; Jones, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 2008-11-01)
      There has been increasing interest in the use of summer fires to limit woody plant encroachment on grasslands, but information regarding effects of such fires on perennial grass recovery and annual forb production is also needed. Our objective was to examine effects of fire seasonality and intensity on the woody legume honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.), the C4 midgrass tobosagrass (Pleuraphis mutica Buckl.), and the annual forb common broomweed (Amphiachyris dracunculoides [DC.] Nutt.). Treatments included summer fires, high-intensity winter fires, low-intensity winter fires, and no burn in replicated plots. None of the fire treatments caused whole-plant mortality (root kill) in mesquite. Mesquite aboveground mortality (top kill) was much greater after summer and high-intensity winter fires than low-intensity winter fires. Tobosagrass total yield (live + dead) was lower following summer fires and was not enhanced by any of the fire treatments for two growing seasons postfire when compared to the no-burn condition. However, tobosagrass live yield was 40% greater in the high-intensity winter fire treatment than the no-burn condition the first summer postfire and recovered in the other fire treatments by the end of the first growing season postfire. Tobosagrass percentage of live tissue was greatest in the summer fire treatment at the end of each of the two growing seasons postfire. Common broomweed cover increased in the summer fire treatment and decreased in both winter fire treatments relative to the no-burn condition by the end of the first growing season postfire. Summer fire offered no clear advantage over high-intensity winter fire with respect to mesquite suppression. However, the increase in late-season tobosagrass percentage live tissue caused by summer fire may be advantageous for forage quality. In addition, patch burning summer fires to increase broomweed cover in selected areas may be useful for wildlife habitat. 
    • Native Plant Growth and Seedling Establishment in Soils Influenced by Bromus tectorum

      Rowe, Helen I.; Brown, Cynthia S. (Society for Range Management, 2008-11-01)
      The invasion of 40 million hectares of the American West by cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) has caused widespread modifications in the vegetation of semi-arid ecosystems and increased the frequency of fires. In addition to well-understood mechanisms by which cheatgrass gains competitive advantage, it has been implicated in reducing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) abundance and taxa diversity. We evaluated this possibility at a high elevation site in a two-pronged approach. To test whether cheatgrass changed native AMF communities in ways that affected subsequent native plant growth, we grew cheatgrass and native plants in native soils and then planted native plants into these soils in a greenhouse experiment. We found that cheatgrass-influenced soils did not inhibit native plant growth or AMF sporulation or colonization. To test whether soils in cheatgrass-dominated areas inhibited establishment and growth of native plants, cheatgrass was removed and six seeding combinations were applied. We found that 14.02 +/- 1.7 seedlings m-2 established and perennial native plant cover increased fourfold over the three years of this study. Glyphosate reduced cheatgrass cover to less than 5% in the year it was applied but did not facilitate native plant establishment or growth compared with no glyphosate. We conclude that cheatgrass influence on the soil community does not appear to contribute to its invasion success in these high elevation soils. It appears that once cheatgrass is controlled on sites with sufficient native plant abundance, there may be few lingering effects to inhibit the natural reestablishment of native plant communities. 
    • Plant Community and Soil Microbial Carbon and Nitrogen Responses to Fire and Clipping in a Southern Mixed Grassland

      Harris, W. N.; Boutton, T. W.; Ansley, R. J. (Society for Range Management, 2008-11-01)
      Disturbances, such as fire and grazing, play important roles in determining grassland plant community composition and soil microbial dynamics, as well as regulating the flows of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) between the two groups of organisms. In a mixed grassland of the southern Great Plains, we tested the hypotheses that spring-season fire would increase the absolute biomass and relative proportion of C4 grasses in the plant community, and decrease soil microbial biomass N, thereby increasing microbial C:N ratios. We also tested the hypothesis that clipping (to simulate grazing) would reduce effects of fire, with a greater reduction of fire effect corresponding to an increased frequency of clipping. Contrary to our hypothesis, C4 grasses showed no significant treatment responses. Treatment effects were limited to C3 grasses, and clipping was more important than fire in terms of effects on plant community composition. However, because of its greater capacity to reduce aboveground litter, fire had the greater impact on soil microbial C. Contrary to the hypothesized outcome, no significant effects of disturbance on soil microbial N were observed. This suggests that control of N cycling in this ecosystem is primarily microbial in nature, though dependent on inputs of plant C via litter. Interactions between fire and clipping were observed in litter mass, highlighting the importance of litter inputs for plant-soil nutrient feedbacks. 
    • Point Sampling to Stratify Biomass Variability in Sagebrush Steppe Vegetation

      Clark, Patrick E.; Hardegree, Stuart P.; Moffet, Corey A.; Pierson, Fredrick B. (Society for Range Management, 2008-11-01)
      Cover and yield are two of the most commonly monitored plant attributes in rangeland vegetation surveys. These variables are usually highly correlated and many previous authors have suggested point-intercept estimates of plant cover could be used as a surrogate for more expensive and destructive methods of estimating plant biomass. When measurement variables are highly correlated, double sampling can be used to prestratify variability in the measurement that is more difficult or costly to obtain, thus improving sampling efficiency. The objective of this study was to examine the cost effectiveness of using point-intercept data to prestratify variability in subsequent clipped-biomass sampling on a sagebrush-bunchgrass rangeland site in southern Idaho. Point-intercept and biomass data were obtained for shrub, grass, and forb vegetation in 90 1-m2 plots. These data were used to develop a synthetic population of 10000 simulated plots for conducting sensitivity analysis on alternative double- sampling scenarios. Monte Carlo simulation techniques were used to determine the effect of sampling design on cost and variability of biomass estimates as a function of point-intercept sample size (i), number of point-intercept sample strata (s), and number of biomass samples per stratum (m). Minimization of variability in biomass estimates were always obtained from double-sampling scenarios in which a single median biomass estimate was obtained for a given stratum in the point-intercept data. Double-sampling strategies in which half of the point-intercept plots were also measured for biomass yielded a cost savings of 39% with a reduction in biomass-sample precision of 18% +/- 4 SD. The relative loss of precision in biomass estimates (62% +/- 12 SD) became equal to the relative cost savings of double sampling for scenarios in which the ratio of point-intercept/ biomass samples exceeded a value of five. 
    • Postfire Recovery of Sagebrush Communities: Assessment Using SPOT-5 and Very Large-Scale Aerial Imagery

      Sankey, Temuulen Tsagaan; Moffet, Corey; Weber, Keith (Society for Range Management, 2008-11-01)
      Much interest lies in long-term recovery rates of sagebrush communities after fire in the western United States, as sagebrush communities comprise millions of hectares of rangelands and are an important wildlife habitat. Little is known about postfire changes in sagebrush canopy cover over time, especially at a landscape scale. We studied postfire recovery of shrub canopy cover in sagebrush-steppe communities with the use of spectral mixture analysis. Our study included 16 different fires that burned between 1937 and 2005 and one unburned site at the US Sheep Experiment Station in eastern Idaho. Spectral mixture analysis was used with September 2006 Systeme Pour l’Observation de la Terre-5 (SPOT-5) satellite imagery to estimate percent shrub canopy cover within pixels. Very large-scale aerial (VLSA) imagery with 24-mm resolution was used for training and validation. SPOT-5 image classification was successful and the spectral mixture analysis estimates of percent shrub canopy cover were highly correlated with the shrub canopy cover estimates in the VLSA imagery (R2 = 0.82; P < 0.0001). Additional accuracy assessment of shrub classification produced 85% overall accuracy, 98% user’s accuracy, and 78% producer’s accuracy. This successful application of spectral mixture analysis has important implications for the monitoring and assessment of sagebrush- steppe communities. With the use of the percent shrub canopy cover estimates from the classified SPOT-5 imagery, we examined shrub canopy recovery rates since different burn years. With the use of linear-plateau regression, it was determined that shrub cover in mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. subsp. vaseyana [Rydb.] Beetle) communities recovered approximately 27 yr after fire, with an average shrub cover of 38%. These results are consistent with other field-based studies in mountain big sagebrush communities. 
    • Rough Agave Flowers as a Potential Feed Resource for Growing Goats

      Mellado, Miguel; Garcia, Jose E.; Pittroff, Wolfgang (Society for Range Management, 2008-11-01)
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of rough agave (Agave scabra Ortega) flowers on dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), volatile fatty acid (VFA) production in the rumen, and particular serum metabolites and minerals of native3dairy growing goats (Capra hircus L.). Forty female goats with an initial weight of 11.1 +/- 1.9 kg (mean 6 SD) were used in a completely randomized design experiment that lasted for 84 d. Goats were fed a completely mixed ration (30% roughage, 70% ground corn [Zea mays L.] and soybean [Glycine max {L.} Merr] meal). Treatments consisted of offering goats (4 pens group-1, 2 goats pen-1) air-dry rough agave flowers, which replaced alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay at 0% (control; T0), 25% (T25), 50% (T50), 75% (T75), and 100% (T100) of the of the roughage portion of the diet. Values of nutritional parameters for rough agave flowers were in vitro organic matter digestibility, 493 g kg-1; crude protein, 115 g kg-1; and metabolizable energy, 6.29 MJ kg-1 DMI. There were differences (P < 0.05) in ADG (range, 108-155 g d-1) between diets. Goats fed T0 had higher (P < 0.05) gains than goats fed T50 and T100. DMI was not affected by dietary treatments (range, 3.4% to 3.6% of body weight). Feed conversion ratio (FCR, defined as DMI/ADG) increased (P < 0.05) 27% with total substitution of alfalfa by rough agave flowers, in comparison with T0. Lower (P < 0.05) values of total VFA were obtained with T100, in comparison with all other dietary treatments. These results demonstrated that totally replacing alfalfa with rough agave flowers in diets did not affect DMI but decreased AGD and compromised FCR. Thus, rough agave flowers have the potential to partially replace alfalfa in diets for growing goats.