Browsing Journal of Range Management, Volume 46, Number 3 (May 1993) by Title
Now showing items 15-17 of 17
Technical Notes: Botanical components of annual Mediterranean grassland as determined by point-intercept and clipping methodsThree methods for determining proportions of botanical components, i.e., grasses, legumes, and forbs (nonleguminous dicots), of continuously grazed Mediterranean pastures were compared. Percentage contribution to dry matter yield was determined by sample clipping and separating into botanical components. Both percentage of sward and specific contribution were determined by the point-intercept method. These were defined by the relative contribution of 1 botanical component to the total number of counted intercepts between 200 pins inserted vertically into the sward and all botanical components. For specific contribution only the number of pins contacted by the various botanical components were considered, whereas for percentage of sward even multiple contacts between a pin and plant parts of a particular botanical component were taken into account. Percentage contribution was highly significantly correlated with percentage of sward (R = 0.92) and specific contribution (R = 0.93) running the analyses across all botanical components, although there was a significant trend to underestimate forbs and overestimate legumes by the point-intercept methods. It is concluded, however, that for most practical purposes determination of specific contribution, the least laborious method, should give satisfactory estimates of percentage contribution.
Viewpoint: Selection for improved drought response in cool-season grassesWater limits the establishment, growth, and production of cool-season grasses on semiarid rangelands, and plant improvement programs for these areas must be capable of screening breeding lines for response to drought. Although many techniques to evaluate various morphological and physiological characteristics have been proposed, few have been used successfully in plant breeding programs. Consequently, a need exists to identify and develop rapid, reliable screening techniques that can assess integrated plant response to drought in large plant populations. Improved seedling emergence has been achieved in Russian wildrye [Psathyrostachys juncea (Fischer) Nevski] by selecting for emergence from a deep seeding depth and long coleoptiles. Water uptake by roots is critical, and screening for enhanced seedling root growth in cool-season grasses offers considerable promise. In spite of the important role that stomatal control has in regulating plant water loss, limited success has been achieved in incorporating desirable stomatal characteristics into improved grass cultivars. Although osmotic adjustment appears beneficial in some crop species, more research is needed before cool-season grasses should be selected based on osmotic adjustment. Selection for improved water-use efficiency in cool-season grasses based on carbon isotope discrimination is a promising approach. Successful incorporation of these various traits into improved cool-season grass cultivars necessitates close cooperation between breeders and physiologists.
Water quality effects on stability and phytotoxicity of picloram and clopyralidWater quality effects on stability of picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid) and clopyralid (3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid) were evaluated by determining their concentrations in spray mixtures 0, 48, and 168 hours after mixing. Gas chromatography was used to evaluate picloram and clopyralid concentrations in spray solutions mixed with different water sources or buffered water solutions. At 168 hours picloram concentrations in water from La Copita and Midland, Texas, were 11 and 12% lower than at 0-hour and 5 and 6% lower than picloram concentrations in distilled water at 168 hours. Water quality effects on phytotoxicity to honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) were evaluated at 0 and 168 hours after mixing the spray solution. Water quality had no effect on clopyralid phytotoxicity to honey mesquite at either 0 or 168 hours after mixing. Phytotoxicity to honey mesquite was reduced 42% when picloram mixtures were used 168 hours after mixing with water from La Copita. This indicates the potential for reduced phytotoxicity from picloram when prepared spray solutions are not used for 7 days.