• A viewpoint: Using multiple variables as indicators in grazing research and management

      Scarnecchia, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1994-03-01)
      Multi-variable analysis of grazing research has seen little conceptual development and even less application. To advance research on the multiple relationships of livestock grazing, computer-based analyses using multiple variables are needed. Dynamic variables describing livestock-herbage relationships must be developed to describe dynamic processes such as herbage growth and disappearance. Such variables could be used either alone or in combination with other variables as indicators to analyze and manage grazing. This paper presents 4 arrays of derived variables and discusses their individual and combinational value in analyzing and managing grazing. Greater power in analyzing grazing will come from use of combinations of variables rather than relying on single variables, e.g., stocking level. The variables described are useful in comprehensive analyses of research or in ad hoc roles aiding decisions in management. The paper also discusses possible future uses of variables as indicators in computerized analyses of other ecological systems.
    • Cattle preference for 4 wheatgrass taxa

      Jones, T. A.; Ralphs, M. H.; Nielson, D. C. (Society for Range Management, 1994-03-01)
      We compared the preference of cattle for 12 entries, 2 of crested wheatgrass [Agropyron desertorum (Fischer ex Link) Schultes], 5 of thickspike wheatgrass [Elymus lanceolatus (Scribner & J.G. Smith) Gould ssp. lanceolatus], 3 of Snake River wheatgrass (proposed name E. lanceolatus spp. wawawaiensis), and 2 of bluebunch wheatgrass [Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) A. Love] in May 1989 and 1990 at Logan, Utah. Spaced plants were randomly arranged in 4 paddocks which were grazed once by 2 animals in late spring each year. Number of bites and number of visits were recorded for each entry in each paddock for the 2 animals individually. Cattle preferred Hycrest and Nordan crested wheatgrasses both years. Number of bites per plant for crested, thickspike, Snake River, and bluebunch wheatgrasses averaged 9.1, 4.3, 3.1, and 4.1, respectively, in 1989 and 6.7, 3.3, 3.5, and 3.6, respectively, in 1990. Number of visits was highly correlated with number of bites across entries. Grazing preference among entries was more highly correlated with biomass score and canopy height than basal area or maturity. Cattle preferred crested wheatgrass over the native wheatgrasses tested here during the spring grazing season.
    • Competitive pricing for the McGregor Range: Implications for federal grazing fees

      Fowler, J. M.; Torell, L. A.; Gallacher, G. (Society for Range Management, 1994-03-01)
      Competitive bidding is an acceptable way to determine an efficient price to both buyer and seller. The quasi-competitive bid structure used to price federal forage and lessor-provided services on the McGregor Range in New Mexico indicates that the efficient market price for federal forage, services, and facilities had an upper value of 4.88/AUM during the 1992 grazing season. The facilities and services provided on the McGregor Range had a value of 1.96/AUM to the ranchers leasing the bombing range. The residual amount of 2.92/AUM represents the estimated value of high quality federal forage during 1992. The total cost of grazing McGregor Range was estimated to average 16.78/AUM during the 1992 production year. This is less than the cost of leasing comparable private land (19.68/AUM) or BLM land (21.06/ AUM) in New Mexico.