• Accuracy assessment for detection of leafy spurge with hyperspectral imagery

      Parker Williams, Amy E.; Hunt, E. Jr. Raymond (Society for Range Management, 2004-01-01)
      When flowering, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) has conspicuous yellow-green bracts that are spectrally distinct from other vegetation and may be distinguished with hyperspectral remote sensing. In July 1999, Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were acquired in northeastern Wyoming, near Devils Tower National Monument. Using the reflectance spectrum of flowering leafy spurge, leafy spurge occurrence was determined using a new method of spectral mixture analysis, Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF). Ground reference data (146 sites) were obtained 2 weeks before and after AVIRIS overflight to test the classification accuracy of leafy spurge. For 3 land cover types: mixed prairie, riparian, and coniferous woodlands, the presence or absence leafy spurge was detected with an overall accuracy of 95% using a 0.10 threshold for detection. Differences in classification thresholds resulted in a trade-off between false positives, pixels that were mapped as leafy spurge but did not contain leafy spurge on the ground, and false negatives, areas that had leafy spurge on the ground but were not mapped as leafy spurge. Detection of leafy spurge occurrence was best for mixed prairie and riparian cover types, and somewhat less successful for conifer woodlands because of interference from tree crowns and their shadows. The advantage of the MTMF technique is it allows automated processing of hyperspectral imagery to generate accurate maps of leafy spurge occurrence.
    • Book Review: True Grizz, Douglas H. Chadwick

      Appel, Linda (Society for Range Management, 2004-01-01)
    • Defoliation tolerance and ammonium uptake rate in perennial tussock grasses

      Carolina, Saint Pierre; Busso, Carlos Alberto; Montenegro, Oscar; Rodriguez, Gustavo D.; Giorgetti, Hugo D.; Montani, Tomas; Bravo, Oscar A. (Society for Range Management, 2004-01-01)
      Stipa clarazii, Ball. has been shown to be more tolerant to defoliation and a superior competitor to S. tenuis Philo and S. ambigua Speg. 3 perennial grasses native to semiarid rangelands in central Argentina. Mechanisms contributing to its great defoliation tolerance and competitive ability, however, are largely unexplored. We examined tolerance to defoliation and ammonium uptake rates on defoliated and undefoliated plants of those species at 10, 25, and 50 ppm NH4+ using (NH4)2SO4 solutions containing 60 atom %15N excess. By mid-spring, greater regrowth following defoliation in S. clarazii than in S. tenuis or S. ambigua indicated greater defoliation tolerance in the first than in the other 2 species. Stipa clarazii had similar of higher ammonium uptake rates than S. tenuis and S. ambigua. Higher ammonium uptake rates in S. clarazii thus appear to be one of the mechanisms most likely contributing to its greater competitive ability and defoliation tolerance when compared to the other 2 species. Defoliated plants of all 3 species had similar or greater ammonium uptake rates than undefoliated plants. These results suggest that photosynthetic canopy reestablishment may be achieved without sacrificing root function in these perennial grasses, at least as long as carbon reserves do not become a limiting factor. Ammonium uptake rates increased when NH4+ concentrations increased in the labeled solutions in S. clarazii, S. tenuis and S. ambigua. This result demonstrates the capacity of the root system for increasing nutrient acquisition during periods of high resource availability.
    • Ecology and management of sage-grouse and sage-grouse habitat

      Crawford, John A.; Olson, Rich A.; West, Neil E.; Mosley, Jeffrey C.; Schroeder, Michael A.; Whitson, Tom D.; Miller, Richard F.; Gregg, Michael A.; Boyd, Chad S. (Society for Range Management, 2004-01-01)
      Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus and C. minimus) historically inhabited much of the sagebrush-dominated habitat of North America. Today, sage-grouse populations are declining throughout most of their range. Population dynamics of sage-grouse are marked by strong cyclic behavior. Adult survival is high, but is offset by low juvenile survival, resulting in low productivity. Habitat for sage-grouse varies strongly by life-history stage. Critical habitat components include adequate canopy cover of tall grasses (≥ 18 cm) and medium height shrubs (40-80 cm) for nesting, abundant forbs and insects for brood rearing, and availability of herbaceous riparian species for late-growing season foraging. Fire ecology of sage-grouse habitat changed dramatically with European settlement. In high elevation sagebrush habitat, fire return intervals have increased (from 12-24 to > 50 years) resulting in invasion of conifers and a consequent loss of understory herbaceous and shrub canopy cover. In lower elevation sagebrush habitat, fire return intervals have decreased dramatically (from 50-100 to < 10 years) due to invasion by annual grasses, causing loss of perennial bunchgrasses and shrubs. Livestock grazing can have negative or positive impacts on sage-grouse habitat depending on the timing and intensity of grazing, and which habitat element is being considered. Early season light to moderate grazing can promote forb abundance/availability in both upland and riparian habitats. Heavier levels of utilization decrease herbaceous cover, and may promote invasion by undesirable species. At rates intended to produce high sagebrush kill, herbicide-based control of big sagebrush may result in decreased habitat quality for sage-grouse. Light applications of tebuthiuron (N-[5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]-N,N′-dimethylurea) can decrease canopy cover of sagebrush and increase grass and forb production which may be locally important to nesting and foraging activities. The ability of resource managers to address sage-grouse habitat concerns at large scales is aided greatly by geomatics technology and advances in landscape ecology. These tools allow unprecedented linkage of habitat and population dynamics data over space and time and can be used to retroactively assess such relationships using archived imagery. The present sage-grouse decline is a complex issue that is likely associated with multiple causative factors. Solving management issues associated with the decline will require unprecedented cooperation among wildlife biology, range science, and other professional disciplines.
    • Grazing management effects on plant species diversity in tallgrass prairie

      Hickman, Karen R.; Hartnett, David C.; Cochran, Robert C.; Owensby, Clenton E. (Society for Range Management, 2004-01-01)
      A 6-year study was conducted in tallgrass prairie to assess the effects of grazing management (cattle stocking densities and grazing systems) on plant community composition and diversity. Treatments included sites grazed season-long (May to October) at 3 stocking densities (3.8, 2.8, and 1.8 hectares per animal unit), ungrazed control sites, and sites under a late-season rest rotation grazing system at this same range of stocking densities. Plant communities were sampled twice each season using a nearest-point procedure. Native plant species diversity, species richness, and growth form diversity were significantly higher in grazed compared to ungrazed prairie, and diversity was greatest at the highest stocking density. This enhancement of plant species diversity under grazing was not a result of increased frequency of weedy/exotic species. There were no significant effects of grazing system on plant diversity, nor any significant stocking density × grazing system interactions, indicating that animal density is a key management variable influencing plant species diversity and composition in tallgrass prairie and that effects of animal density override effects of grazing systems. Increasing cattle stocking densities decreased the abundance of the dominant perennial tall grasses, and increased abundance of the C4 perennial mid-grasses. The frequency of perennial forbs was relatively stable across grazing treatments. Abundance of annual forbs varied among years and grazing treatments. In half of the years sampled, annual forbs showed the highest frequency under intermediate stocking density. Patterns of responses among plant groups suggest that some species may respond principally to direct effects of grazers and others may respond to indirect effects of grazers on competitive relationships or on the spatial patterns of fuel loads and fires. Thus, this study suggests that large grazer densities, fire, and annual climatic variability interact to influence patterns of plant community composition and diversity in tallgrass prairie. Effects of varying management such as stocking densities and grazing systems on plant species diversity and the relative abundances of different plant growth forms or functional groups may have important consequences for grassland community stability and ecosystem function.
    • Landscape-level dynamics of grassland-forest transitions in British Columbia

      Bai, Yuguang; Broersma, Klaas; Thompson, Don; Ross, Timothy J. (Society for Range Management, 2004-01-01)
      Grasslands in the interior British Columbia of Canada are adjacent to forests and are susceptible to tree encroachment. Grazing, fire suppression, and climate variability are among factors affecting vegetation dynamics in the ecotone between grassland and forest, but topographic factors such as slope aspect, slope degree and elevation may interact with these factors and result in uneven changes in vegetation among landscape elements. Nine sites with a total of approximately 50,000 ha of grasslands and forests in the Cariboo/Chilcotin forest region of British Columbia were selected to study the effect of slope aspect, slope degree and elevation on vegetation distribution, dynamics and forest expansion from the 1960's to 1990's. Vegetation maps of the 1960's and 1990's were generated using aerial photos and overlaid with GIS layers including aspect, slope and elevation. The classification of open grassland, treed grassland, open forest and closed forest was based on the percent coverage of coniferous species, ranging from 0-5%, 5-15%, 15-35%, and ≥ 35%, respectively. A probability index (P-value) was developed to test the effect of aspect, slope, and elevation on vegetation distribution, dynamics, and forest expansion based on the distribution and changed areas. Results show that open grasslands occurred on southerly aspects and the shift to treed grassland occurred mostly on these aspects. The probability of vegetation shift from open to treed grasslands decreased with increasing slope degree, probably due to the less favorable moisture regime on steep slopes. Treed grassland also shifted to open forest on south facing slopes and more level sites. In contrast, closed forest most often occurred on northerly facing slopes and the shift from open to closed forests was most likely to occur there. The greatest changes in vegetation cover types occurred at mid-elevations between 700 and 1,000 m. Management plans aimed at the control of tree encroachment and forest ingrowth should take these topographic factors into consideration.
    • Long-term grass yields following chemical control of honey mesquite

      Ansley, R. J.; Pinchak, W. E.; Teague, W. R.; Kramp, B. A.; Jones, D. L.; Jacoby, P. W. (Society for Range Management, 2004-01-01)
      Long-term herbaceous response data following herbicidal treatment of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) are needed to develop more accurate projections regarding economic feasibility of these treatments and to model ecological interactions between woody and herbaceous plants in rangeland systems. Our objective was to measure herbaceous yield and mesquite regrowth 10 or 20 years after mesquite was aerially sprayed with either mesquite top-killing or root-killing herbicides. Treatments evaluated included mesquite top-killing herbicides at 10-12 years (T10) and 19-21 years (T20) post-treatment, mesquite root-killing herbicides at 10-12 years (R10) and 19-21 years (R20) post-treatment, and an untreated control where mesquite were 30 years old (C30). Treatments were applied in the late 1970's or late 1980's. Grass yields, measured annually from 1998 through 2000, were quantified within patches of 3 perennial grass functional groups: cool-season mid-grasses, warm-season mid-grasses, or warm-season short-grasses. Cool-season annual grass yields were also quantified within these perennial grass patches. By 1998, mesquite canopy cover was 55, 47, 36, 24, and 12% in C30, T20, T10, R20, and R10 treatments, respectively. Warm-season mid-grass yields were most sensitive to differences in mesquite cover in all 3 years and declined sharply when mesquite cover exceeded 30%. Cool-season mid-grass yields declined slightly with increasing mesquite cover. Warm-season short-grass and cool-season annual grass yields were not related to mesquite cover, except in 2000 when warm-season short-grass yield beneath mesquite canopies increased with increasing mesquite cover. Results suggest that herbicide treatment life (defined by increased perennial grass yield in response to mesquite treatments) was at least 20 years for the root-killing herbicide, but no longer than 10 years for the top-killing herbicide.
    • Recovery of biological soil crusts following wildfire in Idaho

      Hilty, Julie H.; Eldridge, David J.; Rosentreter, Roger; Wicklow-Howard, Marcia C.; Pellant, Mike (Society for Range Management, 2004-01-01)
      Invasion of sagebrush steppe by exotic annual grasses has modified the structure of shrubland communities over much of the western United States by increasing fuel loads and therefore the frequency of wildfire. Active revegetation with perennial species that encourage the growth of biological soil crusts is critical on many burned sites to prevent dominance by exotic, weedy vegetation. However, active regeneration is likely to lead to a disruption of the soil surface and impact adversely on soil crust communities which are important for stability and functioning of shrub communities. We examined the recovery of biological soil crusts on sagebrush steppe following wildfire. Burning resulted in significantly reduced shrub cover and enhanced annual grass and annual forb cover compared with unburned sites. Burning also resulted in substantially reduced diversity and richness of crust taxa, increased cover of short mosses, but reduced cover of lichens and tall mosses growing on the shrub hummocks. Post-fire recovery of perennial grasses and biological soil crusts was greatest on seeded sites compared with unseeded sites dominated by exotic grasses, despite the disturbance associated with the rangeland seeding treatment. Our results indicate that seeding is necessary to facilitate recovery of biological soil crusts and hasten the development of the perennial component of the shrubland and therefore increase landscape structure. These findings suggest that seeding perennial grasses and resting from livestock grazing reduces exotic annual grasses after fire and benefits native mosses.
    • Research observation: Daily movement patterns of hill climbing and bottom dwelling cowsfull access

      Bailey, Derek W.; Keil, Martina R.; Rittenhouse, Larry R. (Society for Range Management, 2004-01-01)
      Individual animal selection has been proposed as a tool for increasing uniformity of grazing on rugged rangeland. Daily grazing patterns of cows previously identified as preferring steeper slopes and higher elevations (hill climbers) were compared to cows preferring gentler slopes and lower elevations (bottom dwellers). Cows were ranked for slope use and vertical distance traveled to water during late summer in 1997 using horseback observers. In 1998, 9 extreme cows based on 1997 rankings (4 hill climbers and 5 bottom dwellers) were tracked using Global Positioning System (GPS) collars for 3 weeks during late summer on foothill rangeland. Hill climbers (1027 hours) arrived at water about 1 hour later (P = 0.04) than bottom dwellers (0928 hours). Hill climbers and bottom dwellers left water at the same time (1801 hours, P = 0.3). During this interval, 90% and 98% of the observations were within 100 and 200 m of water, respectively. While cattle were away from water (1901 to 0846 hours), 56%, 77%, and 87% of the observations were within 200, 300, and 400 m, respectively, from the cow's location at 0700 hours. Hill climbers spent 14% of their time on steeper slopes (20 to 30 degrees) while bottom dwellers spent 7% (P = 0.01), and hill climbers (41%) tended (P = 0.07) to spend less time on gentler slopes (0 to 10 degrees) than bottom dwellers (47%). Hill climbers (1323 m) were observed at higher elevations (P = 0.01) than bottom dwellers (1277 m). Horizontal distance traveled to water (633 m) was similar (P > 0.1) for hill climbers and bottom dwellers. Cow location during the early morning (0700 hours) was a good predictor of terrain used during the morning and previous evening grazing bouts. Cows tracked in this study did not appear to regularly associate with each other. They usually grazed in different areas of the pasture and regularly used different water sources. Individual cows within a herd can use different terrain even though many aspects of the grazing patterns are similar. Location of cows during the early morning and perhaps the time that cows travel to water can be used to identify differences in terrain use among individual animals.
    • Research observation: Nitrogen effects on Arizona cottontop and Lehmann lovegrass seedlings

      Fernandez-Giménez, Maria E.; Smith, Steven E. (Society for Range Management, 2004-01-01)
      We compared the responses of seedlings of introduced Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis Lehmanniana Nees) and a native perennial grass, Arizona cottontop (Digitaria californica (Benth.) Henr.) to 7 nitrogen and 2 water treatments to determine if Lehmann lovegrass displayed greater growth or nitrogen use efficiency than Arizona cottontop. After 8 weeks, the lovegrass seedlings had greater shoot N concentrations (2.07 vs. 1.20%), and lower C:N ratios (27.7 vs. 49.6) than Arizona cottontop seedlings. Arizona cottontop seedlings produced more biomass per plant (1.09 vs. 0.31g), exhibited greater nitrogen use efficiency (63 vs. 39%), and tolerated high N levels better. Arizona cottontop may be a superior N competitor under both N-limited and high N conditions, while Lehmann lovegrass may outcompete Arizona cottontop at moderate N levels.
    • Revegetating weed-infested rangeland with niche-differentiated desirable species

      Carpinelli, M. F.; Sheley, R. L.; Maxwell, B. D. (Society for Range Management, 2004-01-01)
      The goal of this study was to determine the potential to revegetate weed-infested rangeland by maximizing niche occupation and resource capture by desirable species. We hypothesized that as desirable species richness increases, weed establishment and growth decrease, provided that the desirable species differ in niche. Three desirable species with differing spatial and temporal growth patterns, [Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn., var. Hycrest (crested wheatgrass), Elytrigia intermedia (Host) Nevski, var. Rush (intermediate wheatgrass), and Medicago sativa L., var. Arrow (alfalfa)], and 1 weed [Centaurea maculosa Lam. (spotted knapweed)], were grown in a multiple replacement series. All species were sown simultaneously in spring 1996, simulating revegetation of a site containing spotted knapweed seeds in the seed bank because of prior infestation. Desirable species richness varied among plots, while the total number of desirable seeds sown per plot was held constant. Although the desirable species were shown to differ in niche, desirable species richness or mixture did not affect soil water depletion or spotted knapweed recruitment in 1996 or 1997. These results suggest that revegetation of weed-infested rangeland must also include active control of weeds emerging from the soil seed bank. Only then can other strategies, such as maximizing niche occupation by desirable species, be expected to provide long-term success.
    • Selective control of rangeland grasshoppers with prescribed fire

      Vermeire, Lance T.; Mitchell, Robert B.; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Wester, David B. (Society for Range Management, 2004-01-01)
      Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) are considered among the most damaging rangeland pests, but are necessary for the survival of many wildlife species. Most grasshoppers species are innocuous, but control with insecticides is non-discriminatory among species. The objectives were to evaluate the effects of prescribed burning on the abundance and biomass of grasshoppers and to determine if species could be selectively controlled with prescribed fire. Twenty-four, 4-ha sites were selected in a sand sagebrush-mixed prairie near Woodward, Okla. and blocked by pasture. Plots were randomly assigned fall-, spring-, or non-burned treatments within block with 4 replications per treatment for each of 2 years. Grasshopper biomass and abundance were sampled in late July and early August by sweeping with canvas beating nets. Specimens were weighed to the nearest 0.1 mg and identified to species. Fire treatments had no effects on the total abundance or biomass of grasshoppers across species, with about 10 grasshoppers weighing 4,090 mg per 150 sweeps. Fire effects on the 4 most common species were variable and could be explained by the biology of the insects. Melanoplus bowditchi and M. flavidus were unaffected by fire treatment. Hesperotettix viridis is sensitive to damage to its host plants and was reduced about 88% by fire in either season. Ageneotettix deorum abundance was 65% lower on fall-burned plots. We hypothesize the reduction occurred because the species' eggs are laid near the soil surface and exposed to the heat of passing fire. Fire prescriptions may be developed to target species-specific vulnerabilities and reduce pest grasshoppers while maintaining the food base for grasshopper predators.
    • Vegetation and deer response to mechanical shrub clearing and burning

      Rogers, James O.; Fulbright, Timothy E.; Ruthven, Donald C. (Society for Range Management, 2004-01-01)
      Prescribed burning is a recommended maintenance treatment following mechanical treatments of south Texas brushlands, but it is unknown whether it is preferable to additional mechanical treatments to improve habitat for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Raf.). We tested the hypotheses that prescribed burning of aerated (top-growth removal of woody plants) plots during late summer would decrease protein-precipitating tannins in browse, increase forb biomass, and increase deer utilization compared to a second aeration. Ten patches of brush, ranging in size from 2.8-8.1 ha, were aerated during spring 1999. In late summer 2000, maintenance treatments were applied; 5 patches were burned and 5 were aerated a second time. Standing crop, nutritional quality, and tannin concentrations (browse only) of deer forages were estimated. Deer tracks crossing bulldozed lanes surrounding each patch were counted to estimate deer use. Standing crop of browse, forbs, grass, succulents, protein-precipitating tannins in browse, and track density did not differ between treatments. Based on deer use and forage biomass response, burning and a second aeration 16-17 months following an initial aeration appear to have similar effects on habitat characteristics and use of cleared patches by white-tailed deer. Because of lower cost, we recommended prescribed burning as a maintenance treatment of aerated shrublands.
    • Vegetation response of a mesquite-mixed brush community to aeration

      Ruthven, Donald C.; Krakauer, Keith L. (Society for Range Management, 2004-01-01)
      Responses of plant communities to mechanical treatments such as aeration on semiarid rangelands are not clearly understood. Our objective was to compare woody and herbaceous plant cover, density, and diversity on aerated and nontreated rangelands. Five rangeland sites that were aerated with a double/tandem drum aerator during summer 1998 and 5 sites of nontreated rangeland were selected for study on the Chaparral Wildlife Management Area, La Salle County, Tex. Woody plant cover was estimated using the line-intercept method, and stem density was estimated in 30 × 1.5 m plots in 1999 and 2000. Forb and grass cover and density were estimated in 20 × 50 cm quadrats during spring and fall 1999. Woody and herbaceous plant diversity did not differ between treatments. On aerated sites percent woody plant cover was 4-fold less 1-year after aeration and increased 89% from the first to the second growing-season post treatment. Canopy cover of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.), twisted acacia (Acacia schaffneri S. Wats.), and Texas pricklypear (Opuntia lindheimeri Engelm.) was greater on non-treated sites. By the second growing season after aeration, density of honey mesquite was greater on aerated sites, whereas Texas pricklypear had declined on aerated sites. Density of spiny hackberry (Celtis pallida Torr.) and Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana Scheele) was greater on aerated sites during the first growing-season post treatment. Cover and stem density of hog-plum (Colubrina texana T. G.), coma (Bumelia celastrina Kunth), and whitebrush [Aloysia gratissima (Gill. Hook.) Tron.] did not differ among aerated and nontreated sites by the first growing season after aeration. Forb cover was greater on aerated sites in spring 1999. Fringed signalgrass [Brachiaria ciliatissima (Buckl.) Chase], fall witchgrass [Digitaria cognata (Schult.) Pilger], and bristlegrass (Setaria spp. Beauv.) cover was greater on aerated sites in spring and fall 1999, whereas purple threeawn (Aristida purpurea Nutt.) was greater on nontreated sites. It is unclear to what degree environmental factors such as pre- and post-treatment climatic conditions and herbivory may have influenced vegetation response to aeration. The rapid regrowth of many woody plants following aeration may require the application of maintenance treatments within a relatively short time period to maintain treatment benefits. Aeration reduced total woody plant cover, increased the density of desirable woody plants, maintained woody plant diversity, increased grass cover, and may be a useful tool in managing South Texas rangelands for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Boddaert) and cattle.
    • Viewpoint: Entropy, concept design, and animal-unit equivalence in range management science

      Scarnecchia, David L. (Society for Range Management, 2004-01-01)
      The animal unit has been a multiple-use concept in the natural resource sciences. This paper examines the animal unit as an example of a general process of concept design, a process involving multiple options for defining the concept, and multiple objectives and multiple applications for the concept in range management science. Based on this analysis, the animal unit is abstracted as a unit of energy demand independent of interactive considerations of forage or environment. The proposed definition optimizes the utility and universality of the concept by minimizing confounding in the concept's most important applications. The result is a simplified concept that can be used to explicitly express animal equivalences, and can be used in a web of more complex, interactive concepts and models involving human objectives, natural resources, and livestock. The animal unit and animal-unit equivalent are relatively simple examples of synthetic concepts involving communication that are central to the identity of range management science.
    • Viewpoint: Stochastic research, management implications, and the Journal of Range Management

      Scarnecchia, David L. (Society for Range Management, 2004-01-01)
      This viewpoint paper examines criteria for preparing and evaluating manuscripts that involve stochastic approaches. Increasing use of stochastic mathematics to address inherent uncertainty in natural systems has meant increasing challenges to write and evaluate the manuscripts reporting such research. The paper provides a set of criteria directed at aiding authors, referees and associate editors in writing and evaluating this research. The paper asserts that for research papers to be acceptable to a management science journal such as the Journal of Range Management, they should at least be mathematically appropriate, functionally valid, pragmatically justified, technically comprehensible, and generally readable. It then examines the relationship of the concept of synthesis to the management implications sections of journal articles. The paper advocates increased attention to the concept of synthesis in making papers that report stochastic research in particular, and technical research in general, more understandable to readers, and more useful in range management science.
    • Viewpoint: Synthesis, range management science, and the Journal of Range Management

      Scarnecchia, David L. (Society for Range Management, 2004-01-01)
      This paper analyzes the kinds of publications that are currently accepted by the Journal of Range Management, and in view of the evolving identity of range science, proposes a review of the those kinds of papers by the Editorial Board. The paper explores the kinds of papers that would help the Journal in identifying and developing range management science. It suggests a modified emphasis directed at increasing conceptual creativity, and developing explicit, integrative linkages and communications of range management science. In practice, this revision involves increased publication of synthesis papers, and increased emphasis of synthesis in the Journal's publications in general. Major benefits to the Journal would likely be increased diversity of published papers, broader professional diversity of authorship, increased readership, and increased effectiveness in serving and encouraging range management science.