• Adesmia subterranea Clos germination physiology and pre-sowing treatments

      Parera, C. A.; Ruiz, M. (Society for Range Management, 2003-05-01)
      The genus Adesmia (Fabaceae, Papilionoideae) is one of the scarce forage resources at high altitude and arid zones of South America. Its germination behavior has not been examined. Seeds of Adesmia subterranea "Cuerno de Cabra" were pretreated with sulfuric acid (1, 3, and 5 minutes soaking) and mechanical scarification to determine their impact upon dormancy and percentage and speed of germination. Treatments were evaluated under a range of constant temperatures (5 to 30 degrees C) and 2 day/night cycles resembling the extreme environmental conditions of this species habitat. Water uptake and leachate conductivity were higher in the seeds scarified mechanically or with 5 minutes chemical scarification. These treatments also had the greatest total germination and rate at all temperatures in a petri dish germination test. However, in a cell tray experiment using a commercial substrate, the highest seedling emergence and rate were observed with chemical scarification (5 and 3 minutes). The high amount of leakage caused by the scarifications affected emergence in a non-sterile media. The results indicate that A. subterranea seeds have an impermeable seed coat which restricts water uptake, and the efficiency of sulfuric acid scarification to overcome seed coat impermeability and improve germination and emergence.
    • Biological and chemical response of a grassland soil to burning

      Picone, L. I.; Quaglia, G.; Garcia, F. O.; Laterra, P. (Society for Range Management, 2003-05-01)
      Changes in soil nutrient pools and microbial activity due to fire are important for understanding the availability of nutrients to plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fire: 1) on size and seasonal dynamics of labile pools of C and N in a short-term after burning; and II) on chemical properties and microbial diversity immediately after fire, in a grassland with Paspalum quadrifarium Lam. Microbial biomass C and N tended to be higher in the burned (433 mg C kg-1 and 37 mg N kg-1) than in the unburned treatment (386 mg C kg-1 and 26 mg N kg-1). Both microbial biomass, decreased at the beginning of the growing season and then recovered at the end of the season. Levels of mineralizable C and N were similar in both treatments; however they showed different patterns of seasonal transformations. At initiation of plant growth, concentration of mineralizable C decreased while amount of mineralizable N increased; but the opposite occurred at the end of the growing season. Increases in microbial biomass coincided with low levels of mineralizable N and high concentrations of mineralizable C, suggesting a higher immobilization at the end of the season. Immediately after burning, organic C and N decreased by 11 and 7%, respectively. Mineral N was almost double, available P increased by 10 mg kg-1; but exchangeable bases, bacterial and actinomycetes population, and urease activity were not affected by burning. Fire can induce immediate changes to the soil; however, long-term studies will be required to evaluate the duration of the effect of fire on soil biological processes and nutrient transformations.
    • Consumption and dispersion of mesquite seeds by ruminants

      Kneuper, C. L.; Scott, C. B.; Pinchak, W. E. (Society for Range Management, 2003-05-01)
      Consumption of mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr. var glandulosa) fruit by ruminants is an important component of seed dispersal. Two experiments were conducted to estimate the role of livestock and wildlife in the dispersion of mesquite fruit. In Experiment 1, 3 trials were conducted to determine preference for mesquite fruit by different species of livestock, intake relative to fruit maturity, and seed survival of digestion. Cattle, sheep, and goats were offered immature (IM), mature off the tree (MT), or mature off the ground (MG) fruit to quantify intake and seed survival of digestion. Germination of seeds surviving digestion was also assessed. Experiment 2 assessed rate of pod disappearance from pastures with and without livestock grazing and attempted to quantify seed loss to wildlife. In Experiment 1, livestock consumed more (P < 0.05) mature than immature fruit; sheep and goats consumed more fruit than cattle on a body weight basis. Seed survival was greater (P < 0.05) from cattle than from sheep or goats. The number of seeds remaining intact after digestion was greater for mature fruit. Germination of seeds surviving digestion was similar (P > 0.05) to seeds that experienced natural weathering for 6 months. In Experiment 2, the presence or absence of livestock did not affect the disappearance of seeds; seeds disappeared from the ground within 3 weeks in 1999 and 5 weeks in 2000 presumably by wildlife. Deer, raccoons, skunks, bobcats, turkeys, and other birds visited plots with fresh mesquite fruit. Collectively, these results suggest that cattle readily consume and disperse viable mesquite seeds; sheep and goat consumption of mesquite fruit may reduce the number of viable seeds; and mesquite fruit may only remain on the ground for a short period of time even without livestock grazing because of consumption by wildlife.
    • Contrasting responses of Intermountain West grasses to soil nitrogen

      Monaco, T. A.; Johnson, D. A.; Norton, J. M.; Jones, T. A.; Connors, K. J.; Norton, J. B.; Redinbaugh, M. B. (Society for Range Management, 2003-05-01)
      The mechanisms responsible for soil-N-mediated species replacement of native perennial grasses by the invasive annual grasses cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski) on rangelands are not completely understood. In addition, the contributions of distinct forms of inorganic N (i.e., NH4+ and NO3-) to these shifts in species composition are currently unclear. Consequently, we conducted a greenhouse experiment to test 2 hypotheses: 1) that low N availability reduces growth (root and shoot) and N allocation of invasive annual seedlings more than native perennial species, and 2) that seedling growth and N allocation of invasive annual grasses is more responsive than native perennial grasses when supplied with NO3- relative to NH4+. We grew seedlings of 2 annual grasses and the native perennial grasses bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Love), and 4 populations of squirreltail (Elymus elymoides [Raf.] Swezey; E. multisetus [J.G. Smith] M.E. Jones) in separate pots and exposed them to treatments differing in N form and availability for 17 weeks. Unexpectedly, root and shoot growth of annual grasses were equal or greater than native perennial grasses under low N availability. Annual grasses took up more NO3- and allocated more growth and N to shoots than the perennial grasses (P 0.05). Perennial grasses had significantly greater root:shoot dry mass ratios than the invasive annual grasses across treatments (P 0.05). Invasive annual and native perennial grasses both had greater (P 0.05) shoot and root mass and allocated more N to these structures when supplied with NO3- relative to NH4+. The ecological implications of these growth and N allocation patterns in response to N availability and form provide important clues regarding the specific traits responsible for differences in competitive ability between invasive annual and native perennial grasses on semiarid rangelands.
    • Distribution of Russian knapweed in Colorado: climate and environmental factors

      Goslee, S. C.; Beck, K. G.; Peters, D. P. C. (Society for Range Management, 2003-05-01)
      Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens (L.) DC.) was introduced to the western United States during the early 1900s. This invasive perennial was a contaminant of alfalfa seed, and was distributed widely across Colorado. Thus, current distributions reflect the climate and soils tolerances of Russian knapweed, and management history, rather than dispersal processes. We surveyed extension and weed agents across Colorado, and were able to locate 528 current or recently eliminated Russian knapweed stands. These patches were superimposed on climate and soils maps to identify 1 km grid cells that were known to contain Russian knapweed. The status of Russian knapweed within a cell was used as the dependent variable in a logistic regression model to define the environmental envelope for this species. At the scale of our analysis, Russian knapweed was most prevalent on fine-textured soils (clay and clay loam), and in warmer, drier regions of Colorado (precipitation 18-73 cm/yr, mean annual temperature 1-12 degrees C). June precipitation was the most important single factor, although nearly all environmental, annual, and monthly climatic factors were significantly related to Russian knapweed occurrence. The multivariate logistic regression model we developed was used to predict the probability of occurrence of Russian knapweed for the entire state of Colorado. Our predictions matched the areas of highest abundance of Russian knapweed from a new field survey, and also indicated areas of high risk that were not identified by the field survey.
    • Economic and environmental impacts of pasture nutrient management

      Osei, E.; Gassman, P. W.; Hauck, L. M.; Neitsch, S.; Jones, R. D.; McNitt, J.; Jones, H. (Society for Range Management, 2003-05-01)
      Highly intensive stocking of dairy cattle on continuously grazed pasture coupled with liberal applications of commercial fertilizer can lead to increased losses of agricultural nutrients, which is a concern for water quality of receiving lakes and surface water resources. Integrated economic-environmental model simulations performed for the Lake Fork Reservoir Watershed in northeast Texas indicate that appropriate pasture nutrient management including stocking density adjustments and more efficient commercial fertilizer use could lead to significant reductions in nutrient losses. Soluble and organic P losses were predicted to decline by 54 and 13% relative to baseline conditions when manure P was assumed totally plant available (Low P scenario). The soluble and organic P loss reductions declined to 33 and 7% when only inorganic P was assumed plant available (High P scenario). Simulation of an N-based manure management plan resulted in the smallest predicted soluble and organic P loss reductions of 18 and 3%. Nitrogen loss predictions ranged from a 7% decline to a 1% increase for the 3 scenarios as compared to the baseline. The High P and Low P scenarios resulted in estimated aggregate profit reductions of 6 and 18% relative to the baseline. These profit declines occurred because the dairies had to acquire additional pasture land to accommodate the expanded area required for the P-based scenarios. In contrast, the N-based stocking density and nutrient management scenario resulted in an aggregate profit increase of 3% across all dairies. Variations in economic impacts were also predicted across farm sizes.
    • Evaluation of USLE and RUSLE estimated soil loss on rangeland

      Spaeth, K. E.; Pierson, F. B.; Weltz, M. A.; Blackburn, W. H. (Society for Range Management, 2003-05-01)
      The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE 1.06) were evaluated with rainfall simulation data from a diverse set of rangeland vegetation types (8 states, 22 sites, 132 plots). Dry, wet, and very-wet rainfall simulation treatments were applied to the study plots within a 2-day period. The rainfall simulation rate was 65mm/hr for the dry and wet simulation treatments and alternated between 65-130 mm/hr for the very-wet treatment. Average soil loss for all plots for the representative simulation runs were: 0.011 kg/m2, 0.007 kg/m2, and 0.035 kg/m2 for the dry, wet, and very-wet simulation treatments, respectively. The Nash-Sutcliffe Model efficiencies (R2eff) of the USLE for the dry, wet, very-wet simulation treatments and sum of all soil loss measured in the three composite simulation treatments (pooled data) were negative. This indicates that the observed mean measured soil loss from the field rainfall simulations is better than predicted USLE soil loss. The USLE tended to consistently overpredict soil loss for all 3 rainfall simulation treatments. As the USLE predicted values increased in magnitude, the error variance between predicted and observed soil loss increased. Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency for the RUSLE was also negative, except for the dry run simulation treatment [R2eff = 0.16 using RUSLE cover management (C) subfactor parameters from the RUSLE manual (C(table)), NRCS soil erodibility factor (K); and R2eff = 0.17 with C(table) and K estimated from the soil-erodibility nomograph]. In comparison to the USLE, there was less error between observed and RUSLE predicted soil loss. The RUSLE error variances showed a consistent trend of underpredicted soil loss among the 3 rainfall simulation treatments. When actual field measured root biomass, plant production and soil random roughness values were used in calculating the RUSLE C subfactors: the R2eff values for the dry, wet, very-wet rainfall simulation treatments and the pooled data were all negative.
    • Fall grazing affects big game forage on rough fescue grasslands

      Short, J. J.; Knight, J. E. (Society for Range Management, 2003-05-01)
      Prescribed cattle grazing is often used to purposely enhance wildlife habitat. This study investigated the effects of fall cattle (Bos taurus) grazing intensity on elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus spp.) forage in the following spring and summer. These effects were examined on rough fescue (Festuca scabrella Torr.) range on the Blackfoot Clearwater Wildlife Management Area in west central Montana. Cattle were grazed in enclosures during the fall of 1997 and 1998. A randomized complete block design with 5 replications of enclosures per year was used. Grazing levels were 0% removal (control), 50% removal, 70% removal, and 90% removal of herbaceous standing crop. To evaluate elk and deer forage, measurements were obtained in spring and summer on green grass standing crop, green forb standing crop, percent green vegetation, species richness, and plant species composition. There were no differences among grazing levels for plant species composition based on canopy coverage, species richness, and green forb standing crop variables (P > 0.10). The 50% and 90% treatments reduced green standing crop in spring (P = 0.07) but not in summer (P > 0.10). Grazing treatments increased percent green vegetation (P < 0.01). Fall cattle grazing can be used as a wildlife habitat improvement tool to reduce unpalatable standing dead material. The 70% removal treatment was the most favorable for habitat improvement without degrading the range.
    • Germination of seeds of big and bottlebrush squirreltail

      Young, J. A.; Clements, C. D.; Jones, T. (Society for Range Management, 2003-05-01)
      Bottlebrush squirreltail [Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey] and big squirreltail [E. multisetus (J. G. Smith) Burtt Davy] are short-lived perennial bunchgrasses found on rangelands from the Pacific Coast to the Great Plains and from Canada to Mexico. They are highly variable species with several subspecies described for bottlebrush squirreltail. In many rangeland communities, bottlebrush squirreltail is the transitional dominant native grass in secondary successional communities. There is considerable interest in using squirreltail species in rangeland restoration seedings, but problems with seed collection (disarticulating rachis) have kept seed prices very high. Recently, grass geneticists have begun to develop lines of squirreltail for release as pre-varietal germplasm. Our purpose was to compare the germination at a wide range of constant or alternating temperatures of squirreltail seeds from developmental lines and material collected from native stands. Big and bottlebrush squirreltail seeds (caryopses) germinated over a wide range of temperatures. Seeds of bottlebrush squirreltail produced from the same stand in 3 different years had remarkably similar germination temperature profiles. The greatest variation in germination among accessions occurred at very cold and cold categories of seedbed temperatures. These differences may be very significant in the establishment of seedlings in the field. There was no one temperature regime that always supported optimum germination for all of the squirreltail accessions tested. The regimes most frequently supporting optimum germination were 15/20 and 15/25 degrees C. The seeds of big and bottlebrush squirreltail tested do not have the ecological amplitude of seeds of the competitive exotic weed cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), but they come close.
    • Germination of seeds of robust needlegrass

      Young, J. A.; Clements, C. D.; Jones, T. A. (Society for Range Management, 2003-05-01)
      Robust needlegrass (Achnatherum robustum [Vasey] Barkw.) is a native perennial that has great promise for use in erosion control, restoration, and ornamental plantings. Seed dormancy can be a problem in developing new native grass cultivars, especially in species of Achnatherum and related genera. Germination response to a wide range of constant and alternating incubation temperatures is also a key parameter in interpreting seedbed ecology of potential planting material. Our purpose was to investigate the germination of robust needlegrass at 55 constant or alternating incubation temperatures from 0 through 40 degrees C. Seeds of robust needlegrass germinate over a wide range of incubation temperatures with maximum observed germination over 75%. In terms of restoration ecology, this means that in contrast to many related grass species, severe seed dormancy is not a limiting factor in seeding technology. Optimum germination occurred with 15 to 20 degrees C warm periods alternating with 0 to 20 degrees C cool periods. The only constant temperature to produce optimum germination was 20 degrees C. The highest germination occurred at what we consider moderate seedbed temperatures, but some germination occurred at 76 to 89% of the temperature regimes tested.
    • Runoff and soil loss in undisturbed and roller-seeded shrublands of semiarid Argentina

      Aguilera, M. O.; Steinaker, D. F.; Demaria, M. R. (Society for Range Management, 2003-05-01)
      Vegetation influences runoff and soil losses in semiarid environments. In shrublands of Central Argentina, grazing has resulted in a reduction of plant cover, an increase in the proportion of bare soil, and eroded soils. Patterns of runoff and soil losses affected by seeding cultivated grasses were evaluated. We investigated the effects of roller-seeding of Cenchrus ciliaris L and the influence of microsite cover-type on the dynamics of water erosion. Evaluated cover-types were: bare soil, shortgrass cover, and tallgrass cover. Evaluations were performed 2 growing seasons after roller-seeding. The experimental design was a split-plot, replicated 3 times using a portable rainfall simulator. After simulation runs of 45 min at an average rate of 110 mm hour-1, runoff of tallgrass cover was the least, whereas bare soil and shortgrass cover had similar values (ca. 60%). However, both types of grass cover reduced soil splash compared to the bare soil cover-type. An exponential function between runoff and soil loss suggested that increasing runoff beyond 60% produced an abrupt rising of sediment loss. Roller-seeding did not influence runoff or sediment loss at the microsite-scale. Nevertheless, roller-seeding reduced the proportion of area covered by microsites prone to erosion (bare soil and shortgrass cover-types) at the whole plot level. We propose that any management tool that promotes the replacement of bare soil and shortgrasses by tallgrasses should reduce runoff and increase forage productivity via amelioration of hydrologic conditions of the rangeland site. Conversely, overgrazing will result in more bare soil, increasing runoff, and further intensifying the loss of sediments by detachment.
    • Survival of 16 alfalfa populations space planted into a grassland

      Hendrickson, J. R.; Berdahl, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 2003-05-01)
      Many alfalfa (Medicago spp.) cultivars have limited ability to persist under grazing and therefore, a key step in incorporating alfalfa into pastures and rangelands is choosing a grazing tolerant cultivar. In this study, we evaluated the grazing tolerance of 16 alfalfa populations representing a range of potential grazing tolerance. Entries were transplanted on a rangeland site in July 1996 at the Northern Great Plains Research Lab in Mandan, N.D., USA and mob-grazed by cattle from 1997 to 2000. Plant survival, basal area, and stem numbers were recorded in the spring and fall of each year. At the final survival evaluation in May 2001, SCMF 3713 had the highest survival (90%), 'Vernal' had the lowest (23%) and 10 of the 16 entries had greater than 50% survival. A large decline in survival between September 2000 and May 2001 may be attributed to low temperatures in November and December of 2000. Entries such as 'Alfagraze', B-36 and Agripro ZG9415, which were developed in warmer climates, had the largest percentage drop in survival (43.0, 48.6, and 48.6 percentage points respectively) while SCMF 3713, 'Anik' and Alaska Syn A, developed in colder climates, had the least percentage point drops (2.8, 4.1, and 4.1 respectively). The ability to survive over winter contributed more to the different survival rates of these alfalfa populations than did any of the measured plant variables. Producers should know the origins of grazing tolerant alfalfa cultivars and consider selecting cultivars that have been tested in their area.
    • Technical note: a technique for conducting small-plot burn treatments

      Korfmacher, J. L.; Chambers, J. C.; Tausch, R. J.; Roundy, B. A.; Meyer, S. E.; Kitchen, S. (Society for Range Management, 2003-05-01)
      An experimental design required burn treatments for 10-m2 circular plots. We constructed a fire enclosure for the plots using sheetmetal, electrical conduit, and other commonly available materials. We field tested the enclosure in sagebrush-grass ecosystems in central Nevada and central Utah, and evaluated peak fire temperatures using small metal tags striped with temperature sensitive paint. We obtained average peak surface temperatures of 310, 307, and 381 degrees C in bare ground, under grass, and under shrub microsites, respectively, for the Nevada sites and 253, 299, and 337 degrees C for the same microsites, respectively, in Utah. Subsurface (2-cm depth) temperatures rarely exceeded 79 degrees C, the lowest temperature detectable by our method. The enclosure contained the fire and did not permit escape of any embers or firebrands. The fire enclosure, burn technique and temperature monitoring method used are inexpensive, easily deployed, and desirable for experiments where larger-scale burns are impractical.
    • Toxicity and development of tolerance in cattle to timber milkvetch

      Majak, W.; Stroesser, L.; Lysyk, T.; Hall, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 2003-05-01)
      Timber milkvetch (TMV, Astragalus miser Dougl. ex Hook var. serotinus) is widely distributed on rangelands in the southern interior of British Columbia, Canada. It synthesizes large quantities of miserotoxin, a glycoside that is toxic to cattle. Six grazing studies were conducted at Sixtyone Creek on the Cariboo Plateau during 1993 to 2000 to determine which class of livestock was most susceptible to TMV, to record clinical signs of poisoning under range conditions, and to determine the efficacy of protein supplements for the prevention of TMV poisoning. In vitro rates of TMV detoxification in rumen fluid were determined concurrently. Incidents of early, acute and chronic poisoning were documented using a total of 143 cows over the 6 year study. Older cows (more than 3-years old) and yearling heifers were less susceptible to TMV than lactating first-calf heifers, which showed acute signs of poisoning. A chronic syndrome was sometimes seen in second-calf heifers, especially during exertion. Heifers not previously exposed to TMV, such as those that were obtained from the prairie region of Alberta, were also more susceptible than cattle originating in B.C. with a known history of exposure to TMV. Each year, Hereford cows were divided into 2 groups, one of which received free-choice protein supplements in a molasses block, the other did not receive supplement and served as a control group during the 6-week grazing trial. The control group yielded 25 cases of TMV poisoning during the 6-year study, compared with 2 for the supplement group. However, the supplement increased rates of TMV detoxification (> 50%) in only 1 of the 5 years of testing. Native cattle yielded higher rates of TMV detoxification (> 25%) in 2 of the 5 years than introduced cattle. The innate capacity to transfer rumen microbial activity between cattle in close proximity and the natural enrichment of rumen microbial populations could elevate rates of detoxification regardless of supplement or origin.