• Droplet size and spray volume effects on honey mesquite mortality with clopyralid

      Whisenant, S. G.; Bouse, L. F.; Crane, R. A.; Bovey, R. W. (Society for Range Management, 1993-05-01)
      The effects of droplet size and spray volume (spray-mixture application rate) on honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) mortality were evaluated using 0.55 to 0.58 kg ae (acid equivalent) ha-1 clopyralid (3,6 dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid). A factorial combination of 3 spray volumes (19, 37, and 75 liters ha-1) and droplet sizes of 325 +/- 25, 475 +/- 25, and 625 +/- 25 micrometers nominal volume median diameter were replicated 3 times at both Andrews and Big Lake, Tex., during June 1989. The experiment was repeated in 1990 at Big Lake and Campbellton, Tex., without the 75 liters ha-1 spray volume. Honey mesquite mortality and canopy reduction 16 months after application were significantly less on the 625 micrometer droplet treatments in 2 of 4 experiments, when compared to plots treated with smaller droplet sizes. Mortality increased with larger spray volumes, particularly with 625 micrometer droplets. Relative mortality data from the 4 experiments clearly demonstrated that larger droplet sizes require larger spray volumes for greatest efficacy.
    • Efficacy of fenbendazole against gastrointestinal nematodes in whitetailed deer

      Schultz, S. R.; Barry, R. X.; Forbes, W. A.; Johnson, M. K. (Society for Range Management, 1993-05-01)
      We provided fenbendazole to captive (N = 77) and free-ranging (3 study areas) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Louisiana to determine effects on gastrointestinal nematode burdens. Fenbendazole reduced gastrointestinal nematode burdens of captive and free-ranging white-tailed deer. Mean eggs per gram of feces from captive deer decreased (P < 0.01 and P < 0 .01, respectively) 89% and 84% after provision of fenbendazole in doses approximating 0.47 and 0.62 g/deer, respectively. Doses approximating 0.42-0.46 g/deer did not affect (P = 0.61) eggs per gram of feces collected from free-ranging deer. Mean eggs per gram of feces collected from free-ranging deer was affected by fenbendazole treatment (P = 0.04) and decreased an average of 86% (SE = 1.9) on the 3 study areas after provision of fenbendazole in doses approximating 1.67-1.82 g/deer. Eggs per gram of feces collected from the distal colon and abomasal parasite counts from abomasa of free-ranging deer harvested on the study areas were associated positively (r = 0.706, P < 0 .001), were affected by fenbendazole treatment (P < 0.01 and P < 0 .01, respectively), and decreased 66% (SE = 5.1) and 52% (SE = 7.4), respectively, after provision of fenbendazole in doses approximating 1.67-1.82 g/deer. A reduction in the crosstransmission of gastrointestinal parasites common to deer and livestock might be possible through fenbendazole treatment of deer.
    • Water quality effects on stability and phytotoxicity of picloram and clopyralid

      Whisenant, S. G.; Bovey, R. W. (Society for Range Management, 1993-05-01)
      Water quality effects on stability of picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid) and clopyralid (3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid) were evaluated by determining their concentrations in spray mixtures 0, 48, and 168 hours after mixing. Gas chromatography was used to evaluate picloram and clopyralid concentrations in spray solutions mixed with different water sources or buffered water solutions. At 168 hours picloram concentrations in water from La Copita and Midland, Texas, were 11 and 12% lower than at 0-hour and 5 and 6% lower than picloram concentrations in distilled water at 168 hours. Water quality effects on phytotoxicity to honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) were evaluated at 0 and 168 hours after mixing the spray solution. Water quality had no effect on clopyralid phytotoxicity to honey mesquite at either 0 or 168 hours after mixing. Phytotoxicity to honey mesquite was reduced 42% when picloram mixtures were used 168 hours after mixing with water from La Copita. This indicates the potential for reduced phytotoxicity from picloram when prepared spray solutions are not used for 7 days.