• Influence of handling methods on fecal NIRS evaluations

      Pearce, R. A.; Lyons, R. K.; Stuth, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1993-05-01)
      Experiments were conducted to investigate efficiency in analysis of fecal samples by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict cattle forage diet quality. Stability of fecal samples during shipping and methods of reducing analysis time were evaluated. In experiments with actual and simulated shipping, no difference was found between predictions from samples shipped fresh or frozen, allowing analysis time to be reduced by 1 day. Drying procedures were developed which allowed sample analysis 24 hours after arrival in the lab for an additional reduction of 1 day in analysis time. Minimal effects on NIRS predictions were observed for simulated shipping delays up to 12 days for crude protein and 14 days for digestible organic matter.
    • Influence of rest-rotation cattle grazing on mule deer and elk habitat use in east-central Idaho

      Yeo, J. J.; Peek, J. M.; Wittinger, W. T.; Kvale, C. T. (Society for Range Management, 1993-05-01)
      Elk (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus Rafinesque), and cattle (Bos taurus Linnaeus) distributions were determined year round from 1975-1979 on a rest-rotation grazing system established in steep mountainous terrain. Following implementation of the grazing system, cattle progressively used higher elevations and steeper slopes in each succeeding year. Elk preferred rested pastures during the grazing season (June-October) and avoided habitat frequented by cattle by using higher elevations and steeper slopes. Few mule deer used the allotment during summer, but during the winter, deer selected habitats grazed previously by cattle. Elk appeared to adjust to the grazing system by making greater use of pastures with cattle present, although preference for pastures without cattle continued.
    • Nutrient composition of whitetop

      McInnis, M. L.; Larson, L. L.; Miller, R. F. (Society for Range Management, 1993-05-01)
      Whitetop or heart-podded hoary cress (Cardaria draba (L.) Desv.) is an Eurasian native of the Cruciferae actively invading rangelands throughout western North America. The plant is reported to be unpalatable to livestock and contain potentially toxic glucosinolates. Practical experience indicates sheep consume whitetop during its early growth stages and cattle ingest large quantities of seedheads. Chemical analysis of whole plants from rosette to hard seed, respectively, indicated the following trends: crude protein (28.8 to 7.9%), neutral detergent fiber (13.1 to 52.8%), acid detergent fiber (12.0 to 41.8%), cellulose (9.9 to 32.1%), lignin (1.9 to 9.4%), ether extract (1.6 to 2.4%), in vitro organic matter digestibility (77.3 to 49.1%), digestible energy (2.9 to 1.8 Mcal/kg), and total glucosinolates (28.4 to 84.0 micromoles/g). Leaves were higher than stems in crude protein, ether extract, in vitro organic matter digestibility, and digestible energy. Analysis of 11 micro- and macroelements revealed sulfur (S) levels ranged from 0.73 to 2.69% and were therefore higher than the reported maximum tolerable level (0.4%). High S levels likely reflected the S moiety of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products. Whitetop has some forage value, but until further research establishes the toxicity of this species to sheep and cattle, prudence suggests managers use caution when allowing animals to graze whitetop-infested rangelands by providing supplemental iodine, utilizing mature and nonlactating animals, and reducing opportunities for animals to consume the plant.