• Technical note: A comparison of techniques for extracting monoterpenoids from Juniperus (Cupressaceae) species

      Owens, M. K.; Straka, E. J.; Carroll, C. J.; Taylor, C. A. (Society for Range Management, 1998-09-01)
      Concentration and composition of monoterpenoids in plant tissue affects a variety of environmental and ecological issues such as plant defenses, plant classification and phytotoxicity. Developing the techniques for extracting and estimating the concentration and composition of monoterpenoids must be species-specific because monoterpenoid storage location varies between species. Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei Buchholz) and redberry juniper (J. pinchotti Sudw) are 2 co-occurring species which differ in palatability and preference. The objective of this study was to determine which of 2 common extraction techniques provided the best estimate of the concentration and composition of monoterpenoids in mature plant tissue. Two extraction techniques were tested by soaking crushed juniper needles in hexane solvent for 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours or by steam distilling samples for 2, 4, 6, or 8 hours. The extracts were analyzed by using 2 different analytical columns in separate gas chromatographs. The hexane solvent soak, regardless of time in the solvent yielded a lower total concentration and a decreased compositional diversity of monoterpenoids compared to the steam distillation technique. An 8-hour steam distillation yielded the greatest concentration and composition of monoterpenoids. Both types of analytical columns resulted in similar estimates of monoterpenoid concentrations and composition.