• Does ruminal retention time affect leafy spurge seed of varying maturity?

      Olson, B. E.; Wallander, R. T. (Society for Range Management, 2002-01-01)
      Grazers ingest seeds of invasive forbs and may contribute to their spread by depositing viable seeds in uninfested areas. Some mature seed pass through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of ruminants, but grazers consume flowerheads of invasive species from anthesis to dehiscence. We collected seed from the Eurasian leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) at 3 stages of maturity (soft dough, hard dough, mature). With seed collected from these different stages, our objectives were to determine effects of 1) rate of passage through the GI tract of sheep on leafy spurge seed recovery, germinability and viability, 2) residence time in sheep rumen on seed germinability and viability, and 3) acid pepsin digestion, simulating the lower GI tract, on seed germinability and viability after different residence times in the rumen. More seed from the later stages of maturity were recovered in the manure. The greatest number of seed recovered only represented 3.9% of the number of ingested seed. Few seeds were recovered after day 4. Soft dough seed in manure would not germinate and was not viable, whereas hard dough and mature seed collected from manure during the first 4 day were viable. Pepsin had a slight effect on the number of mature seed recovered, but eliminated viability of recovered seed. Viability of non-pepsin treated seed from the hard dough and mature stages declined with greater residence time in the rumen. Thus, managers should be aware that livestock ingesting hard dough as well as mature seed may be dispersing viable weed seed.
    • Intake and digestive kinetics of leaf and stem fractions

      Lamb, J. B.; Adams, D. C.; Klopfenstein, T. J.; Grant, R. J.; Sims, P. L.; White, L. M.; Waller, S. S. (Society for Range Management, 2002-01-01)
      Ruminally fistulated steers were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square to test effects of immature (vegetative) and mature (post reproductive) leaf and stem fractions from subirrigated meadow hay on organic matter intake (OMI), organic matter digestibility (OMD), and digestive kinetics. Hay was harvested 1 June (immature) and 1 October (mature), chopped into 3- to 5-cm lengths, then separated into leaf and stem fractions using a modified Clipper Cleaner Model Super 69D. Steers were provided ad libitum access to fractions and supplemented with urea so that diets were iso-nitrogenous. Particulate passage was determined using Yb labeled large hay particles [greater than or equal to 1.7-mm screen] and Er labeled small particles [< 1.7-mm and greater than or equal to 0.212-mm screen]. Samples were collected from the rumen, omasum, feces, and un-masticated diets for particle size determination. Particle size was determined using wet sieving techniques. Voluntary OMI of immature fractions (15.4 g kg(-1) BW) was greater (P < 0.05) than mature fractions (12.5 g kg(-1) BW). Within maturity OMI and OMD of leaves and stems were similar. Immature fractions had greater (P < 0.05) OMD (63.2%) than mature fractions (55.7%). Large and small particle passage rates were faster (P < 0.05) for immature fractions [3.2% hour(-1) (large) and 4.3% hour(-1) (small)] than mature [(2.3% hour(-1) (large) and 2.9% hour(-1) (small)]. Critical particle size for ruminal escape was less than or equal to 1.18 mm for both leaves and stems regardless of maturity. Differences in OMI and OMD between immature and mature fractions were explained by changes in structural components of the cell wall that made particles more resistant to mechanical and microbial breakdown.