• Enhancing intermediate wheatgrass establishment in spotted knapweed infested rangeland

      Sheley, R. L.; Jacobs, J. S.; Velagala, R. P. (Society for Range Management, 1999-01-01)
      The objective of this study was to compare intermediate wheatgrass establishment at 4 seeding rates, in combination with tillage and/or glyphosate (n-phosphomethyl glyine), in spotted knapweed infested rangeland. We hypothesized that the establishment of intermediate wheatgrass seedlings would be greatest at high seeding rates, while spotted knapweed density and biomass would be negatively impacted by intermediate wheatgrass densities. Glyphosate (1.16 liters a.i./ha; with and without), tillage (200 mm depth; with and without), and 4 seeding rates (0, 500, 2,500, 12,500 m-2) of intermediate wheatgrass seeds were factorially arranged in a randomized-complete-block design with 4 blocks at each of 2 sites in Montana. Treatments were applied in the fall of 1995. By the second growing season, intermediate wheatgrass failed to established in plots seeded with 500 seeds m-2, the currently recommended seeding rate. Increasing the seeding rate to 2,500 and 12,500 m-2 increased intermediate wheatgrass tiller density by 80 and 140 plants m-2, respectively, at Hamilton and 158 and 710 plants m-2, respectively, at Bozeman. At the highest seeding rate, combining tillage with glyphosate increased tiller density over 3 times more than other treatments where intermediate wheatgrass successfully established at Hamilton. However, neither tillage nor glyphosate affected intermediate wheatgrass density at Bozeman by the second growing season. In the first season, seeding rates of 0, 500, 2,500, 12,500 m-2 produced 214, 208, 176, and 114 knapweed plants m-2, respectively (LSD0.05 = 36.1) at Bozeman, but had no effect at Hamilton. Our revegetation study suggests that increasing intermediate wheatgrass seeding rates can facilitate their establishment in spotted knapweed infested rangeland. Using high seeding rates to control spotted knapweed and increase seedling establishment may enhance our ability to use revegetation as an effective weed management strategy.
    • Spatial use of warm-season food plots by white-tailed deer

      Bonner, J. P.; Fulbright, T. E. (Society for Range Management, 1999-01-01)
      White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimm.) appear to concentrate foraging activity along the perimeters of warm-season food plots. Because of this, we tested the hypothesis that (1) providing travel lanes (i.e., rows not planted) free of vegetation within food plots will increase deer use of the plots and result in an equal spatial distribution of forage use within the plots, and (2) skip-row planting will result in increased yield and survival of lablab (Dolichos Lablab L.), an annual legume. During 1994 and 1995, lablab was established by planting (1) every row spaced 0.9 m apart (solid), (2) 2 rows and not planting 1 row (skip 1), and (3) 2 rows and not planting 2 rows (skip 2) in two 5-ha food plots. Planting scheme did not affect spatial patterns of food plot use by deer. Utilization was concentrated at food plot perimeters on 9 of 15 sampling dates. Food plot utilization by deer was greater in skip 2 treatments only during August 1995, possibly as a result of greater forage availability resulting from greater plant survival than solid rows. Deer foraging in food plots apparently shifted foraging activities to an area of greater forage availability as the resource supply was depleted. Skip-row planting had lower overall planting costs/ha than solid planting but maintained similar forage production per hectare.
    • Yield and feeding of prairie grasses in east-central Alberta

      Suleiman, A.; Okine, E. K.; Goonewardene, L. A.; Day, P. A.; Yaremcio, B.; Recinos-Diaz, G. (Society for Range Management, 1999-01-01)
      Information on the yield of grasses as the plants mature is useful to optimize grazing potential and quality hay production. The objectives of this study were to compare the yield and feeding value of 11 common prairie grasses over 2 yearly cycles of growth and determine which of the grasses may require supplementation to meet nutrient requirements of grazing cattle. Dry matter yield (DM), crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) values were obtained for brome (Bromus inermis [L.]), creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra [L.]), crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum [L.] Gaertn), intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium (host) Beauv), meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis [L.]), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata [L.]), pubescent wheatgrass (Agropyron trichophorum Link. richt), streambank wheatgrass (Agropyron riparium Scriba &Smith), slender wheatgrass (Agropyron trachycaulum Link Malte), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb), and timothy (Phleum pratense [L.]) at weekly intervals from June to September, in 1992 and 1993. Most grasses reached maximum yields at week 8 in 1992 (drought year) and week 12 in 1993 (normal year). Herbage mass yields (g/0.25m2 at week 8 in 1992 (highest to lowest yielding) were crested wheatgrass (235), intermediate wheatgrass(210), pubescent wheatgrass(173), brome(161), slender wheatgrass(152), meadow foxtail(114), Tall fescue(110), timothy(101), orchardgrass(83), creeping red fescue(56), and streambank wheatgrass(50). Herbage mass yields pattern of the grasses in 1993 was similar to that in 1992 except for crested wheatgrass and brome which ranked first and fourth in 1992 but ranked fifth and second, in 1993, respectively. Quality declined in all grasses as they matured. The average CP content of grasses declined from 24% to 13% in 1992 and from 21.5% to 12.1% in 1993 but were adequate to meet crude protein requirements of growing, pregnant or lactating grazing cattle. The Ca levels in all grasses were adequate for all classes of cattle on pasture but the low P levels of 0.11% in both years indicate that growing, pregnant or lactating cattle grazing on these pastures would require P supplementation.