• Alfalfa hay crop loss due to mule deer depredation

      Austin, D. D.; Urness, P. J.; Duersch, D. (Society for Range Management, 1998-01-01)
      To define alfalfa crop loss from depredating mule deer, the spotlight count and paired plot techniques were applied in 12 fields located throughout Utah. Protected and grazed plots were used to determine alfalfa loss. A significant relationship between deer-nights of grazing and alfalfa loss was determined. Based on our studies, we recommend using 2.4 kg/deer-night for mule deer depredation of alfalfa using the spotlight count assessment technique. Nutritional quality of alfalfa was not different between grazed and protected plots.
    • Elk forage utilization within rested units of rest-rotation grazing systems

      Werner, S. J.; Urness, P. J. (Society for Range Management, 1998-01-01)
      Elk (Cervus elaphus) have been repeatedly observed to prefer rested units within rest-rotation grazing systems. Given the logistical and financial investments associated with the maintenance of these systems, elk herbivory within rested units is a potential source of conflict. Elk forage utilization was determined during the summers of 1994 and 1995 at the forest-grassland ecotone of 3 rest-rotation grazing allotments in south-central Utah's Fishlake National Forest. Average phytomass within areas protected from and subjected to elk herbivory was not statistically different in June and August 1994. Average phytomass within caged areas was greater (P < 0.20) than that within areas subjected to elk use in 2 of 3 rested units in June-July 1995 (14.1 and 35.6% utilization) and August 1995 (34.7 and 42.0% utilization). June-to-August forage regrowth, however, was 31.3 and 33.0% greater in 1995 than in 1994 within caged and uncaged areas, respectively.