• Animal health problems caused by silicon and other mineral imbalances

      Mayland, H. F.; Shewmaker, G. E. (Society for Range Management, 2001-07-01)
      Plant growth depends upon C, H, O, and at least 13 mineral elements. Six of these (N, K, Ca, Mg, P, and S) macro-elements normally occur in plants at concentrations greater than 1,000 mg kg(-1) level. The remaining micro-elements (B, Cl, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn) normally occur in plants at concentrations less than 50 mg kg(-1). Trace amounts of other elements (e.g., Co, Na, Ni, and Si) may be beneficial for plants. Silicon concentrations may range upwards to 50,000 mg kg(-1) in some forage grasses. Mineral elements required by animals include the macro-elements Ca, Cl, K, Mg, N, Na, P, and S; the trace or micro-elements Co, Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Mo, Se, and Zn; and the ultra-trace elements Cr, Li, and Ni. When concentrations of these elements in forages get 'out of whack' their bioavailability to animals may be jeopardized. Interactions of K x Mg x Ca, Ca x P, Se x S, and Cu x Mo x S are briefly mentioned here because more detail will be found in the literature. Limited published information is available on Si, so we have provided more detail. Silicon provides physical support to plants and may reduce susceptibility to pests. However, Si may have negative effects on digestibility and contribute to urinary calculi in animals.
    • Herbivore response to anti-quality factors in forages

      Launchbaugh, K. L.; Provenza, F. D.; Pfister, J. A. (Society for Range Management, 2001-07-01)
      Plants possess a wide variety of compounds and growth forms that are termed "anti-quality" factors because they reduce forage value and deter grazing. Anti-quality attributes can reduce a plant's digestible nutrients and energy or yield toxic effects. Herbivores possess several adaptive mechanisms to lessen the impacts of anti-quality factors. First, herbivores graze selectively to limit consumption of potentially harmful plant compounds. Grazing animals rely on a sophisticated system to detect plant nutritional value or toxicity by relating the flavor of a plant to its positive or negative digestive consequences. Diet selection skills are enhanced by adaptive intake patterns that limit the deleterious effects of plant allelochemicals; these include cautious sampling of sample new foods, consuming a varied diet, and eating plants in a cyclic, intermittent, or carefully regulated fashion. Second, grazing animals possess internal systems that detoxify or tolerate ingested phytotoxins. Animals may eject toxic plant material quickly after ingestion, secrete substances in the mouth or gut to render allelochemicals inert, rely on rumen microbes to detoxify allelochemicals, absorb phytochemicals from the gut and detoxified them in body tissues, or develop a tolerance to the toxic effects of plant allelochemicals. Understanding the behavioral and metabolic abilities of herbivores suggests several livestock management practices to help animals contend with plant anti-quality characteristics. These practices include offering animals proper early life experiences, selecting the appropriate livestock species and individuals, breeding animals with desired attributes, and offering nutritional or pharmaceutical products to aid in digestion and detoxification.