• Impacts of big game on private land in south-western Montana: landowner perceptions

      Lacey, J. R.; Jamtgaard, K.; Riggle, L.; Hayes, T. (Society for Range Management, 1993-01-01)
      Increasing populations of big game animals are a problem for private landowners in some parts of western North America. Influence of bit game costs, hunting-related income, noneconomic benefits, size of private land holding, and proportion of total income from agriculture upon landowner management goals as well as perception of damage to forage resources were studied in 1989-1990 using a mail survey of 858 randomly selected southwestern Montana landowners. They reported that elk (Cervus canadensis) populations increased, did not change, or decreased on 71%, 25%, or 4% of their private lands, respectively. Similar trends were reported for mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginia), and antelope (Antilocapra americana). More than 50% of the respondents thought that bit tame damaged forage and crop yields, while less than 2% of the respondents thought that bit game was beneficial to forage and crop yields. Big Same consumed a mean of 511 AUMs per private landowner, which contributed to the mean big game cost of 6,353 per landowner. Respondents desiring fewer elk, deer, and antelope outnumbered those desiring more by a 4-to-1 margin. As costs of big game increased and as dependency on agricultural income for livelihood increased, respondents desired fewer big game animals and perceived the impact of big game to be more harmful to forage and crop yields. Landowner attitudes toward big game were not significantly affected by economic returns from big game. Although owners with larger land holdings were more likely to allow hunters access to hunt big game, owners of large- and of small-sized ranches generally regarded big game populations similarly. Results from this survey should be useful in forming natural resource policy.
    • Private forest landowner's perceptions of forest grazing in Washington state

      Hardesty, L. H.; Lawrence, J. H.; Gill, S. J.; Chapman, R. C. (Society for Range Management, 1993-01-01)
      Nonindustrial private forest landowners (NIPF) control 21.4% of Washington's commercial forestland, much of which produces forage. Resident NIPF owners in 3 regions in the state were surveyed to determine their perceptions of forest grazing. Thirty-nine percent of the respondents grazed livestock on forestland they leased or owned, and grazing was perceived by practitioners to contribute significantly to household income. Nonincome-related motivations for owning and managing land were also significant: passing land on to children, keeping it 'natural', conservation, aesthetics, and as a current or future homesite. In western Washington, some forest grazing occurred year round while in eastern Washington it was all seasonal. Cow/calf pairs were the most commonly grazed livestock. The median size forestland parcel owned by forest grazers was 47 ha versus 24 ha for nongrazers. Leasing additional land increased the likelihood of forest grazing. Significant opportunities exist to improve both the condition and productivity of forested ranges. Achieving this requires a clear understanding of landowner's objectives and beliefs. Data are needed to evaluate landowner's perceptions that forest grazing has both economic and amenity benefits.